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Full text of "A Cycle Of Celestial Objects"

THE BOOK WAS 
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OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

Call No.^2^) , -^- Accession No, ^l 2 -* 2 

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Author 

Title 

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last marked below. 





A CYCLE 



OF 



CELESTIAL OBJECTS 



OBSERVED, REDUCED, AND DISCUSSED 



BY 



ADMIRAL WILLIAM HENRY SMYTH, R.N., K.S.F., D.C.L. 



RE\ 7 ISED, CONDENSED, AND GREATLY ENLARGED 



BY 



GEORGE F. CHAMBERS, F.R.A.S. 

OK TIIK INNER TEMPLED "BARRISTEB-AT-LAW. 

.Author of " A Handbook of Descriptive Astronomy;" 

" A Diyfrt of the Law Re 'ing to Public Health; " 

' A J)i<}cst of (he Law Ib-latinfl to Public Libraries and Museums ; 

And othvf Worfo, 



. SECOND EDITION, 



AT THE CLABENDON PRESS. 
1881. 



[Original Dedication, 1844.] 




TO 

SIH JOHN FREDERICK WILLIAM HERSCHEL, BART. 

c. &c. &c. 

AS A TESTIMONY OF THE HIGHEST ADM1KA11ON AND LSThKM ; 

A MEMORIAL OF LONG-CONTINUED FRIENDSHIP ; 

\N1> A GRATEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF IMPORTANT ADVICE 

IN THE PURSUIT OF PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY : 

AND AS A HEART-FELT TOKEN OF RESPECT FOR 1HE MEMORY OI 

HIS EXCELLENT FATHER WHOSE INDEFATIGABLE ZEAL, 

NEVER-FAILING RESOURCES, DEPTH OF INQUIRY, 

AND ALMOST UNRIVALLED QUICKNESS OF 

CONCEPTION, HAVE RENDERED 

HIS LIFE AN ERA IN 

ASTRONOMICAL 

SCIENCE 

THIS CYCLE OF CELESTIAL OBJECTS 

IS MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED 
BY HIS FAITHFUL FRIEND, 

WILLIAM HENRY SMYTH. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION, 



THE circumstances under which this edition appears are some- 
what peculiar, and need a little explanation. Admiral Smyth's 
original Cycle of Celestial Objects, published in two volumes in the 
year 1844, was a book which attained a world- wide renown, and 
therefore naturally it passed out of print within a few years of 
its publication. Towards the close of his long and distinguished 
/diver the Admiral made various arrangements for the issue of 
a second edition by a very experienced observer, connected with 
him by ties of a special character. In Mr. Isaac Fletcher the 
book would have had as Editor an experienced observer, whose 
name would have been thoroughly acceptable to the astronomical 
world. Mr. Fletcher accepted the duty that was cast upon him, 
and during several years systematically collected materials for the 
revision of the work. In his hands, however, it made no great 
amount of progress, because in the year 1868 he exchanged in 
<jreat part his scientific career for a political one by becoming 
Member of Parliament for Cockermouth. This had the iiot un- 
natural effect of hindering both observatory and literary work. 
Finally, his lamented death in 1879 put an end for the while 
to the prospect of any new edition of the Cycle being published 
under the supervision of the original Author's relatives or imme- 
diate friends. 

It is no matter of concern to the public how it came about that 
the surviving representatives of Admiral Smyth eventually charged 
me with the interesting but serious reponsibility of publishing 
a, new edition of the book. Suffice it then to state that in the 
autumn of 1879 I acquired the copyright of the work, all the 
original wood-blocks, and, what was of great value, all the MS. 



viii Preface to tjie Second Edition. 

notes, memoranda, private letters, and unpublished drawings col- 
lected by Admiral Smyth and Mr. Fletcher during the long* 
period of 35 years. 

I need hardly say that the labour of digesting these materials 
and of interweaving them with the print of the first edition has 
been great. It will be for the public to say how far it has been 
accomplished with success. * I should never have embarked on the 
scheme had I not believed in the existence of a widespread desire 
on the part of astronomers to see issued a new edition of a book 
which without doubt powerfully stimulated a taste for Astronomy 
amongst amateurs in England during the quarter of a century 
following its appearance. 

The programme which I set before myself was this: so to 
revise, prune, and amplify Admiral Smyth's " Bedford Catalogue," 
as to provide a Telescopist's Manual for Refractors up to, say. 
8 inches of aperture, and to embody the progress of the science 
up to 1880, just as the original edition might have boon con- 
sidered fairly complete for 5 inches of aperture up to 1845. 

To carry out this programme involved a twofold task: (j) to 
cut down here, expand there, and 'revise everywhere Admiral 
Smyth's printed matter. This has been done in a very searching 
manner. (2) To compile from works relating to the Southern 
hemisphere a body of objects as nearly similar in general cha- 
racter as might be to those which Admiral Smyth had gathered 
together for the Northern hemisphere. This second branch of 
my duties has been carried out as well as I could do it, but 1 
am far from saying that I am satisfied with the results. The 
reasons for this are easily found. The Southern heavens have 
not been explored in the persistent way in which the Northern 
heavens have been during the last half century, observers in the 
Southern hemisphere being few and far between. 

These remarks are I think sufficient for the purposes of a 
Preface. In the Introduction will be found some more specific 
details as to the principles which have guided me in my revision, 
and as to the materials which have been made use of. 

I have done nothing. yet in the way of preparing a new edition 



Preface to the Second Edition. ix 

of Admiral Smyth's first volume, which he designated "Prole- 
gomena." It is at present an open question with me what to do 
as to that volume, I having already covered most of the ground 
which it occupies, and touch more besides, in my own Handbook 
of Astronomy. 

It is a pleasant task in bringing a book to an end to thank one's 
friends for assistance given. So much help has been generously 
afforded me from all parts of the world that I find it difficult to 
individualise the helpers. But two, and they strangers to me 
personally, and foreigners, stand out beyond all others ; namely, 
Mr. S. W. Burnham of Chicago, U.S., and M. Jedrzejewicz of 
Plonsk in Poland. Mr. Burnham has not only furnished me with 
an almost inexhaustible supply of double star measures of great 
precision and late date, but he has read all the proof sheets and 
made innumerable suggestions. Of these some are being treasured 
ii]) for a future edition, having come to hand too late for use in this 
one. M. Jedrzejewicz has supplied me with numerous measures 
of double stars, many of which were made as recently as 1880, and 
belong to objects often neglected by observers. They were there- 
fore peculiarly acceptable to me as enabling me to fill up gaps, 
which otherwise must have remained for this edition unfilled. 

I have only to add that I have done my best to secure accuracy 
in the printing of the book, and I trust that few errors of moment 
will be found to have crept in. I shall at all times be very glad 
to' receive corrections and suggestions for the improvement of 
future editions. 



* or. 



Grange, 

, Sutstx, 
April, 1 88 1, 



CONTENTS. 



PRKFACE 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ........ xiii 

ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA ....... xiv 

INTRODUCTION .......... xv 

CYCLK OF CELESTIAL OBJECTS FROM o l TO xxiv h i 

ANALYTICAL INDEX . . . . . . . . .681 



LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS. 



Coloured Plate, " Sidereal Chromatics " Fr<ntti*]Aece 

PAGE 

Fig. j. 31 M. Andromedaj 16 

2. Ursa Major and Polaris 33 

- 3- 3.* VI. Persei 60 

4. 19 y . V. Andromedae 62 

5- 156 $. I. Persei 67 

,. 6. 60 #.VJI. Persei 102 

.. 7. 26 #. IV. Eridani 104 

.. 8. I M. Tauri 146 

9. 6 l Orionis 151 

.. 10. Orion 164 

,. ii. 2 I? . VI. Geminonim 192 

,. 12. 64 Ijf. IV. Puppis 217 

13. 67 M. Cancri 241 

< M- 57 I. Leonis 256 

,. 15. "A Pious Fraud." A. D. 267 267 

16. The Position of 27 $. IV. Hydne 271 

1 7. Ursa Major 286 

,. 18. 97 M. Ursra Majoris 292 

,. i(>. 65 and 66 M. Persei 298 

,. 20. 195 # . I. Ursa? Majoris 319 

21. Group of Nebulae in Virgo . . . . . . . . 34 l 

,.22. 43 I. Virginia 347 

,. 23. Orbit of 7 Virginia as found by Sir J. Herschel in 1832 . . . 351 

,. 24. Orbit of 7 Virginia as found by Admiral Smyth in 1 843 . . . 354 

.. 25. 60 M. Virginis and other nebula? . . . . . . 357 

,. 2?>. 75 $. II. Virginia 362 

27. 64 M. Comae Berenicis 366 

28. f Urace Majoris 379 

29. 3 M. Camim Venaticorum 389 

30. Ursa Minor 419 

31. 5 M. Librae 4 2 9 

32. 80 M. Scorpii 45 1 

33. Variable Stars near 80 M. Seorpii . . . . . . 45 2 

34. 13 M. Herculis 4 68 

35. 36 Ophiuchi 4**3 

. 36. 92 M. Herculis 490 

37. 14 M. Ophiuchi 49^ 

38. 37 #. IV. Draconis 5 12 

39. 22 M. Sagittarii 53 2 

40. Lyrae 54 

41. nM. Antinoi 544 

42. 57 M. Lyrae 549 

43. 56 M. Lyrae 561 

44. 27 M. Vulpeculae 5^5 

45. 0* Capricorn! 597 

46. isM, Pegaai 631 

47. 2 M, Aquarii 633 

48. 30 M. Capricorni . 635 

49. 52 M. Cepbei 668 

50. 30 tf.VI. Cassiopeise 674 

51. Miss Herschel's Telescope 675 



ADDENDA ET CORKIGENDA. 

Page 3. No. 3, The word " single " has been inserted by the printer in the wrong 

place. It should stand opposite the name BURNHAM. Doberek's 
angle seems obviously erroneous. 

o // 

4. 7. Add: Burnham 169.9 7*8 ... 1880-59 

6. 12. Add: Burnham 95-8 ... 0-71 ... 1880-59 

10. 24. Add: Burnham 82-3 ... 27.5 ... 1880-58 

11. 26. Add: Burnham 223.2 ... 6-8 ... 1880-59 

20. 42. Add: Jedrzejewicz 159*9 5'3 - 1880-14 

22. 46. Add: Jedrzejewicz 359-5 ... 1-37 ... 1880-10 

22. 47. Add: Burnham 327.3 ... 432 ... 1880-60 

23. 48. Add: Burnham 116-9 - 3 8> 3 1878-67 

There is an excessively faint star of mag. 1 3 nearer than Smyth's 

discovered by Burnham. Pos. 314; Dist. 37"; 1878-67. 
61. Dele " Burnham says " &c. 

J Wilson & j n -pv " 

64. Add: U b K fCD 341-5 ... 22-3 ... 1874.40 



CDuS. 101. 

o // 

30. 65. Add: Russell 0-4 ... 5-6 ... 1880-40 

30. 66. The Decl. should be 57 44-9'. 

o // 

31. 68. Add: Dembowski 349-9 ... 52-4 ... 1874-80 

36. 73. Add: Jacob 125-6 ... 9-7 ... 1846-90 

36. 75. Add: Dembowski 99-1 ... 69-2 ... 1874.40 

,. 37. 78. The star mentioned here is that given as No. 77. 

40. 85. A very faint star of mag. 14 or 15 has been seen by Hall. POM. 63 ; 

Dist. 22"; 1876-00. 

o // 

,.41. 88. Add: Burnh.im 32-1 ... 11-4 ... 1878-21 

43. 94. For 2. 151 rend 2. 153 and add: 

Burnham 67-8 ... 7-8 ... 1880-61 

95. Add: Stone 59-0 ... 4-8 ... 1877.85 

Burnham 6ii ... 4-3 ... 1879-03 

100. Add : Gledhill 195-2 ... 3-3 ... 1873-90 

46. 103. For the star presumeably Smyth's B, Bumham's figures should 

be: 172-8 ... 308-0 ... 1879-75 

47. 104. Add : In Pos. 84; Dist. 223"; 1878-70 there is a 9 th mag. star 
which Burnham finds to be a close double, Pos, 27; Dist. 1-5"; 
Epoch 1878-01. The companion is of about the 1 2 th or i8 th rnsig. 

o // 

53. 119. Add: Jedrzejewicz BC 94-1 ... ollong ... 1880-12 
60. 133. The observer's name is left out ; it should be SMYTH. 
64. 138. The angle of A B is decreasing, not increasing. 



,,73. ,,162. Add:-Bumha ra "' ... .878,5 

C is of mag. 10 and D of mag. 12. The duplicity of C was dis- 
covered by I. W. Ward of Belfast. Burnham notes that there 
is a 13 th mag. star about 20" from C in the direction 228. 

,,230. 533. For "white "read" wide." 

11 2 53- 595. The precession is Decl. should be 15-49". 

,,285. 679. Add: Hunt 703-5 ... 384.9 ... 1881-12 

,,348. 849. Add: Russell 181-3 ... 1.39 ... 1880-44 

,,410. 981. Add: Russell 185-0 ... 5-5 ... 1880-44 

,,422. ,,1006. Add: Russell 189.3 ... 0.90 ... 1880-44 

f , 511. 1216. For " Difference of R.A." read " Distance." 

,,555- ,,1303. Add: Russell 53.1 ... 1-15 ... 1880-45 

642. 1513. For " 2. 802 " read " S. 802." 



INTRODUCTION. 



THE many English observers who during the last thirty odd years 
have been familiar with Admiral Smyth's method of arranging his 
materials, will find that in the formation of this large extension of the 
" Bedford Catalogue " I have proceeded as closely as possible on the 
lines laid down by my predecessor. This new edition, though the 
materials are fused into a consecutive series of objects arranged in 
strictly regular progression through the 24 hours of Right Ascension, 
comprises two essentially distinct masses of matter, namely, (i) Admiral 
Smyth's own objects with his notes thereon, and (2) my additions with 
my notes thereon. The Admiral's historical, antiquarian, and scholastic 
remarks on everything which could possibly be used as a peg for such 
remarks constituted a striking and attractive feature which I have re- 
tained more or less intact, but have made no attempt to imitate. It 
follows therefore that the objects selected by me have few annotations, 
and those only of a purely astronomical character. 

In dealing with Admiral Smyth's objects I have done my best to 
revise every item of information; to strike out passages which were 
quite erroneous or out of date ; and to bring up to date every state- 
ment which needed such treatment. I have omitted here and there 
non -astronomical comments the space Occupied by which I thought 
might be more profitably utilised, and I have struck out altogether a 
few objects which seemed to me devoid of interest to those for whom 
this work is primarily intended. Perhaps I might have done well to 
have struck out a larger number of objects. This is a matter which 
will be taken into consideration liereafter. 

The additions which I have made have been selected with the idea 
in my mind that the Admiral had omitted a large number of Herschelian 
clusters and nebulse and Struvian double stars which undoubtedly de- 
served a place in these pages. 1 have likewise added a certain number 
of isolated objects which seem particularly -to deserve tha attention of 



xvi Introduction. 

amateurs, such as remarkable coloured stars, and remarkable variable 
stars! These additions have greatly enlarged the scope of the original 
Catalogue. But its extent has been still further augmented by reason 
of the fact that I have brought within its range the whole of the 
Southern Hemisphere, selecting Southern objects as nearly as possible 
on the footing on which I might presume that Admiral Smyth would 
have proceeded had he ever tried to compile a Southern "Bedford 
Catalogue," so to speak. 

These additions have involved a vast amount of thought and labour, 
and I am very far from confidently asserting that the results will prove 
wholly satisfactory. The fact that I have had to make my selection 
without any personal knowledge of the objects themselves, and without 
the advantage of any help from observers who have seen them, has 
rendered my labours necessarily difficult. Nothing would afford me 
greater pleasure than to be brought hereafter into communication with 
a few observers in the Australian Colonies, for instance, able and willing 
to furnish me with the means of revising and improving my selection. 
But it is not alone in the matter of selection that some Southern help 
is needful. There has been practically no Double Star work carried 
out on the other side of the globe since Sir John Hcrschers sojourn 
at the Cape from 1834 to 1838. The consequence is that such a thing 
as a well-observed Southern binary does not exist. Indeed, as regards 
double stars, there are an immense number in the Northern hemisphere 
which have been entirely neglected. It is a matter for regret that what 
few double star observers there are in England should so generally 
devote their energies to the unnecessary multiplication of observations of 
stars which do not very urgently need to be observed. I have done 
my best to ransack all the published sources of information relating to 
double stars and nebulae, and I hope it will be found that few modern 
details respecting these which have been made public of late years and 
which deserve record in such a book as the present have escaped my 
notice. The number of works which have been consulted in the pre- 
paration of this volume is so great, that it would be hopeless to attempt 
to particularise them. 

In selecting my additions, I have as regards the double stars commonly 
limited myself to objects whose principal component was at least as 
bright as the 7 th magnitude, the companion being at least as bright as 
the 10 th magnitude and the distance under 30"; but a departure from 



Introduction. xvii 

these restrictions has occasionally been deemed expedient. In the case 
of clusters and nebulae I have rarely taken any object not marked by 
Sir John Herschel as at least " p B," meaning " pretty bright." But 
I have sometimes departed from this rule where an object was stated 
by him to possess some specially remarkable features, or happened to 
be one of those included by Sir W. Herschel in his Class I, "Bright 
Nebulae," or Class V, " Very Large Nebulae." 

Some miscellaneous improvements have been Introduced into the 
book which I trust may enhance its usefulness. For instance, in the 
case of all the nebulae the reference number of Sir J. Herschers General 
Catalogue published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1864 is given, 
but I have not made a corresponding use of Sir J. Herschel's General 
Catalogue of Double Stars published in vol. xl. of the Memoirs of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, for the reason that its numerous deficiencies 
render it of little or no value. It is a great pity that the Society, when 
spending its money on what was intended to be a general and complete 
Catalogue of Double Stars, did not make it such by finishing Sir .7. 
Herschers MS. instead of printing it in an unfinished form. 

The places of the objects have been for the most part taken from 
Smyth, or from Sir J. Herschers 2 Catalogues of Nebulae and Double 
Stars; they have been brought up by myself to the year 1890, and have 
approximate precessions for 1890 appended thereto. In certain cases the 
calculations were performed for me by Mr. "W. H. St. Q. Gage, F.R. A.S., 
of Exeter College, Oxford, but I have gone over all the calculations 
myself, and have no reason to fear that any important errors have 
crept in. In certain instances where better places were at command 
than those obtainable from the sources named above, I have availed 
myself of such better places, but 1 have not deemed it worth while to 
indicate them except in these general terms. 

In designating the objects, I have in all cases followed Admiral Smyth 
in respect of his own objects, except in one or two instances in which he 
had clearly made mistakes. In designating my additions, I have taken 
Greek letters in all cases where a star was known by a Greek letter. 
I have next given the preference to Flamsteed's numbers; then to 
Lacaille's numbers: besides which there are a few reference numbers 
from other Catalogues, such as the "Brisbane," the "B.A.C.," "Bir- 
mingham's Red Stars" (Scientific Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. vol. xxvi. 
1877), and so on. Nebulae which had been classed by Sir W. Herschel 

b 



xviii Introduction. 

are given with his Classes and Numbers. Nebulae first observed by 
Sir J. Herschel are given with his numbers (with the letter h. attached) 
as published in the Philosophical Transactions t 1833, and the Cape 
Observations. Nebulae observed at Parsonstown and included in the 
very valuable and interesting Catalogue lately published by the present 
Earl of Eosse in the Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society have 
an old English & appended, in the title line of each entry. The 
Parsonstown notes should be studied by all possessors of large telescopes 
who devote their attention to nebulae. 

In selecting measures of Double Stars for insertion in this work 
I have endeavoured to exhibit results separated by tolerably equal 
intervals of time when the materials for doing so existed. Other things 
being equal, the interval chosen has been 10 years, but strict adherence 
to this plan has frequently been impossible. 

Of all matters with which I have had to deal, that of the magnitudes 
of the stars has been the most troublesome by far. In many cases I 
have retained Smyth's magnitudes because I found them ; yet, also in 
many cases, I have altered them where it appeared on sufficient evidence 
that they were flagrantly erroneous. Smyth's magnitudes are for all 
the larger stars taken from Piazzi. Magnitudes substituted for Smyth's 
are generally given within brackets. A word must be said about the 
magnitudes of the additional objects. In the case of double stars, 
selected from Struve I have often disregarded Struve's magnitudes, 
altering them by means of Mr. Knott's well-known Table, which I 
here subjoin. 

SMYTH. STBUVE. SIR J. HERSCHEL. ARGELANDER. 

6 . 57 ... 6-4 ... 5.9 
6J ... 6-3 ... 7-0 ... 6.4 

7 ... 6.5 ... 7.4 ... 6.8 
7l - 6-9 ... 7.8 ... 7.5 

8 ... 7.4 ... 82 ... 8-0 
8J ... 7.9 ... 8.8 ... 8.6 

9 ... 8.3 ... 9.5 ... 9-0 
9j ... 8.9 ... 10.1 ... 9.4 

10 ... 9.3 ... 10.4 ... 9.4 

11 ... 10-0 ... n-3 ... lo.o 

12 ... 10.4 ... 11-7 ... 10.6 

13 ... 10-7 ... 12-5 ... ii. 2 

14 ... io-9 ... I33 ... n-8 

15 ... 10.9 ... 14-5 ... 12-4 

16 ... 10-9 ... 15.9 ... 13.0 

Sir J. Herschel's magnitudes in the case of his Southern Doubles 



Introduction. 



XIX 



I have left very much as I found them, except that where he has 
assigned different magnitudes on different nights as recorded by himself 
I have often taken a mean. 

In regard to star magnitudes generally, it is much to be wished 
that astronomers could be brought to agree on some philosophical 
method of estimating them based in some way on direct photometric 
experiments. The system proposed by Dawes* has much to recom- 
mend it, and I wish that a few influential observers would combine 
and try further experiments with a view to its general adoption. 
Struve's notation is objectionable on two grounds : (i) its arbitrary basis, 
viz., his telescope, which has since been distanced by many others; 
(2) its decimals, which give a sham appearance of minute precision 
which is quite unattainable in a general way. For instance, who can dis- 
tinguish between a star of mag. 10-7 and one of mag. 10-8 1 

As regards the colours of the components of double stars, I have 
usually retained those given by Smyth, notwithstanding that they are 
often very fanciful, and often defined with undue minuteness. Here, 
again, system is wanted, and Admiral Smyth's endeavour, by publishing 
his book on Sidereal Chromatics in 1864 to introduce method, deserves 
more encouragement than it appears to have received. At the risk of 
seeming presumptuous I will say that I think the illustrious Struve often 
went too far in his minute definitions of colours. Is not his terrible 
adjective Olivaceasubrubicunda a justification for saying this ? 

Admiral Smyth made use of various abbreviations to indicate the 
names of observers. Such as I found I have in many cases retained, 
but I have endeavoured to dispense with them as much as possible. 
The following Table may here be given, but of course it does not in- 
clude a great number of simple abbreviations in every day use in ob- 
servatories. A very full list of these will be found in my Handbook of 
Astronomy. 

In the Cycle : 

Bris. = Brisbane Catalogue of Southern Stars. 

$L = Sir W. Herschel. 

h. = Sir J. Herschel (nebula). 

*h. = Sir J. Herschel (double star). 

H. = Sir J. Herschel, General Catalogue of Nebula, 1864. 

* Monthly Not, vol. x. p. 187, June 1851 ; vol. xii. p. 80, Feb. 1852; vol. xiii. 
P. 277, 1853. 

b2 



XX 



Introduction. 



Lac. = Lacaille, Catalogue of Southern Stars. 

M. = Messier. 

P. = Piazzi. 

&, = Earl of Rosse, Observations ofNebulce, 1848-78. 

2. = F. G. W. Struve. 

O. S. = 0. Struve. 

B. = Bode. 

In the case of Double and Multiple Stars the Stars are lettered with 
the letters of the alphabet, the brightest being called A, the next B, 
the next C, and so on. But in some cases where a pair of Stars 
have long been familiarly known by these letters and a very minute 
companion has afterwards been detected close to A or B &c., such 
companion is designated little a, little b, &c. As a reminder to Double 
Star observers of the way in which angles of position are noted by 
astronomers the following woodcut will be useful : 




It should be remarked that the outer circle, which is graduated 
from o to 360, represents the method of recording angles of position 
of Double Stars now universally employed. Within this circle however 
the circumference of the block is divided into 4 quadrants of 90 each, 
accoiding to the system adopted by Sir "W. Herschel but abandoned 
ubout 1830 at the instance of his son, in consequence of "the continual 



Introduction. xxi 

and most annoying mistakes" which in practice were found constantly 
to occur under the system of reading by quadrants. 

For the convenience of those who are disposed to take in hand the 
work of Double Star observations I give on p. xxiii the observatory form 
of registry used by Mr. Fletcher, but borrowed by him from Admiral 
Smyth, who in turn copied from Sir J. Herschel *. 

I have not made any attempt to supply illustrations of the objects 
given in this work beyond reprinting such as came to me from Admiral 
Smyth. Perhaps however if I receive encouragement to do so I shall 
#ive in future editions a further number of woodcuts. But it must be 
borne in mind that the delineation of clusters and nebulge by means of 
wood engravings is rarely attended with accurate and satisfactory results. 
By way however of affording some help to the reader in regard to this 
subject, I have in all cases given references to tolerably good published 
engravings t, so far as they are included in the list prefixed by Sir J. 
Herschel to his General Catalogue in the Philosophical Transactions 
for 1864, as extended by Dreyer in his valuable Supplement, published 
in the Transactions of the Roycd Irish Academy, 1878. I have already 
made some allusion to the fact that the present Earl of Rosse has 
lately published in the Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society a very 
valuable and interesting series of Notes, accompanied by rough wood- 
cuts, of an immense number of clusters and nebulae re-observed at 
Parsonstown between 1848 and 1878, embodying and superseding the 
Notes published by the late Earl of Rosse in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions for 1844, 1850, and 1861. 

In dealing with the Southern hemisphere, so far as for my purpose 
it was necessary to meddle with names of stars and boundaries of con- 
stellations, I have followed as closely as possible the B.A.C. and the 
Maps of the S.D.U.K. I had at one time thought of revising everything 
connected with the uranography of the Southern hemisphere on the 
lines sketched out by Dr. Gould in his Uranometria Argentina, pub- 
lished at Buenos Ayres in 1879, and I procured a copy for the purpose, 
but this was found likely to prove a task of greater labour than I 
cared to undertake, at any rate until I saw how Dr. Gould's ideas as 

* Memoirs E. A. S. t vol. v. p, 92. 

f The reader should here be reminded that all Sir J. Herschel's own engravings of 
clusters and nebulae are not only inverted but are reversed right and left, owing to 
their having been drawn with the observer placed ' front-view* -wise to the telescope. 



Number for Reference. 


Right Ascension. 


Decl. N.P.D. 


N 






Instrument used. 


Date. 


Star' Name. 




18 

= 18 


" (dec. of year) 




Diagram. 


Quadrant. 


Magnitudes. Colours. 






B = 

f^ -1. 

D = 


Face to 


Microm. 




Position. 


Distance. 


Remarks. 


Power. o dec. 


W 


T5 
O 

1 

igs to be taken alternately. 
4-4-4-4-4- 


Rev. Pts. dec. 


w 




.B. The 4- and readh 
i 1 1 1 








K 


Mean 

Z=r 




( 

Sums < 

( 


4- 




Sky 
Wind 
Steadiness 
Definition of Star 
Sid. Time of Obs. 
General Poe. 
Judgment < 
of Obs. ( Dist. 
Observer 






Div. by 




Parts 




from win direction nfsp 








Seconds = 






Zero of Position. 


Determination of Place. 


Star runs along the ) 
position wire at ( % 
/. Zero for position Z = 


h m s 
Clock (or Clock 4- 2 4 h) 4- 

Hour Circle, ) 

4- if East -West; \ 


Computation of Distance. 


if read on to 24**, 1 
always ' 


Instrument Correction 


True R.A. 


/ // 

Declination Circle, ) 
' 4- North South* j 

Instrumental Correction 
True Declination 



A CYCLE 



OF 



CELESTIAL OBJECTS. 



i. 



39 I. I. CASSIOPEIA. (2. 3062.) 

B. 

Prec. 4- 3-06 
H 

N 20'o6 

Epoch, 



h. m. s. 

R.A, 28 
Becl. 3ST 67 49*2 



Position. Distance. 



STEUVB, W". 


87.5 ... 


082 


183171 


DAWES 


193.4 ... 


0-95 


1841-86 


MADLER 


237.0 ... 


1-16 ... 


1851-18 


DEMBOWSKI 


263-6 


1.48 ... 


1862-73 


DEMBOWSKI 


283.9 - 


1-39 .- 


187^-55 


BUBNHAM 


3034 ... 


r< 57 


1880-57 



A binary star in rapid movement. A 7, yellowish white ; B 8, bluish. 
The period is at present uncertain. Madler, 146?; Schur, nay; 
Doberck, 104^. The eccentricity x>f the orbit is smaller than usual with 
binary stars. Schur puts it at 0-5. Close to 2. 3057 and not far from 
/3 Cassiopeise. 



2. 



a ANDROMEDA. 

h. m. ft. 

B.A. 2 41 
DeoL K* 28 29' 2 

Position, 

o 
HBBSCHBL, W. 259.4 

DAWES 364-2 

SMYTH 266.9 

BUKNHAM 



(i. IB App. n.) 

s. 

Prec. 4- 3.07 

rt 
N aoo6 

Distance, Epoch. 

55-5 ... 1781-56 
1830-68 



r. 



64-8 



183774 
1879-19 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a minute companion. A 2, white ; 
B n, purplish. 

The increase of angle and distance in this object may be charged to th$ 

3 



2 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

/* movements of the large individual in E.A. and DecL, with an allow- 
ance for errors of operation in so difficult a star. 

[" Rectilinear motion/' Gledkill.] 

The extensive northern constellation of which this star is now the 
lucida, was one of the old 48 asterisms, and its components, as optical 
means advanced, have been thus registered : 

Ptolemy ... 23 stars. Hevelius .... 47 stars. 

Bulialdus ... 26 Flamsteed ... 66 

Bayer .... 27 Bode ..... 226 

Andromeda is conspicuously figured near her father, mother, and 
lover, in the bonds which Aratus says she carried to Heaven ; and has 
been also designated Virgo devota, Mulier catenata, and Persea. The 
Arabian?, whose tenets prohibited their drawing the human figure, 
represented her as a sea-calf : but the principal star was called Sirrah, 
and Alpherat, from Sirwat-al fwra'S, the horse's navel, it having for- 
merly been quartered on Pegasus, whence it was taken to decorate the 
tresses of the lady.. Warm imaginations perceive a resemblance to chains, 
by drawing the eye from 51 and 54 of Flamsteed, on the lady's left foot, 
over x between the feet, to r on the right calf ; and from Alamak on the 
right foot, through \ and to $ on the left knee. Owing to the derange- 
ments which the in advertence or ignorance of the celestial map-makers have 
occasioned, there is no little confusion in this particular, for Flamsteed's 
Nos. 51 and 54- Andromedse are $ and V Persei, though placed exactly 
where Ptolemy wished them to be on the lady's foot : so also a in this 
aeterism has been lettered 8 Pegasi by Bayer, and /3 has been the lucida 
of the Northern Fish. 

Sirrah is useful in alignment, or the mode of finding from a few stars 
with which a spectator i& familiar, others which are unknown to him. 
Thus, an imaginary line drawn from the belt* of Orion, which all the 
worLl knows or ought to know, through Aries, will lead to the head of 
Andi omeda.. Certain brackish rhymes then state : 

And on, from where the pinion'd maid* 

Her cruel fate attends, 
Wide o'er the heavens his fabled form 

Wing'd Pegasws extends. 

From Alpherat down to Markab's beams, 

Let a cross line be sent, 
Then will four stars, upon the nosse, 

A spacious square present. 

Of this notable square, Alpmerat-(a Andromedae) and Scheat (/3 Pegasi) 
form the northern side, while Markab (a Pegasi) and Algenib (y Pegasi) 
mark the southern: ; and tlbse are useful in extending the alignment to 
other sought* objects- 



B. A. o h - 2 m o h - 

3. 



310 B CEPHEI. (2. 2.) 


h. 


m. a. 




*. 


K.A. 


B 13 


IPrec. + 


3-07 




o / 




H 


Decl. N 79 6'0 


N 


2O'O6 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoc 




o 


// 




STRUVE, W. 


341-5 


0-81 


1830 


STRUVE, 0. 


338.4 


... 074 -. 


1840 


SECCHI 


324'9 


... 0-38 ... 


1857- 


TALMAGE 


295-6 


0-30 


1865. 


DOBERCK 


3I5-8 


. . . not stated . . . 


1877 


BURNHAM 




... 


1880 



A very difficult double and single binary star. A 6f , yellow ; B 7, 
deeper yellow. The angle is decreasing, and the distance after decreasing 
for many years is now perhaps increasing. 



CASSIOPEIA. II. 



h. 



R.A. 3 18 
Deci. N 68 32-0 



Prec. 4- 3io 



N 20-06 

Position. Distance. Epoch* 

o w 

BUKNHAM 324-6 ... 297 ... 1879-54 

A bright star. A 2|, whitish; B n, dusky. This object is called 
Caph, from Kaff-al-Kliadil) , the stained hand, a name from which a 
scientific friend supposes, that although now only the lixcida cathedrce 
or J>right star on the couch-frame one of the hands may have reached 
it in the earlier designs. But the Arabians applied the term Kaff, 
a flat hand, to the whole asterism, whose five brightest stars repre- 
sented the thumb and fingers, coloured as if stained! with henna, after 
the Oriental custom. This general name came to be fixed upon ft. 

A glance from the Pole-star to a Andromedse, passes through Caph, 
nearly in mid-distance : or a line from between y and $, the following 
stars in the wain of the Great Bear, earned over the pole, strikes upon it, 
at a similar distance beyond Polaris : 

In yonder stars, which form a Cross, lo, Caph precedes the whole, 
A Cross more glorious than that which decks the austral pole, 

5. 1 Birm. CASSIOPEL3B. 



h. 



K.A. 3 38 



o 



Bed. 3ST 63 20'4 



Prec. + 3-06 

// 
N 20-05 



A red star .of mag. 8J. Sir J. Herschel, "ruby;" Birmingham, 1873, 
"slight red;" Copeland, 1876, "deep red/' 9. 



4 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

6. 147 $. III. ANDROMEDA. (H. 9; .) HI. 

R.A. 6 4 17 I Prec. + 3*09 



Becl. JSf 25 17-9 | N 20*05 

Position, Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

BUKNHAM 542.9 ... 63-5 ... 1879-57 

A double star in a coarse cluster, occupying the spot where I looked 
for Sir "W. Herschel's faint nebula. A 10, and B n, both pale blue. It 
lies on the crown of Andromeda's head, and about 3 S. of a; I saw none 
of the nebulosity alluded to by Sir "William in his registry of 1784, but 
a perceptible glow in a tolerably rich and darkened field was indicative 
of nebulous matter. This part was followed by 3 principal stars nearly in 
a line at almost equal distances, and each with a companion np. The 
third being the smallest and closest, is here taken. Another double 
star follows in the upper part of the field at about 3 m A E.A. 

["There is a small star near B. Pos. 105; Dist. 12"." Burnham.] 

7. 34 PISCIUM. (2. 5.) IV. 



h. 



K.A. 4 23 



o 



Decl. N 10 31-9 



Prec. + 3-07 

;/ 

N 20-05 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

O H 

STBUVE,W, 162-7 ,,, 8-03 ... 1830-32 
SMYTH 165-0 ... 7 ... 183877 

A neat double star. A 6, silvery white; B 13, pale blue; and they 
point to some small stars in the sf quadrant. This fine object, though 
numbered to Pisces, is astern of the leading Fish's tail, and near the 
wing of Pegasus ; and 4 S. & little preceding the bright star y Pegasi. 
From the delicacy of the eomes it is so excessively difficult to measure, 
that I only mark a mean of careful estimations. 

[" Probably fixed." Burnham.} 

8. 22 ANDROMEDA. Y. 



R.A. 4 36 
Deol. 3ST 46 27'6 



Prec. -f 4-00 
N 20-05 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o tf 

SOUTH BC 85.3 ... 5-0 ... 1825.99 

SMYTH BC 84-0 ... 4-9 ... 1838-92 

" A star leading to a distaat pair. A 5, white; B 8, pale yellow, and 
C 9, bluish. A is in the Galaxy, between the left hand of Andromeda, 



B. A. bb- 4 4 * 1 ' o*- 9^' 6 

and the head of Cassiopeia ; and it may be fished up by a line through 
y and a of the latter, at three times the interval between them in 
distance. It is here introduced as & pointer to the charming double star 
B C (=2. 3) in the wp quadrant, on a line 351 and A E.A. = i8 8 . It is 
in a fine field with several stars between the individuals. From measure- 
ments in 1783 by IjL, and in 1826 by South, it is clear that the position 
is stationary, JgL's distance was 3*5"} but as this was based on an 
allowance upon the apparent magnitude of the large star, no exact infer- 
ence, as to change in this element, can be drawn. 

9. y PEGASI. VI. 

b. nu s. 



B.A. 7 34 







Bed, 1ST 14 34'3 



Prec. + 3-08 

ft 
N 20.05 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

SMYTH 300 ,. % 181 ... 1835-07 

BUKNHAM 285-5 ... 162-3 ... J 879-54 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion. A 2j, white; 
B [n], pale blue, with a small comes in the sp; a line from B carried 
through A, leads to two small stars in the sf quadrant. In Tycho 
Brahe's catalogue this is erroneously placed in the constellation Pisces ; 
but it is on the extreme of the wing of Pegasus, whence it obtained 
the name of Algenib, from the Arabic Jetidh-al-faras, the horse's wing. 
A comparison of the distance between this star and Regulus, by ancient 
and modern astronomers, shows Ptolemy to be out 12' 18". To find 
this star by alignment, lead a line from the Pleiades through Aries, or 
look about 14 S. of a Andromedse, where it will be identified by its lustre. 
["There is a small star near B. Pos. I99*3; Dist. 20" + ." Surnham.] 

10. 35 PISCIUM, (2. 12.) VII. 



35 


PISCIUM, (2. 12.) 


h. 


m. s. 


a. 


R.A. 


9 


18 


Prec. + 


3'08 







f 




H 


Peel. N 


8 


12-6 


N 


2O-O4 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 






o 


IP 




HERSCHBL,W. 


148-9 .. 


12-50 ... 


1782-68 


SMYTH 




150-1 


n-6 


1832-04 


DUN&R 




149-5 - 


n-66 ... 


1868-31 



A neat double star. A 6, pale white ; B 8, violet tint. This is a fine 
object. 1$. describes it as being in "lino austrino" of the constellation ; 
but by the S.D.U.K. mp, it is on the S. tip of the tail of the preceding 
Fish. A line from a Andromedse through y Pegasi, exten'ded about 6 
to the S., strikes upon 35 Piscium. There is no doubt as to its fixity. 



6 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

11. 2315 h. PHOENTCIS. (H. 27.) 



B.A. 9 31 
Decl. 8 30 49*5 



Prec. + 3.03 



20-4 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; v L ; vmi E ; tri-N f which means : " very bright ; very large ; 
very much irregularly extended ; tri-naclear/' In his Cape Obs. Sir John 
calls it " a very long irregular crooked ray with 3 nuclei, the second of 
which appears to consist of stars." He saw it to be at least 25' long and 
3' broad* Engraved in Cape Obs. PI, iv. Fig. 8. 

12. 



318 


B. CEPHEI. j(2. 13.) 


h. 


an. 


s. 




8, 


K.A. 


9 


57 


Prec. + 


3^3 











H 


DecL N 


70 


20-0 


. - -i N 


20-05 








Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 






jj 


n 




STRUVE, ' 


W. 


124.0 


053 ... 


1831-50 


STKUVE, 0. 


125-5 - 


0-64 


1840-58 


SECCHI 




IO2-2 


0-69 


1857-52 


GLBDHILL 


loa-o 


. 0-5 


1873-91 



A double star. A 7, yellowish white,; B 7^, yellowish white. A de- 
crease in angle seems certain ; and O. Struve thinks that an increase in 
distance has taken place, but the measures of distance are so discordant 
as to make this latter idea very doubtful 

13. 38 PISCIUM. (2. ,22.) VIII. 

R.A. 11 44 I Free. + 3-08 

DecL N 8 15*8 j N 20-03 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O H 

HERSCHELjW. 244.9 ... 4-0 ... 1782-68 

HEKSCHEL,W. 235.4 4' 1802-67 
SMYTH 255-9 4* 8 l8 37 >8 9 

WILSON 239.7 ... 4.5 ... 1873-86 

A very neat double star on the following tip of the preceding Fish's 
tail, following No. 10 nearly on the parallel. A 7|, light yellow; B 8, 
flushed white. This elegant pair was thought to be binary by its dis- 
coverer Ijl ., from his measurements. 

IJ/s observations appeared to give a retrograde motion, which sub- 
sequent astronomers have not confirmed. Those sage astrologers who 
dubbed Pisces a most malignant sign, ought to have contemplated this 
beautiful object : had this been done, every notion of stellar unpropitious- 
ness and malevolence must have vanished. 



B. A. 



o h - i6 ni - 



14. 



l CETI. 



IX. 



B,A. 6 13 50 
Bed. 8 9 26*1 



Prec. -f 3-06 

;/ 

: N 20-02 



Position, Distance. 



Epoch, 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J. 14-2 ... 45 ... not stated. 
SMYTH 12 ... 45 ... 1838-82 

BURNHAM 15-2 ... 62-0 ... 1879-87 

A wide double star on the N. extreme of the tail ; whence it was called 
Dheneb Kaitos shemdl^ the northern branch of the "Whale's tail. A 4, 
bright yellow \ B [n], deep blue. This is an excessively difficult object, 
being only discernible after long attention. The position and distance 
are therefore only the result of estimation. The companion is rated as of 
the 1 2 th magnitude by Sir J. Herschel. There is a small star near the 
vertical, in the sp quadrant. The object may be found by a line carried 
through a Andromedse and y Pegasi, and extended to about 24 S. of the 
latter, where it will be seen as the N. E. apex of a nearly equilateral 
triangle formed by t, rj, and j3 Ceti. 



15. 



4 Birm ANDROMEDA. 



K.A. 14 5 
Becl. 1ST 44 5-9 



Prec. -f 3.14 



20.02 



A fine red star of mag. 8, first noted by Kruger as " Intensif roth/ 
(A.N, 1231). 



16. 



PISCIUM. (S. 27,) 



R.A. 16 44 

Decl. N 12 52-3 

Position. 

STRIVE, W. ,344-9 
SMYTH 341-5 
GLEDHILL 338-1 

A delicate double star following y Pegasi at about 2| in the sf 
quarter. A 7, topaz yellow ; B 13, emerald green. It is in the boundary, 
but not in the figure of the Fishes ; and though not close, has an elegant 
aspect from the strong contrast of its colours in so barren a field of view. 

[" Rectilinear motion. The changes are probably due to the proper 
motion of the principal star." GledhUL] 



Prec. + 


3*9 

20-00 
Epoch, 


Distance. 


35 
29-0 


1828-76 
1833*95 
1873-89 



8 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

it. 47 TOTJCANL (h. 2322 ; H. 52.) 



h. m. s. 



E.A, 19 9 
Decl, S 72 41*6 



Free, -j- 2-72 

n 

N 19-99 



A cluster tlius described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" > j y B; vlj' r vmCM;" which means: "a globular cluster; very 
remarkable object ; very bright ; very large ; very much compressed in 
the middle/* In his Cape Obs. Sir John says: "A most magnificent 
globular cluster. It fills the field with its outskirts, but within its more 
compressed part I can insulate a tolerably defined circular space of 90" 
diameter, wherein the compression is much more decided and the stars 
seem to run together ; and this part I think has a pale pinkish or rose 
colour/' The diameter of the whole cluster, exclusive of stragglers, he 
puts at 6' or 8'* In the cluster there is a double star of mag. 1 1. (Pos. 
226; A R.A. from centre of neb. = 6.5 s .) Gould says: "Perhaps the 
most impressive object of the kind in either hemisphere ; appears of the 
4| mag. to the naked eye." Engraved in Cape Obs., PI. iii. Fig. i. 



18. 22 h. CASSIOPEIA. (h. 22 ; H. 55.) XI. 



h. m. &. 



B.A. 21 



o 



Bed. 3ST 70 46*9 



Free. + 



M 
N 19-97 



A large and straggling group of small stars, between the Lady's foot- 
stool and the knee of Cepheus ; a line from the y of one asterism to the 
y of the other, and -| the distance from that of Cepheus, hits 22 h. The 
place here given is that of a coarse double star, the components of which 
are of the 8^- and 1 1 magnitudes, both greyish, in the following portion 
of the mass ; and which is, in a manner, insulated. It was first registered 
by Sir J. Herschel, and described as a very loose but pretty rich cluster. 

[" Merely a rich field of stars." Brodie.] 

19. 79 1$. VHI. CASSIOPEIA, (h. 24; H. 63.) 



h. 



B. A. 23 45 
Decl, N 59 16 ' 



Prec. + 3'3 



19.95 



A loose cluster thus described in Sir John HerscheFs Catalogue of 
1864: "Cl; vL; pE; 1C; st 9- 13;" which means: "a cluster; 
very large ; pretty round ; little condensed ; stars of mags. 9 to 13." The 
9* h mag. star here alluded to is in about the centre of the cluster. 
About midway between /3 and y Cassiopeiae. 



R. A. o h - i9 m - O 11 - 



20. 12 CETI. XII. 



B.A. 24 25 



o 



Decl. 8 4 33*9 



Free, -f 3.06 
N 19-94 



Position* Distance. Epoch. 



o 



BUBKHAM j f * l87 ' 2 - 8 * 7 { .., 1879-89 
(AC 110-2 ... 212-9 ) ty 

A triple star, or rather, a double one with a distant companion, above 
half-way in a line shot from y Pegasi to ft Ceti. A 6, topaz yellow ; 
B 15, bright blue; C n, dusky, other telescopic stars in the field* 
This is a beautiful, but most difficult test object. It lies between the 
Whale's tail and the Southern Fish, nearly mid-distance of two stars to 
the np and sf, but trending towards the parallel, the following individual 
being of the II th magnitude, and the largest. Piazzi remarks: "Pro- 
bably i i a of Mayer, the sign of the declination being wrong, as in the 
9 {l , neither of which are found in a northern sky/' 

["B Visible in strong moonlight, 1866, with an aperture of 4f in -" 
firodie.] 



21. 49 PISCIUM. (2. 32.) XIII. 

h. nu s. 9. 

E.A. 25 4 Prec. + 3.11 

Decl. M" 15 25-7 r N 19-94 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STBUVE,W. 107-7 I 3' 2 182874 
SMYTH 109.5 ... 15 ... 1835-87 

GLEDHILL 106-8 ... 16-4 ... 187394 

A delicate double star, nf y Pegasi about 4. A 7, silvery white ; 
and B 105, cerulean blue. Though quartered in Pisces this very deli- 
cate object is actually between the wing of Pegasus and the right hand 
of Andromeda : and this, though a minor one, is among the many errors 
calling for a reform of the constellations. It is followed nearly on the 
parallel by a yellow star of the J-8 magnitude, which must be the one 
alluded to by Piazzi in Note 0. 92, though the distance is nearer 
50 than 30 seconds. The companion to A is so minute as to 
vanish under the slightest illumination ; the details are therefore merely 
estimated. 

[The evident change is ascribed by 0. Struve to the proper motion 
of A.] 



10 


A Cycle of Celestial Objects* 


22. 


A CASSIOPEIA. (O. 2. 


12.) 




h. m. 


8. 




8. 




B.A. 25 


41 


Prec. + 


3-25 




o 


r 




// 




Decl. JSf 53 


54*9 


N 


19*93 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 















STRUVE, 0. 


3037 . 


.. 0-48 ... 


1844.84 




STRUVE, O. 


3-15-0 


0-65 


1870-18 




DEMBOWSKI 


3187 . 


.. 0-57 ... 


1877-03 




HALL 


320-1 


0-41 


1879-10 


A double 


star. A 6"; 


B 6|. There is clear 


evidence of the angle 


having increased. 


23. 


ft TOUCANI. 




h. m. 


s. 




s. 




R.A. 26 


30 


Prec. + 


2-78 







/ 




If 




Decl. 8 63 


34*0 


N" 


19.91 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 






o 


// 






HERSCHEL, T. 


172.2 


.. 27-7 ... 


I835-75 


A double 


star. A 5 ; 


B g. Described by 


Sir J. Herschel as a 



" superb object/' A 7^ mag. star follows at 73 s and 3^' to the S. 



24. 



R.A. 
Decl. 



h. 





51 PISCIUM. 

m. s. 

26 43 



6 20'0 



(2. 36.) 
Prec. 4- 3-08 
N 19-92 



XV. 



Position. 



Distance. 



Epoch. 
1782-68 



HERSCHEL, W. 89-4 ... 22-4 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 82-8 ... 25-8 ... 1822-87 

STBUVE, W. 82-3 ... 27-4 ... 1833-20 

SMYTH 82-5 ... 276 ... 1835-91 

MADLEB 81-0 ... 28-2 . r . 1852-86 

WILSON and SEABROKE 827 ... 384 ... 1873-86 

A fine double star in a line about one-third the distance from y Pegasi 
to rj Ceti. A 6 J, pearl white ; B 9, lilac tint. This is in the centre of 
that part of the Jcheit, or ribbon, of the sign Pisces which is near the tail 
of the preceding fish ; and my observations for position and distance are 
highly satisfactory. A comparison with 13 .'s measures would indicate a 
sensible increase of distance between the two stars, as well as a retro- 
cession of the orbital angle; but from the concordance of recent measures, 
it may still be questioned whether the position has not been stationary. 
Indeed, when we recollect that Iff., first classed these interesting objects, 
and made the instruments wherewith to grapple their details, we can 
only admire how well they stand such rigorous comparisons. 

[" A difficult star to observe. The angle has probably decreased." 
ObZML] 



B. A. o 11 - 2 m o h - a8 m - 11 



25. 52 PISCITTM. XVI. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 26 49 







Deol. N 19 41*8 



Prec. -f 3*12 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

BUENHAM 505-8 ... 38.1 ... 1879-57 

A double star, between Andromeda's right arm and the back of 
Pegasus ; and nearly midway of a line from y Pegasi to f Andromedse, 
A 6, fine yellow; B [12], deep blue. This is a delicate object. It is 
followed at about 12 s by a pale star of the 12 th magnitude. The 
object was first' discovered by Sir J. Herschel. Piazzi has remarked in 
his note on go Piscium, "cujus dedinatio 19 n' (Bradley) omnino non 
invenitur :" and Baily has shown, in his edition of the "British Cata- 
logue," that No. 50 does not exist, but that this star, No. 52, was the 
individual observed and registered by Flamsteed in 1692. 

26, 28 h. CASSIOPEIA. (h. 28 ; H, 71.) XIV. 

h. TO. s. 5. 



R.A. 26 53 
Decl. N 62 40-0 



Prec. + 3-36 

n 

N 19-92 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

-H 

SMYTH 228 ... 6 ... 1837-97 

A neat double star in a cluster. A 10, and B u. both pale grey. 
They are near the centre of an elegant and rich but somewhat straggling 
field of stars ; and being too small to admit of light, their position and 
distance are only estimated. The vicinity is strewed with stars from the 
lo* 11 to the 15*1* mags., of which the most clustering part is about 8' or 
9' in extent. It is closely nf K in the throne of Cassiopeia, a beautiful 
individual of a bright yellow colour and 4^ magnitude. 
[" "Worth nothing as a cluster/* SrodieJ] 

27. SCULPTOBIS. (*h. 3375.) 



h. 



B.A. 28 22 



o 



Decl. S 35 34*9 



Pret. + 2-96 

tt 
N 19-90 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o 

HEKSCHEL, J. 170 ... 4 est. ... 1834.66 

STONE 165-8 ... 6-1 ... 1877.80 

A double star. A 6 ; 87^. 



12 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

28. 113 P. O. CETI. (S. 39.) XVII. 



h. m. B. 

B.A. 28 52 
Decl. 8 5 0*3 



Free, -f 3-05 

* 
N 19*90 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O H 

STBUVE.W. 45.5 ... 20-0 ... 1830-24 
SMYTH .44-6 ... 19-6 ... 1832-87 

DEMBOWSKI 45.6 ... 19.9 ... 1865-80 

A neat double star, between the Whale's tail and the chetil of Pisces, on 
a line striking from /3 Ceti through a Andromedse, and about one-third 
of the distance. A 7, cream yellow ; B 9, smalt blue. This is a fine 
object, being nearly mid- way between two stars, one in the sf quadrant, 
and the smallest in the np. My measures were taken under favourable 
circumstances, and may be deemed good. Piazzi tells us that in Flam- 
steed's asterism, a companion of the 9 th magnitude follows this star, by 
1 1 2 S of time, which he could not find. There is, however, at about the 
same distance, and to the N., a star of this character, although rather 
smaller. Is the follower, then, variable $ 

[Secchi and Dembowski independently found A itself to be a close 
double. Pos. 241*8; Dist. 0-89; 1877-80, according to Burnham.] 



29. TT ANDROMEDA. XVIII. 



h. 



B.A. 31 



O 



Decl. N 33 6*8 



Prec. -1- 3/19 
N 19-88 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH 173.9 ... 3,5.6 ... 183290 

MAIN * 172.3 ... 34.4 ... 1867-64 
BUENHAM 172.8 ... 35.1 ... 187870 

A fine double star, between the shoulders of the chained Lady. A 4 J, 
fine white ; B 9, blue, and they point to two small stars at a distance 
in the sf quadrant. A line carried from a Pegasi to a Andromedee, 
and extended 6 beyond, strikes upon TT. Ptolemy was right in 
stating it to be upon the shoulder ; but as the figures of the constel- 
lations are drawn on many modern celestial maps with the fronts 
towards the observer, TT then appears to be situate on the breast. It 
is well described by Piazzi: "duplex comes io ae magnitudinis se- 
quitur o-6 s temporis circiter \ min. ad austrum." This object was 
first registered as a double star by J$. ; but though he pronounced his 
distance of 34*20" to be inaccurate, it must have been pretty near the 
truth, for subsequent measures indicate about the same. 



30. 





R A. o h - 28 m - o h - 34 m < 

8 ANDROMEDA. 




h. m. s. a. 


K.A, 


33 26 


Free, -f 3-18 




/ 


// 


Bed. 


N 30 15'5 


N 19-85 



13 



XIX. 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o H 

BUKNHAM 194-4 ... 229-1 ,., 1879-54 

A bright star with a telescopic companion to the sp. A 3, orange ; 
B [10], dusky; with 3 small stars in the southern part of the field. 
It is on the right shoulder of Andromeda, though the old Catalogues 
term it " clarior in sinistrS scapula," as an accepted interpretation of 
the contested eV T pcTafypcixp of Ptolemy ; and it is found by a line 
from y passed over /3, and carried about 7 beyond the latter. 



31. 



55 PISCIUM, (2. 46.) 




h. m. 


4. 




s. 


K.A. 


O 34 


-8 


Free, -f 


3-14 







/ 




ft 


Decl. 


N 20 


50*7 


N 


19.83 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 






o 


n 




STKUVE, 


W. 


192-7 . 


.. 6-37 ... 


1830-22 


SMYTH 




1937 . 


.. 5-9 


1833-83 


DUN&R 




191-9 . 


.. 6-34 ... 


1870-32 



XXI. 



A neat double star, ascertained by a line through 6 and c Andromedae, 
7 beyond the latter. A -6, orange ; B 9, deep blue, the colours in 
good contrast, and therefore forming a rich specimen of opposed hues. 
[Dembowski in 1856 made B deep red.] This very beautiful object 
is between the head and right arm of Andromeda. 



32. 



a CASSIOPEIA. 



B.A. 84 16 
Decl. N 55 56*3 



Free, -f 3*36 
N 19-83 



XX. 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HERSCHEL, W. 275.5 ... 56-1 ... 1781-97 
SMYTH 279-7 ... 61-5 ... 1851-92 

BUBNHAM 3798 ... 62-5 ,.. 1878-65 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a companion* A 3, pale rose-tint ; 
p [9!] smalt blue. This object is in the right breast of Dh&t-al-Kwrsa, 
the Lady of the Throne ; and it also obtained the names of Lucida 
Cassiopeia and Sehedir ; the last being probably a corruption of Al-sadr, 
the breast, by the franxers of the Alphonsine Tables, The Arabians 



14 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

having no passion for delineating the human form, made a dog of 
Cepheus, and its female of Cassiopeia, retaining the Sedes Regia t or 
throne of the latter ; but the Canis foemina meant no disrespect. 

Cassiopeia, one of* the ancient 48 asterisms, formed by 5 bright 
stars disposed something like an M, is a well-known circumpolar con- 
stellation, next to her husband Cepheus, and on the opposite side of the 
pole to the Great Bear. The earlier Arabians considered the whole as a 
large hand, of which the bright stars constituted the finger-points, and in 
which was even included the nebulous group in the left hand of Perseus. 
Successive ages have yielded' these numbers : 

Ptolemy . . . 13- stars. Hevelius .... 38 stars. 
Ulugh Beigh . . 13 Flamsteed . . . 55 
Tycho Brah<* * . 46 Bode 134 

There has been much idle discussion as to the orthography of this 
lady's name, whether it should be written Cassiopea, after the Latins, or 
Cassiepea [or Cassiopeia] from the Greek Kao-o-teVeta ; and the result has 
left either to the writer's choice utrum ho+wmt, &c. In the early illus- 
trations to Hyginus she is bound to her throne, or rather to a seat with 
a sort of gibbet-back, very much like the scaffold called * t're pezzi di legno 
by the Italians. Thus secured she cannot fall) out in, going round head 
downwards, pursuant to sentence; 

Sir W. Herschel has tabulated the comparative lustre 1 f the stars 
in this constellated group, and the statement will be found! in Phil. 
Trans., vol. Ixxxvi. 

Shedir used to be thouglkt variable. J$!& observations in 1796 make 
a and y of the 3 rd magnitude, and /3 3-2 in lustre of the stars in 
Cassiopeia ; and its brightness* is marked y in Ptolfeiny. Certainly when 
Sir J. Herschel called my attention thereto, it was smaller than ft or y 
of the same constellation^ " That the fluctuation in splendour of this 
star," he writes, "should have heretofore escaped notice, is not extra- 
ordinary, since the difference between its greatest and least brightness 
can hardly be estimated at so much as half a magnitude." Its period is 
stated at about 200 days, but iuu July, 1839, it was positively brightening 
and better defined than the other two. [Schmidt declares that the 
variability of this star is a myth,] 

To find this star from the northward, project a ray from e Ursas 
Majoris through the Pole-star, and it will pass through the middle of 
Cassiopeia, at nearly an equal distance on the other side of the pole. 
The circumvolution is well marked ; when Ursa is at its lowest position 
below the pole, Cassiopeia is near the zenith, and vice versd. If Shedir 
is required from the southward, resort to the galley rhyme : 

From alpha Ceti, to the east of Al'mak, towering rise, 

You'll mark on Cassiopeia's breast where Shedir decks the skies. 



R. A. o b - 34 m - o h - 36' 15 

83. 18 $. V. ANBBOMED-ffl. (h. 44; H. 105; &.) XXII. 



h. m. 



R.A. 34 23 



o 



Decl. N 41 5-1 



Prec. -f 3-23 
N 19-83 



A large faintish nebula of an oval form, with its major axis extending 
N. and S. It is between the left arm and robes of Andromeda, a 
little to the tip of 31 Messier; and was discovered by Miss Herschel 
in 1783, with a Newtonian 2 -foot sweeper. It lies between two sets 
of stars, consisting of four each, and each disposed like the figure 7, the 
preceding group being the smaller ; besides other telescopic stars to the 
S. This was registered by l. as 30' long and 12' broad, but only 
half that size by his son ; and there was a faint suspicion of a nucleus. 

[Engraved, Bond, Trans. Amer. Acad., N.S., vol. iii. p. 86; but 
Lord Kosse remarks : " Far too bright and sharply defined in Bond's 
drawing."] 



34, 146 P. O. CETI. XXIII. 



h. m. s, 



B.A. 35 6 






Decl. S 4 57*3 



Free, -f 3'5 
N 19-82 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O tf 

BUBNHAM 290-0 ... 65-0 ... 1879.89 

A wide double star to the N. of the Whale's tail, over which an 
imaginary line from TJ Ceti to a Pegasi passes, at near 9 from the 
former, A 6^, pale topaz 569, violet-tint, several other stars in the 
distant parts of the field. TMs object, though coarse, is pleasing, from 
its contrasted colours : it was seen and thus described by Piazzi : " Alise 
9 ae magnitudinis 3*2"* temiporis pracedifr, % min. ad boream." 



35. 31 M. ANBEOMED-ffl. (h. 50 ; H. 116.) XXIV. 

b. m. s, 



B.A. 36 47 



o 



fteol. ST 40 40-1 



Prec. -f 3-24 
'.. ' N 19-80 



An overpowering nebula, with a companion about 25' in the south 
vertical It is of an oval shape, light, brightening towards the sf edge 
of the general mass, and of a milky irresolvable nebulosity; but though 



16 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects* 



described " in cingulo Andromedse," is between the robes and left arm 
of the Lady, and certainly below the girdle. There are numerous tele- 
scopic stars around; and 3 minute ones are involved in the glow, but 
which can have no connection with it, and are doubtless between our 
system and the nebulosity. The axis of direction trends sp and nf; and 
it may be caught by a good eye, on a very fine night, by running a 
fancied line from y Andromedae to ft Andromedse, and from thence carry- 
ing a rectangular glance to a distance of about 6. It can also be struck 
upon by a ray from y Ceti, over ft Arietis, and through ft Andromedse, to 
6|- beyond. 

This is the oldest known nebula ; for though it attracted but little 
notice till the 17*^ century, it was seen, at least, as far back as 905 A.D. 
Simon Marius re-discovered it, if such a term can be applied to 
an object seen with the naked 
eye: in his rare work De Mundo 
Jomali that astronomer ac- 
quaints us, that he first examined 
it with a telescope on the 15 th 
Dec. 1612 ; he was astonished at 
the singularity of the pheno- 
menon, but expressly says that 
he leaves to others to judge 
whether it was a new discovery 
or not. It was therefore by an 
oversight that Halley ascribes 
the discovery, in 1661, to Bu- 
Ualdus (Ismael Boulliaud)] who 
himself mentions its being known 
as Nebulosa in cingulo Andro- 
medce y and that it had been 
noticed 150 years before by an 
expert though anonymous astro- 
nomer. The tenuity of its boun- 
dary offering no definition for 
exact comparison, has made the 
several attempts to figure it so 
conflicting as to mislead. Marius 
describes it as resembling the FlG - ' 3 1 M - ANBIBOMKDJB. 

diluted light of the flame of a candle seen through horn, Halley 
mentions that it emits a radiant beam, Cassini calls it & peu-prfo 
triangulaire, Le Gentil considered it round for some years, then oval, 
but always of an uniform light in all its parts, while Messier represents 
it as resembling two cones, or pyramids of light, opposed by their bases. 




K.A. & 36- 17 

From such statements, Boulliaud and Kircher thought this wonderful 
object appeared and disappeared, like Mira ; and Le Gentil had no doubt 
of its undergoing changes in form. But probably this discordance is a 
consequence of the means employed. Le Qentil, by his paper of 1749, 
seems to have used telescopes of various sizes, in order to see it very 
clearly " non seulement pour servir a la reconnoitre, mais encore pour 
voir si dans la suite elle ne seroit point sujette & quelque variation, soit 
dans la figure, soit dans la position ; " yet 1 5 years afterwards Me&sier 
differs from him, by assigning a greater brilliance to the centre than to 
the edges, which latter accords better with my views of it, than do our 
apparent mean places. It is, however, remarkable that Messier examined 
this giant nebula with a 4^'* Newtonian, and then turned the instru- 
ment upon y Andromedse " qui en 6toit fort prfes " to compare its light 
with that of the star, on a beautiful night of August, 1764 ; but he makes 
no mention of the duplicity, or contrasted colours, of that lovely star. 

Sir William Herschel gave this a rigid scrutiny, and concluded it to be 
the nearest of all the great nebulae. " The brightest part of it," he says, 
" approaches to the resolveable nebulosity, and begins to show a faint red 
colour ; which, from many observations on the magnitude and colour of 
nebulae, I believe to be an indication that its distance in the coloured 
part does not exceed 2000 times the distance of Sirius." Does not exceed 
that distance ! That is so far from us, that light, which is endowed with 
the swiftest degree of motion yet known, flying along at the rate of 
186,660 miles in a second of time, or about it millions of miles in 
a minute, would require upwards of 6000 years to traverse the awful 
interval : as to that type of terrestrial velocity, so often cited, the cannon- 
ball, with its 5oo-miles-an-hour pace, it would have no chance of passing 
the same space under nine or ten thousand millions of years. What an 
overwhelming idea does such an astonishing conclusion give of the All- 
wise and Omnipotent Intelligence ! 

The companion was discovered in November, 1749, by Le Gentil, and 
was described by him as being about an eighth of the size of the prin- 
cipal one; he adds, "elle m'a paru exactement de la meme densite que 
rancienne" The light is certainly more feeble than here assigned. 
Messier whose No. 32 it is observed it closely in 1764, and remarked 
that no change had taken place since the time of its being first recorded. 
In form it is nearly circular. 

[" Huggins finds a continuous spectrum, but cut off at the red end. It 
seems therefore not gaseous : if stellar, it ,is strange that comprising such 
extremes of feebleness and condensation, it can be resolved with certainty 
nowhere, the nucleus only showing a granular texture in great instru- 
ments. There is some deep mystery here/' JFe&&.] 

[Engraved in Trans. Amer. Aead., N. S., vol. iii p. 86. BondJ] 

c 



18 A Cycle of Celestial Objects, 



36. 78 $. VIII. CASSIOPEIA, (h. 52; H. 120.) XXV. 



h. m. 



E.A. 37 7 







Decl. N 61 11-2 



Free. 4- 3 '45 
. N 19-80 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



BURNHAM 68-0 ... 16-4 ... 1 8 79-49 

A small double star, in a loose cluster of about 30 of the p 111 and io th 
magnitudes, occupying all the field; but there being no star-dust, or 
nebulosity intermixed, the firmament appears unusually dark between 
them. The most conspicuous object is the double star here recorded, of 
which A is of the 8|- magnitude, and B of the II th , both pale, This 
cluster, which is on the seat of Cassiopeia, and exactly half-way between 
y and K, was discovered by Miss Herschel in 1784 ; and described by I^L 
as " taking up 15 or 20 minutes/' 



37. /3 CETI. XXVI. 



/3 CETI. 


E,A. 
DecL 


h, , s. 

38 4 
S 18 35-4 


8. 

Free. + 2' 
N 19 


99 

78 


SMYTH 


Position. Distance. Epoch, 
221 ... 542 ... 1836-72 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion in the sp quadrant. 
A 2^, yellow ; B 1 2, pale blue [uncertain, Enoti\ 9 and there is a 9^ 
magnitude star in the sf, following by about a minute of time. 

This star is in the 8. branch of the Whale's tail, whence it obtained 
the name of DJieneb Kditfis jentibi, But it has been more widely noticed 
as Diphda, from Difdrf al thdni, or the second frog, pertaining to an 
original Arabian constellation, of which the first frog was Difda al auwel, 
the same with Fom-al-hut, or a Piscis Australia From various compa- 
risons of their lustre, /3 Ceti is certainly larger than a ; they were both 
registered y, or 3 rd magnitude, by Ptolemy : but it seems to have been 
increasing in brightness. A fancied line between a Piscis Australia and 
a Ceti passes over /3 Ceti, in about mid-distance, 



R A. o h * 37 m - o h * 4i m * 19 

38, 175 P. O. ANDROMEDA. (S. 1 App. I ) XXVII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 40 30 
Decl. N 30 2O '0 



Prec, + 3-20 
N 1974 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEBSCHEL.W. 237.6 ... 45-0 ... 1783-02 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 236-0 ... 46-4 ,., 1821-95 

SMYTH 235-8 ... 46-4 ... 1836-12 

MAIN ^ 233.5 ... 46-2 ... 1865.79 

BELLAMY 233-1 ... 46-7 ... 1875.76 

A wide double star, i| following b on the Lady's right shoulder. 
Both individuals are of the 8 th magnitude, and pale yellow. B is Piazzi's 

No. 176; the pair is not a fine one. The very slight decrease of angle 
may imply motion. 

39. PHOENTCIS. (*h. 3395.) 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 40 31 
Decl. S 42 30 '4 



Prec. + 2-87 
N 19-74 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HERSCHEL, J. 63-0 ... 8-9 ... 1836-6 

A double star. A 8^ ; B 9. 

" This is a very remarkable star. The colours of both individuals are 
alike, viz. a very high orange, almost red." (Sir J, Herschel.) 

40. 181 P. O. CASSIOPEIA. (2. 59.) XXVIII. 

h, m. s. 



B.A. 41 45 
Decl. N 50 50-6 



Prec. + 3-34 
N 19-73 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

HERSCHEL, W. 140-5 ... 2-0 ... 1782-66 
SOUTH 147-6 ... 2.57 ... 1825.14 

STRTJVE, W. 144-9 ... 2-19 ... 1832-33 
SMYTH 146-8 ... 2-4 ... 1836-94 

MADLKR 146-5 ... 2-24 ... 1851.52 

DuNJ^R 148-1 ... 2-2i ... 1871.94 

A close double star, between Andromeda's knee and the head of 
Cassiopeia, just following a line projected from K through a, and carried 
5 beyond the latter. A 8, flushed white ; [B 8], white. As ]$. saw them 
"very unequal" in 1782, and "difficult to be seen," the small star may 
be variable ; the redness he imputes, was probably owing to causes already 
alluded to. 1$. marked his observation as "very exact" in his manu- 
script ; a slow change of position was therefore inferred by his son : and 
subsequent observations bear this out. 

C 2 



20 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

41. 1 1$. V. CETI. (h. 61, 2345; H. 138.) XXX. 



h. 



B.A. 42 13 
Decl. S 25 53-7 



Free. + 2-96 

// 
N 19-72 



A long narrow nebula, preceding the clumsy stern-frame of Cetus, but 
close to the boundary assigned to Apparatus Sculptoris. It is of a pale 
milky tint, and trends sp and nf with its brightest portion towards the 
S. There are several small stars in the field, of which the nearest 
preceding is of the p th magnitude, and reddish. A line drawn from the 
8 th magnitude star in the np quadrant, to the 8 th in the nf, will be 
parallel to the axis of the nebula, which owing probably to the inferiority 
of my means I could not make out to be of the extreme length figured 
by Sir J. Herschel. This singular object was discovered by Miss 
Herschel, in 1783. A line shot from a Andromedse through /3 Ceti, 
and carried about 7 to the S., where Fom-al-haut will appear nearly 
at right angles with it, marks the site of the nebula. 

42. 77 CASSIOPEIA. (2. 60.) XXIX. 



rj CASSIOPE 

h. m, s. 

B.A. 42 26 

Decl. N 57 13 '9 

Position, 
o 
HEESCHEL,W. 62-1 

STKUVE, W. 80-2 
SMYTH 87.8 
SMYTH 95.8 
MADLEK 112-0 
DOBEROK 150-2 


L33. (2. 60.) 

S. 

Prec. + 3 '4 5 

NTH.H-T 


19 71 

Distance. Epoch. 

1 1. 2 ... I779- 6 3 

io8 ,., 1819-80 
9-8 ... 1830-91 
9.1 ... 1843-19 
7-6 ... 1855.51 
5.7 ... 1877.76 



A neat binary star, in the cestus [i.e. armlet] of the seated Lady, 
forming the apex of a right-angled triangle with a and /3. A 4, pale 
white ; and B 7-^, purple. This superb physical object was discovered 
to be double by Ijl. 

[The estimates of colour vary much, and the latest and best authen- 
ticated are A, yellow and B, red.] 

By IjjL's re-examination in 1803, a rapid angular velocity was detected. 

Sir J. Herschel, in his discussion of 1831, said he would not then 
decide, on account of the uncertain determination of the distances, 
whether the motion thus established was orbital or parallactic. But, 
as he added, that the small star, in all probability, would be on the 
parallel, or in the act of changing quadrants from nf to sfiu the* beginning 
of the year 1835, 1 carefully watched, both before and after, and saw 



B. A. o h - 42 m - o h - 45 m - 21 

the prediction verified. These double-star orbits are really among the 
most interesting subjects which modern research has to occupy itself 
about; and their investigation offers a beautiful field for the amateur 
astronomer. 

[The elements of this star's orbit are still very uncertain in spite of our 
having 100 years' observations at command. Doberck's period is 222$ ; 
Gruber's 195?; and DuneYs 



43. 65 PISCIUM. (I. 61. XXXI. 



65 

h. m. 

K.A. 43 

Decl. N 27 

HEESCHEL,W. 
SMYTH 
DUNKB 


PISCIU] 

58 
t 
6-7 

Position. 

300-9 

298-5 
298.6 


M:. (2. 

Prec. 


61. 

+ 

N 


) 

s. 

3' 20 

19-70 

Epoch. 

I7 8 3'i5 
1838.17 
1872.33 


Distance. 

4-0 
4-5 
4'3 



A close double star, which, though classed in Pisces, is placed by the 
map artists on the right arm of Andromeda ; where it may be struck 
upon about half-way between TT and 77. A 6, and B 7, both pale 
yellow. [Knott says both equal, and of mag. 6.] This fine object was 
discovered by IjL 

He again measured its position in 1802, when the results seemed to 
warrant the assumption of a slow retrograde orbital motion ; but this is 
not confirmed by the later observations. By assembling the observations 
in one view, H. arrived at the conclusion that the decrease might be 
0-117 per annum; and supposing the star to revolve uniformly in a 
circle, its period would be 3077 years. My measures, however, drawn 
through a similar comparison, yield only 0-06 per annum, and infer an 
annus magnus of a much longer period. 

[Very little, if at all, unequal in magnitude. W. Struve ; Webb.] 

44, 159 $. I. CASSIOPEIA, (h. 71; H. 158; .) 

h. m. s. B, 



B.A. 45 50 
Decl. 3S" 46 57 '9 



Prec. + 3-35 

N 19-66 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B; p L; II ; 2 st 10 nr ; " which means : "Considerably bright ; pretty 
large; round ; 2 stars of the io tl1 magnitude are near." It makes a very 
obtuse-angled triangle with the stars in question. Its diameter is about 
20", and it is "almost planetary" in character. 



22 A 'Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

45. 20 $. VI. SCULPTOEIS. (h. 74, 2354; H. 162.) 



h. m. 8. 



K.A. 47 20 







Bed. S 27 10*9 



Free. 4- 2-93 
N 19-63 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerschePs Catalogue of 1864: 
" ; B; L; IE; st I2...16;" which means: "a globular cluster; 
bright ; large ; little extended ; the stars are chiefly from the 1 2 tlx to the 
1 6 th magnitudes." 

46. 36 ANDROMEDA. (2. 73.) XXXII. 

b. m. s. s. 



K.A. 49 4 







Decl. N 23 2'0 



Free. + 3.19 
N 19-60 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEBSOHEL, J. 307*1 ... 0*90 ... 1830*78 

STRUVE, W. 307-8 ... 0*84 ... 1832-14 

SMYTH 322-9 ... i-o ... 1843-12 

STRUVE, 0. 335-9 ... 1-33 ... 1854-70 

SCHIAPARELLI 355-8 ... 1-27 ... 1877-0! 

A very close double star, a miniature of r\ Coronse, in the Lady's 
right elbow, and closely np of 17. A 6, bright orange; B 7, yellow. 
This beautiful golden pair is very difficult, being designated by 2. aurem 
vicinissimce. 

But the earliest measures I met with are those of H., from a com- 
parison with which I am led to infer that there is a decided direct 
orbital motion. 

As this was an object which demanded every assistance under high 
powers and most of my positions were made with an eye-piece magni- 
fying 600 times I resorted to the recommendation of Sir J. Herschel, 
before alluded to, of applying a central paper disc to improve the sepa- 
rating power ; and, in this instance, I think it was an advantage. 

[Closely np TJ in the direction of . Doberck finds a period of 349^] 

47. y CASSIOPEIA. xxxin. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 50 4 







Decl. N 60 7*2 



Free, -h 3 '5 7 
N 19-58 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

SMYTH 347 ... 350 ... 1837-68 

A bright star with a distant telescopic companion. A 3, brilliant 
white; 813, blue. This fine star is on the right hip of Cassiopeia, and 



RA. o b * 47 



53 



m * 



23 



the following part of the field has a scatter of small stars from re** 1 to 
1 3 tlj magnitudes, so as almost to make a cluster. 

To find this star by alignment, project a glance from Ursse majoris, 
the inner individual of the Greater Bear's tail, through the Pole-star, and 
at nearly a similar distance beyond, it will meet with y Cassiopeia. 



48. 



/i ANDR 

h. m. s. 

H.A. 50 39 

Decl. N 37 54'2 

Position. D 



SMYTH 115 
CHALLIS 110.5 ... 


OMEDJE. 

Prec. + 

N 


8. 
3-30 

19-57 

Epoch. 

1833-88 
1842*67 


istance. 
// 
45 
49-2 



XXXIV. 



A most delicate double star. A 4, bright white; B 16, dusky grey. 
On the Lady's back, and just below the girdle and it may be found 
by carrying a line from y Pegasi through 8 Andromedse, and extending it 
8 or 9 beyond, to the N.W. An object of extreme difficulty. 

Following this on the parallel, at about 2o m , is a very neat double star, 
of the 8 th and n th magnitudes, and about 12" apart : this might have 
been considered an object of some delicacy, but tried after p appears 
quite staring, and its colours, pale yellow and green, are very decided. 



49. 



2367 h. TOUCANL (H. 183.) 

8. 

Prec. + 2-08 



h. m. s. 

R.A. O 52 29 
Decl. S 73 3-8 



N 19-53 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ; v B ; S ; IE; st B . . . 15 ;" which means :*- a globular cluster ; 
very bright; small; little extended; its stars are from the 13* to the 
I5 ttl magnitude." A close compressed knot of stars with outliers. 
This is 23 Dunlop. 



50. 



(2. 80.) 



XXXV. 



B.A, 53 45 
Decl. 8 



11-4 

Position. 



251 P. O. PTSCIUM. 

h. m. s. s. 

Prec. -f 3*07 

N 19.51 

Distance. Epoch, 

o /> 

SOUTH 296-4 ... 18.8 ,,. 1825.17 

SMYTH 3 OI *8 ... l8< 5 1838-03 

MADLER 305.5 ... 18-5 ,., 1853-09 

WILSON and SEABBOKE 312.9 ... 20.0 ... 1874.93 

A neat double star, bearing both illumination and high magnifying 



24 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

powers. A 8, pale orange ; and B 9, clear blue. This, though assigned 
to Pisces in the Palermo Catalogue, belongs to the "Whale, being in the 
space between the tail of Cetus and the ribbon of Pisces, at about one- 
third the distance of /3 Ceti from /3 Andromedse, and nearly in the line ; 
being one of the amorphotce, of which an asterism to be called Testudo 
was proposed. Piazzi records this object double : " Duplex. Comes 9 ae 
magnitudinis prsecedit i" temporis parumper ad boream." 

From South's measures compared with my own, I inferred a sensible 
direct orbital motion = 0-4 per annum; and this has been since con- 
firmed. 



51. 164 B. ANDBOMED^. (2. 79.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 53 49 






Decl. N 44 7'5 



Prec. + 3-35 
N 19-51 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STBUVE,W, 192.4 .,, 7-6 ... 1832.45 

DUN^R 193.5 ... 7.6 ... 1872.03 
A double star. A 6, very white ; B 7^, bluish white. 



52. 26 CETI. (2. 84.) XXXVI. 

h. m. s. g. 



R.A. 58 






Decl. N 46-6 



Free, -f 3*07 

// 
N 19-41 



o 



HERSCHEL, W. 2 5 5 .4 

HEBSOHEL, J., and SOUTH 255.3 

SMYTH 252.6 

SEABBOKE 253.0 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

17.0 ... 1782.75 

15.7 ... 1821-87 

16.4 ... 1833-86 

1 6-0 ... 1873.93 



A neat double star, close to No. 50, in the vacant space between the 
"Whale's back and the ribbon of Pisces ; being exactly in mid-distance 
between y Pegasi and Ceti. A 6 J, pale topaz ; B 9 J, lilac tint. 

There would appear to be no material change ; so that the present 
conclusion is, that the connexion is merely optical. The distance be- 
tween the stars, therefore, on the assumption of a scale by their respective 
magnitudes, must be wonderfully vast. 



B.A. o h - 53 m - i h * o m - 25 

53. 294 Lac. PHOENICIS. (*h. 3415.) 



R.A. 58 54 
Decl. 8 41 14-5 



Prec. -f 2-77 

// 
N 19-40 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HERSCHEL, J. 157.5 ... i est. ... 1834-6 
A very close double star. A 7 ; B 8. 

54. ip PISCIITM. (S. 88.) XXXVII. 

h. m. B. 8. 



R.A. O 59 47 
Decl. BT 20 53*0 



Prec. + 3 20 
N 19-38 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

HERSCHEL, W. 170-0 ,,. 27.5 ... 1779-83 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 161-0 ... 30.3 ... 1822-38 

SMYTH 160-4 ... 30-2 ... 1833-97 

SECCHI 159-8 ... 30-0 ... 1858-04 

TALMAGE 159-7 ... 29-8 ... 1874-91 

A fine double star, both 5^ magnitude, and silvery white. On the 
dorsal fin of the Northern Fish, with a very small star following ; and 
about one-third the distance of a line drawn from a Andromedse to 
y Ceti. An easy object for a moderate telescope, B being \/r 2 . H. and 
S. thought the distance might have increased, while the position had 
retrograded : but my observations tend to show fixity, which has been 
confirmed by [later observations]. 

55. 77 PISCIUM. (2. 90.) XL. 



77 PISCITTM. (S. 90.) 


h. 


m. s. 




8. 


B.A. 1 


8 


Prec. + 


3.09 




o / 




H 


Decl. N 


4 19*3 


N 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 







U 




HERSCHEL, 


W. 85.2 ... 


29-6 


1782-69 


SMYTH 


82-5 ... 


32-1 


1835-88 


WILSON 


83-3 ... 


33-3 


1873-93 



A fine double star, in the centre of the Kheit, or ribbon, connecting 
the two Fishes ; and it may be found at rather less than a third of the 
distance from TJ Ceti towards ft Andromedse. A 7-J-, white j B 8, pale 
lilac. These are nearly in the middle of the line of stars running from 
the Whale's crest, which Vitruvius (lib. ix.) assures us the Greeks named 
Hermedone; the which, saith the French commentator, ineaneth, lea 
delices de Mercure ; but according to B. Baldus, De Verborum Vitruvian- 
orum, &c., it is merely a knot in the ribbon of Pisces. 



26 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

56. /u, CASSIOPEIA. XXXIX. 

h, m. s. s. 



B.A. 1 37 
Decl. N 54 22*8 



Free. + 3-56 
N 19*36 

Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o 

SMYTH j^^ 35 * . 
(AC 157 ... 276! 

A coarse triple star in the Lady's right elbow, whence, conjointly 
with 6, the Arabians termed it Marfak. A 5^, deep yellow ; B 14, pale 
blue, with a minute comes sf; and C n, bluish. There are several 
small stars in the field. 

This star is in the British Catalogue ; but Baily could not find a perfect 
observation of it by Flamsteed. It has, however, BO rapid a course 
through space, that it should be constantly watched, as its displacement 
by proper motion is the largest yet detected among stars not closely 
double, and having no obvious peculiarity. This is a statement of the 
several values : 

Piazzi RA. + 5-70 Decl. -1-65 

Baily +5-82 -1-55 

Argelander ... +5*80 1-55 

Just 1 8' S. of jut is a star which, though of the 6 th magnitude, is not 
in Piazzi. It is followed nearly on the parallel, about II s off, by a 9 th 
magnitude, and both are remarkable from being red, of a decided but 
not deep tint. This object may have had something to do with the 
mistakes of Flamsteed respecting /ot, alluded to by Baily. 

To find this star by alignment, draw a line from /3 through a, and 
extend it as far again as the distance between those two, and p. will be 
seen just above, with 9 following it. 

[The two red stars mentioned above may be identical with 14 and 15 
Birmingham, but those stars are farther from p. Cassiopeise than Smyth's 
statement implies. Birmingham's 6-3 mag. is i 28' S. of p,. His io th 
mag. precedes this i m 43 s .] 



57- /3 PHOENICIA (*h. 3417.) 



h. 



B.A. 1 1 11 
Decl. 8 47 18-3 



Prec. + 2-70 
N 19.35 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL.J. 17.6 ... 30 eat . ... 1834.76 

A conspicuous star with a small companion. A 3^ ; B i r. 



K.A. 



27 



58. 



64 J( 

h. 

B.A. 1 

Bed. N 



> VIII, CASSIOPEIA. (H. 204.) 

m. s. 8. 

1 24 Prec. + 3-70 
81 6-3 N 19-34 



XLI. 



A lucid but loose cluster of small stars principally 9 th to 14^ 
magnitudes, preceded by a 6* h on the robe below the right hip 01 
Cassiopeia ; and it will be caught up, at about one-fourth of the distance, 
on a line from y towards e. 

[" Not worth looking at/' JBrodie,] 



59. 



77 CETI. 



XLII. 



h. 
1 



K.A. 1 33 

Decl. 3 10 45*9 

Position. 

o 
BURNHAM 304-5 



Prec. + 3*00 
N 19-30 



Distance. 

n 

225 



Epoch. 
1879-89 



A bright star with a companion, in a barren field. A 3^, yellow ; 
Bio, [lead coloured], only two other distant stars in view, one of which 
is in the s/, and the other in the nf quadrant. It is on the monster's 
flank, towards the tail, as implied by Dheneb-al- Jenubi ; where it has 
been mistaken for the Eana Secunda of the Arabs ; but which is /3 Ceti. 
As this star is useful in the neighbouring alignments, it may be identified 
by being exactly at right angles with a line shot from a Piscis Australis 
and carried 8 beyond ft Ceti : and it is on the same vertical with /3 An- 
dromedse. A is only marked as of magnitude in Ptolemy; while Tycho 
Brahe* and Flamsteed make it 3. Had I not adopted Piazzi's magnitudes 
for my initial star, I should certainly have put this in the 4^ degree. 
Can it be variable 1 



60. 



ft ANDROMEDA. 


B.A. 

Deol. 


h. 
1 


m. 

3 

o 

35 


8. 

!* 

2-3 


Prec. H 


BURNHAM 


Position. 
294.0 


Distance. 
304 



XLIII. 



3-32 
19.28 

Epoch. 
I879-55 

A bright star with a distant companion. A 2, fine yellow; B [10], 
pale blue, and there are [according to Burnham, 6 small stars in 



28 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

the field, within 300" of A]. The delineations of the Northern Fish 
and the body of Andromeda here create much confusion; as the 
Arabs named /3 Andromedse, Jenb-al-muselselah, or the chained woman's 
side, and also Batn-al-Mt, or the fish's belly. This star, once in the 
Fish's head, is now placed on the Lady's right hip, over the Northern 
Fish's mouth, whence it was called Mirach, from the mantle or apron 
round her ; but it became the Mir OK of the Alphonsine Tables, which 
term was replaced on Scaliger's suggestion by Mizdr, girdle ; an 
amendment, however, that confounded it with f Ursse Majoris. There 
has been some difference of opinion as to its comparative brilliance. It 
is certainly rather dim for the above rating, and Ptolemy enrolled it as 
y only in lustre ; but Ulugh Beigh and all the moderns have ranked it 
of the 2 nd magnitude. 

This star was of importance, as forming the 28 th and last Lunar 
Mansion, called Al Rishci, the cord, because the vertical bight of the 
Fish's fcheif formed its boundary. The famous Mandzil-cd-Kamar, 
i.e. Lunar Mansions, constituted a supposed broad circle, in* Oriental 
astronomy, divided into 28 unequal parts, corresponding with the 
moon's course, and therefore called the abodes of the moon. This was 
not a bad arrangement for a certain class of gazers, since the luminary 
was observed to be in or near one or other of these parts, or con- 
stellations, every night. Though tampered with by astrologers, these 
Lunar Mansions were probably the earliest step in ancient astronomy. 

An imaginary line drawn from a Ceti, through the two stars in the 
head of Aries, will strike upon Mirach ; or it will be at a right angle 
N. of the line carried from /3 Pegasi to a Andromedse, and extended as 
far again westward : or in the directions of the poet : 

From Markab run a line beneath th' imprison'd Lady's head, 
And over delta on her back to Mirach 'twill be led. 



61. PHOENICIS. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 1 3 46 
Decl. S 56 49-7 



Prec. + 2-54 
N 19-28 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



HEBSCHEL, J. 244-0 ... 6-2 .,. 1835-80 
A double star. A 5^; B 10. Burnham says that this is not double. 



E.A. 



7 m. 



20 



62. 



PISCIUM. (S. 99.) 



XLVL 



h. m. . 

B.A. 1 7 46 

' 

Bed. N 24 O'O 

Position. 

o 

SMYTH 226-5 
WILSON 226-0 


Free. + 


*. 

3*24 
// 
I9-I8 

Epoch. 

1834.79 
1873-89 


Distance. 

n 

9 
7-6 ... 



A pretty close double star. A 6, orange; and B 13, flushed [= reddish]. 
This beautiful object is on the ventral fin of the Northern Fish, at a little 
more than half the distance from y Pegasi towards a Trianguli; and 
though marked " objectum subtile " by ., it is steadily seen through my 
telescope. But it is singular that Piazzi says of it, " Duplex. Comes in 
eodem verticali, admodum exigua et ad austrum." He certainly could 
hardly have seen it double with his instrument, as it now is ; but the 
acolyte may be variable. 



63. 



g PISCIUM 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 1 7 59 

/ 

Decl. TSf 6 43-7 

Positio 


, (2. 100.) 
Free. + 3- 1 1 

n 
N 19-18 

D. Distance. Epoch. 




o 


n 




HERSCHEL, W. 


67.4 


22.1 


I78I.88 


SMYTH 


63-8 


... 23.4 


... 1839.05 


STRUVE, 0. 


64.0 


23-6 


1851-89 


WILSON and SEABROKE 


637 


... 24'7 


... I873-89 



XLVII. 



A neat double star. A 6, silver white ; B 8, pale grey. This fine 
and easy object is on a bend of the band which joins the two Fishes. 
The large star may be variable. Ptolemy calls it 8 in lustre, and he is 
followed by Ulugh Beigh, Tycho Brahe, and Hevelius. Baily says, "This 
star is stated, in the British Catalogue, to be of the 4 th magnitude ; but 
in the original observations it is nowhere stated to be more than the 5 th ; 
and in one place it is marked as the 6 th , but afterwards altered to the 
5 th , which I have retained/' Piscium slightly precedes an occult line 
drawn between /3.Ceti and a Trianguli, and is nearly in the mid- 
distance. 

[" Probably a very slow orbital motion manifests itself." GledhilL 
" Query A var. up to mag. 4" Webb.] 



30 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

64. 37 CETI. (2. 3 App. I.) XLVIII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 1 8 51 
Decl, 8 8 30-7 



Prec. + 3-01 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



- ^38-87 
34I.I ... 20.5$ 

MAIN A B 332.1 ... 48.3 ... 1865-80 
A wide quadruple star. A 6, white; B 7^, light blue; C 8, yellow; 

and D 10, violet. This fine, though coarse, object is on the monster's 

tail joint, o^r rj to the n/, and preceding by a little more than 2. It 

appears that the position has remained unaltered. 

& line drawn through A B points to a fine double star rather low 

down in the np quadrant, and there are several other stars in the field; 

a pretty bright one following at a A R.A.=26 S . The second set, observed 

by me, or CD, form a miniature of the first pair, and are 77 1$. iv. 

They precede A by about 32 s , and are 15' to the N. of it; they were 

thus, when first registered by 1$. : 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

333-4 - 19-1 . 1782-73 

From observations by South in 1825 we may conclude that no sensible 
change occurred in the distance of C D in 52 years, but that there might 
have been a slow direct motion in the angle. [A possibly variable.] 

65. K TOUCANI. (*h, 3423.) 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 1 12 1 



o 



Decl. 8 69 27*7 



Prec. -f- 1*98 
N 19-07 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEBSCHEL, J. 16-4 .,. 4.7 ... 1836-78 

SANTIAGO OBS. 17.5 ,., 4.4 ... 1850-88 

SANTIAGO OBS. 17.0 ... 6-4 ... 1851-89 

A double star. A 6; B 10. The Santiago distance for 1851 is 
probably a misprint. 

66. 42 $. VII. CASSIOPEIA, (h. 97; H. 256.) XLIX. 

h. m. B. B. 



B.A. 1 12 16 



o 



Decl. K 58 12*7 



Prec. + 3-72 
N 19-06 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

BUBNHAM 324.5 .,, 13.8 ... 1879.54 
A minute double star, in a cluster between the Lady's right knee 



B. A. 



8*"- 



ih. 



14' 



m 



and her elbow. [A and B, both 8J.] A brilliant aigrette-shaped group 
of large and small stars. In the centre is the fine double star before 
us. There is a star of the 7 th magnitude at the sf verge of the field, 
which is very bright and white. The cluster is close to $. 
[" Insignificant as a cluster." Brodie.] 



67. 



108 $. I. PISCIUM. (H. 264; 



R.A. 1 13 34 



Decl. 



2 38*6 



Free. 



3-09 



1ST 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B ; v L ; i R ; pB*f;" which means : " considerably bright ; very 
large ; irregularly round \ a pretty bright star follows." Dreyer has a 
note on this object which is not easily intelligible. He says that H. 264 
= 250 1$. III., not 1 08 Ijl. I., and that the R. A. should be increased 
30 s , and the Decl. 1 1' ; at least his note implies this. 



68. 



h. 

K.A. 1 

Decl. N 



SOUTH 
SMYTH 



35 CASSIOPEIA. 

8. 

Prec. 



L. 



13 43 



o 

64 



4*9 



N 



Position. 

352-9 

35 2 -5 



Distance. 
// 

50-3 - 
497 



3*9 l 
19-03 

Epoch. 

1824.84 
1830-89 



A wide double star, on the lower part of the Lady's drapery, and the 
following of 4 stars describing a lozenge. It may be fished up by 
carrying a line from d towards the Pole-star, and intersecting it at 
rather less than 5. A 7, white; B 9, flushed, and there are two 
other brightish stars in the field. 



69. 



R.A. 1 
Bed. S 



42 CETI. 

m. 8. 

14 11 

o / 

1 



STBUVE, W. 

SMYTH 

MADLER 

SBOCHI 

SEABBOKE 

PLUMMEB 



5'2 

Position. 

o 

333.6 
332-8 
340-0 
339-7 
346-2 
349.3 



(2. 113.) 

Prec. + 

N 

Distance. 

'i-24 ... 

1-2 

1-36 . 

1-16 ... 

1-38 ,'.'.' 



LI. 



19*01 
Epoch. 

1831-61 
1834-84 
1842.75 
1856-48 
1872-07 
1877-37 



32 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

A close double star, in the space between the Whale's back and the 
kheit, or band of Pisces, about 10 BT. of r? Ceti, on the line towards 
a Trianguli. A 6, bright white ; B 8, white. A beautiful object, but 
very difficult to measure in distance. It seems to have a direct angular 
movement. [But " great discrepancies are found in the recorded obser- 
vations."^^/.] 

70. ^ CASSIOPEIA. (S. 117.) LII. 

h. m. s. R. 



B.A. 1 18 10 



o 



Decl. N 67 33 '3 



Free, -h 4'i5 
N 18-90 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, W. A B 102-2 ... 33.4 ... 1782.66 

101 ' 7 " 32 ' a } ... .831-04 

253.3 ... 3.01 j 

SMYTH IM "' 3 '" 9 I ... 1836*8 

( B C 252-6 ... 2-0 ) 



SBOCHX - ' - '858.8* 

... 2-25 



FLAMMABION 

(BC 256.1 ... 2-9 ... 1877.34 

A fine triple star, close to the lower part of the Lady's throne, and in 
a line between Polaris and b Cassiopeise, at rather less than a third of the 
distance from the latter. A 4^-, orange tint; B 9, blue ; u, reddish. 
This object was first seen triple by 2. 

A B are only optically double, having experienced no change in position 
or distance. Whether B and C are bodies physically connected, remains 
for future observers to determine. They form a delicate test. 

[" B C probably binary. The magnitude of A is variously given." 
GledMll.] 



71. URS-flB MHSTOB1S. (2. 93.) XLI\T. 



h. m. B. 

B.A. 1 18 14 
Decl. N 88 43 3 



Prec. + 22-02 
N 18-96 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEBSOHEL,W. 202-9 ... 18.4 ... 1781.50 

SMYTH 210-1 .,. 18-6 ... 1838-16 

SECOHI 212-4 ... 18-4 ... 1859-95 

DUNEB 212-4 ... 18-5 ... 1870.90 

A Nautical Almanac star, at the tip of the Little Bear*s tail, with a 



E.A. I h . 14 ih. jgm. 33 

companion in the 67? quadrant. A 2\, topaz yellow ; B 9^, pale white. 
A is " Polaris," arid from its perpetual apparition in this hemisphere, the 
most practically useful star in the heavens, whether to the astronomer or 
the seaman ; and the want of such a constant reference at the opposite 
pole is severely felt. Piazzi devoted much labour to obtain all the 
conditions of this remarkable star, and prudently concluded that, in 
consequence of the great and inconstant precession in the immediate 
vicinity of the pole, it is difficult to separate the proper motions in space 
from that element : it was also narrowly watched for the detection of 
parallax, from 1802 to 1804, a ^ eac ^ season, in January, July, April, 
arid October, and it was deemed that an absolute quantity of 1*31" was 
fairly deduced. It was first classed double by Ip. 

[An increase of angle seems probable, but the observations are far from 
consistent.] 

A is marked 2-3 magnitude from the rule I have adopted, otherwise 
it is not even a very bright 3 r(1 size. -It was ranked y by Ptolemy, 
and Copernicus adopted it ; but Tycho elevated it to the 2 nd magnitude ; 
and Kepler, who in the Kudolphine Tables speaks of it as vulgo Polaris, 
rates it the same. At present it is only i J from the polar point, and 
by its northerly precession in declination will gradually approach to 
within 26' 30" of it. This proximity to the actual pole will occur in 
A.D. 2095, but will not recur for 12,860 years. The period of the 
revolution of the celestial equinoctial pole about the pole of the ecliptic 
is nearly 26,000 years; the N. celestial pole therefore will be, about 
13,000 years hence, nearly 49 from the present polar star. 

The alignment rule for finding this star is so well known that it 
scarcely demands repeating : yet it may be as well to remind the 
reader, that an imaginary line 
through the two well-known 
pointers, a and ft Ursoe Ma- 
joris, nearly passes over it ; 
and once found, it will not 
readily be mistaken, or for- 
gotten, since, to the naked 
eye, it appears always in the 
game place. 

In the alignment of the 
heavens, it may assist rough 
estimations to assume the 
distance between the Pointers 

at 5, and that between the FIG. 2. URSA MAJOB AND POLARIS. 

Pointers and Polaris at about 30, which, though not the true distances, 
will serve as a gazing scale. The diagiam shows the direction, not the 

D 




34 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

distance, of the Pole-star. From Polaris, lines of direction may be led 
to most of the great stars around. Hence the poetaster : 

The ever watchful Kokab guards, while Dubhe points the Pole; 

The Pole at rest, sees Heaven's bright host unwearied round him roll. 

The use of the Pole-star in navigation is recorded to have been 
introduced by Thales ; but as it was very anciently called Phoenice, and 
that philosopher also resided in Phoenicia, it was probably derived from 
the mariners of that nation, and has ever since been the " lode-star " 
of seamen. Aratus mentions it as a sure sea-guide, or beacon ; saying, 
in voce Germanici 

Ceitior est Cynosura tamen sulcantibus aequor. 

Dryden has happily described the infancy of navigation : 

Rude as their ships were navigated then, 

No useful compass, or meridian known; 
Coasting they kept the land within their ken, 

And knew no north but when the Pole-star shone. 

Among our own seamen, the Stella Marts, or Pole-Star, and its 
companions, have imniemorially been under requisition. Hecorde tells 
us, in the Castle of Knowledge, 300 years ago, that navigators used two 
pointers in Ursa, " which many do call the Sbafte, and other do name 
the Guardas^ after the Spanish tonge." Richard Eden, in 1584, pub- 
lished his Arte of Navigation, and therein gave rules for the " starres," 
among which are special directions for the two called the Guards, in the 
mouth of the " Lome," as the figure was called. See ft Ursge Minoris. 
In the Safeguard of Saylers, 1619,. are detailed rules for finding the 
hour of the night, by the "guardes:" and the Bears generally were 
regarded as rustic time-pieces,, whence Shakspeare, in the Gadshill affair, 
makes the carrier exclaim, "An't be not four by the day, I'll be hanged : 
Charles's wain is over the new chimney, and yet our horse not packed ! " 
As to the Little Bear, the whole animal is swung round by the tail- every 
twenty-four hours : whence the general name for the pole was Kotb, 
which means the* spindle or pin fixed in, the under-stone of a mill, 
around which, the* stars typifyiing the upper stone turn. 

I more than once attempted to fix the place of a little star, called 
Blucher by some of the savants, which precession will have now brought 
within 2' of the pole. But being only of the io th magnitude it is a 
difficult; object to touch in R.A., and there is a wide companion still 
smaller. A neBula, like a dull star, is perceivable near it, and is H. 2043, 
Polans&ma; so called from its proximity to the pole. [R..A. (1860), 
I0 h. 8^ 8s-; Decl, -f 89 53-2. The precision in E. A. fou 1880 is 87*. 
per annum, a quantity so large that I hesitate to. attempt to bring up the 
place to 1890, especially as the R, A. altered mora, than % horns between 
183,0 and i86a. 



B.A. i h - i8 m - i n * i9 m - 35 

Arctos Minor, or the Lesser Bear, is not mentioned by Hesiod or 
Homer, therefore was probably not yet admitted among the constellations 
in that shape : indeed, Cynosura was more likely to have been represented 
by a dog. Jacob Bryant, dreaming of Philistines, considers the word as 
having been borrowed by the Greeks from Cahen Ourah. Thales is 
reported to have formed it, from perceiving the seven principal stars 
make a similar figure to the well-known wain of the Great Bear ; but 
reversed with respect to each other : whence Aratus assures us that both 
the Bears the mayna minorque ferae of Ovid were called a/xafa, or 
waggons, by the Greeks. But instead of the obtuse-angled projection of 
the Great Bear's stern, the Lesser Bear's tail curves gradually till it 
reaches the Pole-star. It is, however, a perplexing asterism, from the 
number of hours of H.A. it extends over, and its components have been 
thus registered : 

Ptolemy ... 8 stars. Hevelius . . . .12 stars. 
Tycho Brahe* . .20 Flamsteed ... 24 
Kepler ... .21 Bode 75 > 

It appears that Ursa Minor was a favourite constellation among 
the Arabians, who called the Pole-star Jedi, or the Kiel; and Al 
Kaukab-al-sliemdli, the Northern star, an appellation originally given, 
to /3, which in Ptolemy's time was nearer to the pole than a. On the 
Cufico- Arabic globe described by Assemani the asterism is written 
Al Dubb-al-ashgar :, and in the Alphonsine Tables it is corruptly termed 
Alrucaba, which term has been discussed by Grotius, Hyde, and Ideler, 
as grounded in Hebrew, Chaldaic, or Arabic. We are told that the pole 
was also termed Al KiWah, because of the obligation in Mahometan 
prayer to know which way the head is. To find the kiblah in an 
unknown place they looked to Polaris, and could thereby readily orientize 
themselves. To this necessity we are considered to be indebted for the 
astronomy of the Abbaside Caliphs. 

[Dawes proposed this object as a general test for small achromajics. 
An aperture of 2 in with a power of 80 should always show B, if the eye 
and the telescope are good.] 



72. 151 #. I. PISOIUM. (E. 117; H. 307; 

h. m. a. s. 



K.A. 1 19 1 







Decl. N 8 57-6 



Prec. -f 3-14 
N' 18-88 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue si. 1864 : 
" v B ; p L ; m b M ; 4 S st nr ; " which means : " very bright ; pretty 
large; much brighter in the middle ; 4 small stars ar:$ near." 

D 2 



36 
73. 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



404 Lac. SCULPTOEIS. 

B,A. 
Bed. 



(*h. 3436.) 



h. m. 

1 22 





8 30 47' 1 ? 

Position. 
o 

HEBSOHBL,J, 121 



Prec. + 2-80 

- N 18-79 
Distance. Epoch. 

10 ... I834-74 



A double Etar. A 7|> yellow ; B 9, blue. 



B.A. 



m. 

22 



s. 

9 



74. 48 $. VII. CASSIOPEIA. (h. 124; H. 330.) MIL 

Prec. + 3-97 

Decl, N 61 43.2 N 18-78 

An open cluster, on the Lady's leg, and nearly in mid-distance from 
e towards y. It is a gathering of large and small stars, with glimpses 
of star-dust of considerable extent, and irregular figure ; but a few of 
the principal individuals assume a form not unlike that of an hour- 
glass. There IB no particular compression or condensation of the stars 
to suggest the existence of a central force ; yet the group is sufficiently 
separated to indicate its forming a peculiar system of its own. 

[Designated by Smyth "124 H" (i.e. of the 1833 Catalogue], but I 
have preferred to prefix the earlier designation.] 
[" Too open to be deemed a cluster at all." Erodie.] 



75. 



h. 
B.A. 1 

Peel. N 

SOUTH 
SMYTH 


85 P. I. ] 

m. s. 

22 36 

o / 

7 23-5 

Position. 1 



98-3 

987 ... 


PISCIUM. 

Prec. 4- 


s. 

3-13 

18-77 

Epoch. 

1825-00 
1836-99 


)istance. 
// 
697 
68.3 



LIV. 



A star with a distant companion, in the space between the Fishes, 
in front of the Ram; and nearly half-way from t] Ceti towards a Trian- 
gtsli. A 7, yellow; B 8J, pale blue. It is a coarse object, in a poor 
field. 



76. 



100 3 
B.A. 



I. CETI. 

. m. t. 

L 25 50 



Decl. 8 7 26-3 



(h. 128 ; H. 342 ; 

Prec. -f 3-00 
N 18-67 



LVI. 



A tolerably bright round nebula, of a peiuly tint, just above the 



K. A. 



22 m -- 



37 



Whale's back ; discovered by Sir W. HerscheL The field is very in- 
teresting, for nearly 8. of the little nebula is a neat double star, the 
components of which are of the 9 th and n^ magnitudes, the latter in 
the sf quadrant; and there are three other telescopic stars on the 
Northern verge. A line from the pair above to the minute star below 
would fall just before the nebula. 



77. 



131 2. CASSIOPEIA. 



h, m. s. 

B.A. 1 25 55 
Decl. N 60 7*7 



Free. + 3-88 
If 18-66 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVB, W 142-3 ... 13-6 ... 1830-27 
A double star. A 6J, yellowish; B 10. 

78. 103 M. CASSIOPEIA. (h. 126; H. 341.) 



LV. 



It. A, 1 25 56 
Decl. N 60 7-1 

Position. 

o 
STBUVE, W. 142-3 

SMYTH 140-9 



Free, + S'9 1 
N 18-66 



Distance. 

t/ 
13-6 

14-4 



Epoch. 

1830-27 
1832-66 



A neat double star (=5). 131) in a cluster, on Cassiopeia's knee. A 7, 
straw coloured ; B 9, dusky blue. This is a fan-shaped group, diverging 
from a sharp star in the nf quadrant. The cluster is brilliant from the 
splash of a tcore of its largest members, the four principal ones of which 
are from the 7 th to the 9 th magnitude ; and under the largest, in the sf, 
is a red star of the 8 th magnitude. 

i/, and a little N. of 6, on the Lady's knee. 



79. 



2421 h. HYDRI. (H. 356.) 

h. m. . s. 

B.A. 1 27 4 



Decl. 8 74 6*3 



Free, -f- i 3 2 
N 18-62 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B; S; B; psbM*; r;" which means: "bright; small; round; 
pretty suddenly brighter in the middle, where there is a star ; resolveable." 



38 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



80. 



33 M. TBIANGULI. (H. 352; 



IiVII. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 1 27 38 
Decl. 1ST 30 6*8 



Free. 4- 3-35 
N i8'6i 



A large and distinct, but faint pale white nebula, in the precincts of 
Triangulum, between it an4 the head of the Northern Fish ] with a bright 
star a little np, and 5 others following at a distance, between which 
and the object, there is an indistinct gleam of mere nebulous matter. It 
was discovered by Messier in 1764; and to 1$. had a mottled aspect 
under his 7 ft reflector, in 1783 : but afterwards applying a larger 
telescope, he resolved it into stars "the smallest points imaginable." 
By a method of turning the space-penetrating power of his instrument 
into a gradually increasing series of gauging powers, he considered the 
profundity of this cluster must be of the 344 tlj order : i.e. 344 times 
the distance of Sirius from the earth. About 4 from a Trianguli, and 
just N. of a line run from that star to 8 Andromedae. 

[One of Lord Bosse's " spirals." Sir J. Herschel noted the great size 
of this object : nearly |- in diameter from N. to S. " Only fit for low 
powers, being actually imperceptible, from want of contrast, with my 
144." Webb.] 

[Engraved in PhiL Trans., 1850, PI. xxxvi. Fig. 5; Phil. Trans., 1861, 
PI. xxvi. Fig. 10.] 



81. 





100 PISCIUM. (S. 136.) 




h. in. s. . 


K.A. 


1 29 1 


Prec. -f 3-17 




o / 


// 


Dec! 


H 11 59*8 


N 18-56 



LIX. 



HEESCHEL, W. 

HEKSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 

SMYTH 

TALMAGE 

WILSON and SEABBOKE 



Position. 

o 
85-0 

80-4 
78-9 
78-0 
79.2 



Distance. 

15-8 

i6o 

15-9 
16-3 
16-4 



Epcch. 

178.V59 
1821.91 

1833.86 

1865.78 
1873-89 



A neat double star. A 7, white ; B 8, pale grey. This fine object 
is on the ribbon under the tail of the Northern Fish ; a line from a Arietis 
through y, the first and third of the Ham's head, hits upon 100 Piscium, 
at about 8 S.W. of y. 

The above measures perhaps show a slow np sf, or retrograde, orbital 
change. 

[Closely np TT.] 



B. A. I h - 27 m ' 



39 



82. 281 $. I. SCULPTOBIS. (h. 2423 ; H. 361.) 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 1 29 10 
Decl. 8 29 58 "3 



Free. + 2-78 
N 18-56 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's ^Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; vL; v m E, 118-3; s^M; *34'5; 6-5 s ;" which means: 
" very bright ; very large ; very much elongated in the direction of 118-3 
with the meridian ; suddenly brighter in the middle ; has a star in the 
nf quadrant at an angle of 34-5 and at a distance of 6 -5 s of time." 



83. 



40 CASSIOPEIA. 



XVIII. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 1 29 43 
Decl. 1ST 72 28 '8 



Free. + 4-68 
N 18-54 



SMYTH 
BOKNHAM 



Position. 



240.5 
237.2 



Distance. 

n 
4 2 , 

53-5 



Epoch. 

I834-95 
1877.49 



A double star between the feet of Cassiopeia and Cepheus, where 
a line from b carried a little E. of \^, and about 5 further, will 
fctrike it. A 6, yellow.; and B [n], pale blue. This is a delicate though 
wide object ; and is one of the principal members of Custos Messium, an 
asterism placed by Lalaoide between Rangifer and Cassiopeia, in poorish 
punning compliment to his friend Messier, the " comet-ferret." It is in 
a poor field, but about 10' or n' to the sp is S/s curious nebula No. 2 
[=H. 373]; and nearly following it, about 4 s , is a pair of minute stars 
lying across the parallel, about 10" apart. 



84. 



2426 h. PHOENICIS. (H. 369.) 



R.A. 
Decl. 



h. in. s. 

1 30 15 
S 42 6-1 



Free, -f 2-61 
N 18-52 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B; pL; mE; gpmbM;" which means : " bright ; pretty large; 
much extended ; gradually pretty ra-uch brighter in the middle." 

This is 479 Dunlop. 



40 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



85. 



123 P. I. PISCIUM. (I. 138.) 



LX. 



B.A. 1 30 17 
Decl. K 7 5-0 



STBUVE, W. 
SMYTH 
SECCHI 
DOBERCK 



Position, 
o 

20-O 
26-9 
29-1 
30.8 



Prec. -f- 


3-13 




18-53 

Epoch. 


Distance. 


. i'' 4 6 ... 
, 1-4 
. 1-46 ... 
. i-34 ... 


1830-23 
1843.10 
1857-89 
1877.91 



Aii interesting close double star, in the space between the two Fishes 
and the- meander of the ribbon, nearly half-way on a line from /3 Arietis 
towards TJ Ceti. A 6^, yellowish; B 8, pale white, a third star 
following at some distance ; probably Piazzi's. " sequitur alia 6 ae mag- 
nitudinis 8* circiter ad Boream." 

[No doubt a binary. There is evidently a progressive increase in the 
angle.] 



86. 74 M. PISCnJM. 

h. m. s. 

R.A. 1 30 47 
Decl. M" 15 13-5 



(h, 142; H. 372; 

s, 

Free, -f 3-21 
N 18-50 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschefs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"; F;vL; R ; vg, psmbM; rr;" which means : " a globular 
cluster ; faint ; very large ; round ; very gradually, then pretty suddenly 
much brighter in the middle ; partially resolved some stars visible." 

A spiral nebula. Engraved, Rosse, woodcut, Phil. Trans., 1861. 



87* 



76 M. PEBSEI. (H. 385; 



LXII. 



K.A. 1 35 2 
Decl. N 51 T8 



Free, -f- 3'33 
N i8-as 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

BUBFHAM 228.7 ... 337 ... 1879^54 

An oval pearly white nebula, nearly half-way between y Andromedse 
and 6 Cassiopeise ; close to the toe of Andromeda, though figured in the 
precincts of Perseus. It trends N. and S., with two stars preceding by 
II s and 508, and two following nearly on the parallel, by 198 and 36 s ; 
and just np of it is the double star above registered, of which A is 9, 
white; and B [io]> dusky* When first discovered, M^chain considered it 
as a mass of nebulosity; but Messier thought it was a compressed cluster; 



R. A. 



41 



and 1$. that it was an irresolvable double nebula, it has an intensely 
rich vicinity. 

["Curious miniature of M, 27 and like it, gaseous, p a little the 
brighter." (Webb.) 27 M, it will be remembered, is the "Dumb-bell 
nebula.' 1 ] 



88 



145 P. I. PISCITTM. (S. 145.) 

h. m. s. a. 

K.A. 1 35 8 



IiXI. 



Decl. N 25 11 '4 



Free, -f 3-31 
N 18-35 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH 29-2 ... 12 ... 1836-87 

A neat double star in a barren field over the horn of Aries, which is 
readily found by carrying a line from /3 Arietis, the middle star in the 
Rain's head, to ft Andromedre, at somewhat less than one-third of the 
distance : a thwart line from /3 through a Trianguli passes just to the 
S. of it, 5 J from a. A 6, cream yellow ; B 1 3, blue, and there is a 
small blue star near the vertical of the up quadrant. 



89. 



h. m. S. 

1 35 37 



R.A. 

Decl. S 50 45'2 

Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL, J. 122-3 



6 EBIDANL 

Prec. + 



2-25 
18-34 
Epoch. 
1835.00 



Distance, 
. 3-6 . 

A double star. A 6 J ; B 6^. " A superb double star." (Sir J. 
HerscheL) 



90. 





251 CETI. 


(2. 147.) 




h. m>. s. 


S. 


R.A. 


1 36 18 


Prec. + 2 96 




/ 


n 


Decl. 


S 11 51-6 


N18-3T 


JlO^l 




Position. 


Distance. Epoch. 




o 


// 


STROVE, W. 86-0 


3-5 .- 1822-30 


DAWES 


87-5 ... 


3-9 ... !836-97 


SECCHI 


88.5 ,.. 


3.6 ... 1855-89 


DEMBOWSKI 88-2 


4-0 ... 1877-81 



A double star. A 5^, white ; B 7^, yellowish white. The changes 



42 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

indicated by the observations are so slight that it seems hardly safe to infer 
an increase both in angle and distance. This star is designated x' by 
Struve and in Sir J. Herschel's general catalogue, but improperly so, 
it would appear. 



91. 46 $. VII. CASSIOPEIA, (h. 145; H 387; .) LXIII. 



b. m. s. 

B.A. 1 36 28 
Decl. N 61 20-2 



Prec. 4- 4-06 
N 18-30 



A cluster of stars from the 10^ to the 14^ magnitudes, just below 
the Lady's right knee ; and nearly in mid-distance between b and e. 
It is somewhat of a triangular shape, and about 2' or 3' in diameter ; the 
hypothenuse is well defined by the three brightest stars in the field, of 
which the central one is orange-coloured, and of the 8^ magnitude, 
perhaps Sir W. HerscheFs u ruddy :" from analogy it is between us and 
the components of th6 cluster. 



92. 146 h. CASSIOP. (ffeb.=h. 140 ; H. 388 ; Star-OS. 35.) 

LXIV. 



h. m. . 

K.A. 1 36 36 
Decl. N 55 19 '4 

Position. 

o 

SMYTH 1 20 

STBUVE, 0. 114-2 
DEMBOWSKI 108-6 



Prec. -f 3-85 

JST 18-30 

Distance. Epoch. 



10 
9-9 

IO-2 



1850-13 
1869-32 



A double star. A 8, pale white; B 12, dusky. In a loose cluster, 
between the weapon of Perseus and the elbow of Cassiopeia, one-third 
the distance from a of the latter to a of the former constellation : and it 
may be fished up by carrying a line from K Cassiopeiae through y to double 
the distance beyond. It consists of a gathering of small stars, of to 1 * 1 to 
13 th magnitude, divided into two distinct groups; one 5/of A, and the 
other nf. It is a neat but difficult double star, whose angle of position 
and distance were estimated. 



E.A. 



4O* 1 



43 



93. 



155 2. PISCIUM. 
Free. 



K.A. 1 


38 25 


Decl. N 


8 56'3 




Position. 


o 

STRUVE, W. 332-8 
DAWES 329.9 
DAWES 328-8 



4.6 
4.6 

4-5 
A double star. A 8, white ; B 8, white. 



3'i5 
N 18-23 

Distance. Epoch. 

1830-60 
1842-91 
1853.98 



94. 31 Ijl. VI. CASSIOP. (Neb =H. 392; Star = 2. 151.) 

LXVI. 

h. m. s. . 

B..A. 1 
Decl. N 



38 39 

o / 

60 41-3 

Position. ! 
,o 
70.2 


Free. 4- 


4'05 

18-23 

Epoch. 
183370 


Distance. 
8 



SMYTH 

A neat double star, in a cluster near the Lady's right knee ; it may be 
found by drawing a line from a through 6, and carrying it about 2^- 
further. A 9, and B 10^, both bluish. This object is in an elegant field 
of large and small stars, from a certain degree of brilliance down to 
infinitesimal points ; but without any disposition to form, except that 
the larger members incline towards a parallelogram in which there are 
several coarse pairs. In the sp quadrant of this cluster is a fine ruby 
star of the 8 th magnitude. 

[Webb appears to have failed to see this ruby star. It is not men- 
tioned by Birmingham.] 



95. 



SCULPTORIS. (*h. 3461.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 1 40 29 
Decl. 8 25 36 "2 

Position. 

c 

HERSCHEL, J. 69.6 



Free. + 2-80 
N 18-16 

Distance. Epoch. 

. 5-5 ... 1836.62 



A double star. A 6, white ; B 10, dull red. 



96. 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 
163 S. CASSIOPEIA. 

h. m. s. s. 

Free, -h 4' 2 2 



B.A. 1 43 17 
Decl. N 64 18 "1 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STBUVE, W. 33-6 ... 34.9 ... 1831.75 
A double star. A 6^, golden red ; B 9, blue. Webb says that the 



colours are " exceedingly remarkable." 



97. 



179 P. I. ARIETIS. (S. 174.) 



LXVII. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 1 44 4 
Decl, N 21 43 '9 



Position. Distance. 



HEKSCHEL.W. 167.4 
SOUTH 172.4 

SMYTH 169-9 



Free, -f 3-30 

N 18-03 

Epoch. 

1782.98 
1823-98 
1836-11 
1871.11 



3-0+ 
3.3 

2 '4 

2-8 



A close double star, on the Ran^s horn, about i^ from /3 on a line 
towards /8 Andromedae. A 6, topaz yellow ; B 8, smalt blue. South' s 
observations encouraged an opinion of orbital motion = +0-12 per 
annum. But my observations do not confirm this, any more than do 
those of 2. Nor do I think the stars are approaching each other, for the 
early distances of Ijl., estimated by diameters of the stellar discs, were 
but approximations, since, exclusive of that important element the 
magnifying power, it would alter according to atmospheric and other 
circumstances at the time of observation. As an example of the method, 
we may here give the remarks for this star's distance : " With 227, about 
f diameter of L j with 460, full i J, or about i\ of L, when best seen." 

[2 np p. This is Flanisteed's i Arietis : Smyth has departed from his 
usual custom in preferring a Piazzi number to a Flamsteed one.] 



98. 



CETI. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 1 44 11 
Decl, S 11 13'8 



Free, -f- 2-95 
N 18-02 



Webb notes that this star forms a fine pair with 182 P.I. AS, pale 
yellow ; B 7^, bluish. But he has fallen into some error in regard to 
the identity of this object with 2. 147, called, it is true, by Struve x 1 - 
Struve's x 1 precedes the above, io m in R.A., and is J more to the S. 



E. A. i h - 43 m - i h - 46 m - 45 

99. CETI. LXIX. 

h. m. 8. s. 



B.A. 1 46 2 
Decl. 8 10 52 '8 



Free. 4- 2-95 
N 17-95 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



SMYTH 40.4 ... 165 ... 1835-87 

BUENHAM 40.6 ... 185 ... 1879-89 

A bright star, with a distant companion, in a poor field. A 3, topaz 
yellow ; B 9, white, with a small star to the nf. This object is in the 
midst of the Whale's body, whence it was called batn Kaitfis, tine belly of 
Cetus, by the Arabian astronomers. It is on the line from towards TT, 
and about one-third of the distance from the former ; and a ray carried 
from v through will stretch out to ft Andromedse. [The estimates of 
the magnitude of A vary much ; Lalande, Argelander, Heis, 3 ; J. 
Herschel, 4*9; Bessel, 5.] 

100. 101 P. I. CETI. (S. 178.) LXVIII. 

h. m. 8. s. 



K.A. 1 40 11 
Decl. BT 10 16-0 



Free. + 3-17 
N 17-94 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



STROVE, W. 193.3 ... 3-0 ... 1828-96 
SMYTH 194-1 ... 3-6 ... 1834-99 

A close double star. A 7|, and B 8, both lucid white. This 
beautiful object, though catalogued of the "Whale, is on the fore leg of 
Aries ; with a distant telescopic star near the vertical sf, and another 
near the parallel, but the field is otherwise barren. It will readily be 
fished up, by drawing an imaginary line from a Trianguli through 
y Arietis, and carrying it about 8^ to the southward, or nearly as far 
beyond. 

101. 65 ANDBOMED^EI. LXX. 

B.A, 1 46 41 I Free. + 3-57 



Decl, N 40 li'l | N 17-92 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

BtKNHAM 355-4 ... 60.3 ... 187984 

A most delicate double star, on the Lady's right leg, about 3 from y 
Andromedse, a little S of the line from that star towards ft. A 5 j> 
yellow; B [ia].. This id designated by Sir J. Herschel as "a fine 



46 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



specimen of a nebulous star." It is singular that it was marked nebulous 
by Flamsteed. It sometimes had a burred aspect to my gaze, and the 
companion was only caught by intense attention, and then only by 
evanescent glimpses, being a minimum visibile for my telescope : its posi- 
tion and distance are therefore only estimated. Is the intense blue 
which some of these mere points of light present, an optical illusion 1 

The acolyte being of the last degree of faintness, it was necessary to 
avert the eye. H. accounts for the success of this stratagem, by supposing 
the lateral portions of the retina to be less exhausted than the central 
ones. 

[" Not seen nebulous in 8^ n refractor." (Brodie.) " I could not per- 
ceive any nebulous surrounding to the large star." J&urnhamJ] 



102. 



241 B. ANDROMEDA. (2. 179.) 

s. 

Free. + a-flo 



h. m. s, 

R.A. 1 46 41 



Decl. 



36 47 '0 

Position. 



N 17-99 

Distance. Epoch* 



STBUVJE, W. 160-4 
159-9 



3-4, 
3-4 



1831-04 
1871-42 



A double star, A 7, white; B 8^, white. The components are 
evidently fixed. 



103. 



a TBIANGULI. 



LXXI; 



1 46 48 



B.A. 

Decl. W 29 2-6 

Position. 

o 
BUENHAM 182-3 



Prec. + 3-40 

N 17-93 

Distance. Epoch. 

228 ... 1879-85 



A bright star with a telescopic companion. A 3^, yellow; B 11, 
lilac. This object is at the preceding angle of Deltoton, and, except a 
ID* 11 mag. star near the #f vertical beyond B, is in a barren field. It is 
the apex of a large oblique-angled triangle, the base of which is formed 
to the np and M/ by fi and y Andromecte : and it is also 6 beyond 
a Arietis, on a line brought from, y Ceti. It was named by the Arabians 
Rds d Mothallath, or " Caput Trianguli." 

Though small, Triangulum, Deltoton, or Trig5nus, is one of the ancient 
48 asterisms, and is supposed to have derived its name from the Egyptian 
Delta ; but others insist that the Triangle alludes to Trinacria, or Sicily; 



R.A. i h - 46 m - i h - 47' 47 

an island favoured by Ceres, and whence her planet was revealed to 
Piazzi. The members have been thus numbered : 

Ptolemy ... 4 stars. Flamsteed . . . 16 stars. 

Bayer .... 5 Piazzi 25 

Hevelius . , . 9 Bode 33 

Several very old illustrations delineate Deltoton as an equilateral 
triangle, with a star at each angle " in unoquoque angulo unum ;" but 
it has latterly been drawn as a scalene figure. Anciently there was only 
a single triangle, but Heveliua took three other stars between it and the 
head of Aries, to form Triangulutn minus ; the figure, however, is dis- 
continued. A line drawn from /3 Arietis to y Andromedse passes the 
lucida Trianguli r at about one-third of the distance. 



104. y ARIETIS. (S. 180.) LXXII. 

h. ra. s. s. 



B.A, 1 47 29 



h. 



Decl. N 18 45 '3 



Free, -h 3-27 

N iV 8 9 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, W. 356-0 ... 10-17 ... 1779-68 

SMYTH 359-8 ... 8-8 ... 1837-93 

STRUVE, 0. 356.4 ... 8-60 ... 1851-82 

DOBEBCK 358-6 .,. 8-32 ... 1877-89 

A neat double star, the duplicity of which was discovered by Dr. 
Hooke in 1664. A 4-^, bright white ; and B g, pale grey. This fine 
object is placed at the lower bend of the Ram's horn, where it precedes 
/3 and a ; it is followed in the nf r but nearly on the parallel, and about 
3-5' distant, by the 9^ magnitude star which that astronomer describes. 

From observations made by 1$., he concluded the orbital angle to 
have increased ;. but the subsequent measures indicate little or no change, 
It is certainly a beautiful pair, in a powerful instrument. " What would 
Cassini say," demands I$L, "if he were to view the first star of Aries, 
which appeared to him as split in two, through a telescope that will 
show J\ Corona Borealis and h Draconis to be double stars ?" 

Dr. Hooke mentions that the telescope shows some stars, which appear 
single, to consist of two or more, so close, that to the naked eye both the 
images falling upon one single filament of the tunica retinas make but 
one impression upon the brain. "Of this kind," he continues, "the 
most remarkable is the star in the left horn, of Aries, which, whilst 
I was observing t&e comet which appeared in the year 1664, and followed 
till he passed by this star, I took notice that it Consisted of two small 
stars very near together : a like instance to which I have not else met 
with in all the heaven," Thousands are now known ! 



48 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

y Arietis has been called the first star in Aries, because it was once the 
nearest to the equinoctial point : it was named Mesartim, owing to an 
erroneous deduction by Bayer from the word Sartai, a corruption of Al 
Sharatain, which is the next star. 

[" Small change in angle and distance probable." (Gledhill.) But I 
would rather limit this remark to the distance, which seems clearly to be 
diminishing, the angle remaining practically unchanged.] 

105. 105 9. I. CETI. (h. 165, 2443; H. 431; &.) 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 1 47 39 



o 



Decl. S 14 16-7 



Prec. f 2-91 
N 17-88 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"c B ; p L ; IE; psmb M ;" which means : "considerably bright ; pretty 
large; little extended; pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle." 
Seen at Parsonstown " more extended than Sir J. Herschel describes it." 

106. $ AEIETIS. LXXIII. 



h. 

B.A. 1 

Decl. 13" 

SMYTH 


m. ft. 

48 33 

/ 

20 16- 

Position. 



198 


2 

Diffe 


Prec. 


+ 
N 
A. 


*. 
3*29 

ir85 
Epoch. 

I835-99 


rence of B. 

B. 

7-4 



A bright star with a distant companion, in a barren field near the tip 
of the Ram's horn, being the middle one of the three stars known as the 
Rain's head. A 3, pearly white; B n, dusky; there is a still smaller 
star in the sf quadrant. This object was named Sheratan or Sharata'in, 
the dual of sliarat, a sign, signifying y and /3, the two bright stars in 
the head of the Ram; with an interval between them and a, says 
Kazwini, o two kaus, by eye-measurement : said kaus being used as 
synonymous with the astronomical ell of 2. An imaginary line from the 
Pleiades to a Pegasi passes between them in the mid-distance of that 
line. 

107. 56 ANDEOMED^B. LXXIV. 



h. m. s. 

HA. 1 40 37 


Prec, + 


1. 


/ 

Decl. N 36 42*2 


_ r VT 


t7' Sl 


Petition. Distance, 

O ft 

MAI 301-5 ,. t 181.6 


Epoch. 
1865.81 



A pair of stars between the Triangle and the Lady's right knee, both 



RA. 



47 1 



rh. 



5I m. 



40 



of the 6 th magnitude, and both yellow. These stars are suspected of 
physical connection, principally on the ground that their identity of 
movement in space implies their union in some vast system. Their 
proper motions have been inquired into, and the following results 
registered by Baily : 

// n 

A (==203 P.I.) E. A. -f 0-06 Decl. *- o-oi 

B ( = 204 P. I.) +0-24 + 0.04 

This object is readily identified by carrying a line from TT Andro- 
medae through /3, and extending it about 10 beyond the latter; and it is 
also nearly in mid-distance between y Anclromedee and a Trianguli. 

[2. in 1836 noticed the preceding star to be smaller and always deeper 
in colour, but Webb reversed this statement in 1850, and Sir J. Herschel 
agreed with Webb.] 



108. 



209 P. I. PISCIUM. (2. 186.) 



LXXV. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 1 50 12 

Decl. 3ST 1 18-2 



Free. -f 3-08 
N 17-78 



Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 







H 




STKUVE, W. 


64.7 


... 1-23 ... 


1831.12 


SMYTH 


62-9 


i-5 


1833-83 


STRUVE, 0. 


68-2 


0-82 


1846-11 


DAWES 


85-1 


o*3 


1863.85 


SCHIAPARELLI 


Single 


... Single ... 


1876.99 


BOBNHAM 


169-0 


... 0-31 ... 


1878-87 



A close double star, on the sf extreme of the Fishes' kheif, or ribbon ; 
and it lies on a line shot from f Piscium to a Arietis, at about a third 
of the distance. A 7, silvery white; and B J-J, white. This is a very 
fine object, resembling T\ Coronse. 

[" There can be no doubt that this double star, discovered by 5., is a 
binary system." DawesJ] 



109. 32 $. VII. ANDBOMED^E. (h. 174; H. 457} 



K.A, 1 61 14 
DeoL K 37 7' 6 



Free, -h 3-54 
N 17-74 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; vvL; Ri; stL and sc;" which means: "a cluster; unusually 
large; rich; the stars large and scattered/' 

E 



B.A. 1 51 42 
Decl. S 60 40 '8 



50 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

110. 584 Lac. HYDRL (*h. 3475.) 

h. m. s. s. 

Free, -f i '95 

N 17-72 

Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

HEESOHEL, J. 37.6 ... 3.3 ... 1837-31 

A double star. A 7 ; B 7. Lies nearly mid-way between a Hydri and 
a Eridani. 

f 

111. A AEIETIS. LXXVI. 

h. m. s. . 



RA. 1 51 

Decl. N" 23 

HERSCHEL, W. 
SMYTH 
EUKNHAM 


3-6 

Position, 
o 

48-0 

45-6 .- 
45-5 


Prec. 


-1- 3'33 

N 17-72 

Epoch. 

... i779- 8 3 
1830-96 
1880-12 


Distance. 

37-5 



A fine double star, on the root of the Barn's horn ; pointed at by a 
line through y and /3, and is the apex of an oblique triangle of which 
a and /3 form the base. A 5^, yellowish white ; B 8, blue. 

112. 112 $. I. ABJETIS. (h. 181; H. 463; M.) LXXVTI. 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 1 53 18 
Decl. K" 18 28-3 



Prec. + 3-28 
N 17-66 



A round nebula, closely following y on the neck of the Ram, where it 
may be fished for on a line carried from a Trianguli 4^ below A Arietis. 
It is large and pale, but brightens in the centre. ]$. classed it in 
November, 1785, and considered it "not easily resolvable;" but still H. 
distinguished it through a thick cloud. It lies among some small stars, 
the most conspicuous of which form a curve across the S. part of the 
field, 

[" Large but very faint." BrodieJ] 

113. 191 2. CASSIOPEIA. 

s. 

-h 5'6 
N" ij-65 

Epoch. 

1832-15 
1868.32 

Stars presumably fixed. 





h. m. a. 

K.A. 1 53 23 


Prec. 




Decl. Off 73 18*8 

Position.. 




Distance. 




STRUVE, W. 

DUNEB 




190.6 
I9 X '3 


5-6 

5-3 


A double 
Dune> calls 


star. A 6 
B " cendree. 


J, white; B 9, blue. 




E.A. 



5i m 



54: 



m. 



51 



114. 



222 P. I. ABIETIS. (2. 196.) LXXVIII. 



B.A. 
Decl. 



1 53 48 

/ 

N 2O 31-4 

Position. 



Prec. -h 

jj 



Distance. 



3*30 



Epoch. 



fAB 53 ... 2 \ 

SMYTH j A C 165 ... 40 \ ... 1834.99 

(AD359 .- 165 J 

fAB 50-0 ... 2.5 \ 

K.NOTT < A C 166.3 ... 37.3 > ... 1862-95 

(AD 0.8 ... 183-6) 

BURNHAM AD 0-7 ... 183-8 ... 1880-03 

A quadruple star, in mid -distance between a and y, under the Kam's 
ear, lying nearly at right angles with the vertical. A [9, blue] ; B [12], 
deep blue; C 10, lilac; and D [6, topaz yellow]. This is an exquisite 
object, but most difficult to observe. Still, it forms an admirable test 
to try the light and distinctness of a telescope. 

[*' AB is probably unchanged : the distance between AC has diminished, 
while that between AD has considerably increased." Gledhill. 1 no alter- 
ation in AD.] 

[I have revised Smyth's note so as to embody his son's corrections 
mentioned in Edinburgh Obs., vol. xiv. p. 346.] 



115. 101 1$. I. CETI. 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 1 54 11 
Decl. S 6 29 6 



(h. 183 ; H. 470 ; .) 

a. 

Prec. -f 3-00 

n 
N 17-62 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; L ; m E 163 ; mb M ;" which means : " considerably bright ; 
large ; much extended in the direction of 163 with the meridian ; 
much brighter in the middle." 



116. 



B.A. 
Decl. 



h. m. 

1 54 

o 

N 34 



107 2. TBIANGULI. 

tn. B. 

Prec. + 



35 

45-7 

Position. 

o 
233.6 

232-8 
333- 



N 



3*50 
17-56 

Epoch. 
1833-48 



Distance. 

// 
STKUVE 233-6 ... 18-3 

MADLEB 232-8 ... 20.9 

GLEDHILL 233.0 ,,, 22-1 ... 1873.96 

A double star. A 8, white ; B 9, ashy. " The changes are due to 
the proper motion of the larger star." 2 np B Trianguli, of mag. 3^. 

E 2 



52 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

117- a PISCIUM. (S. 202.) LXXXI. 



h. 



B. A. 1 56 21 
Decl. N 2 14'0 



Free, + 3-09 
N 17-63 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 335-8 ... 5.40 ... 1821-89 

SMYTH 333.4 ... 3-8 ... 1838-87 

MADLER 329-7 ... 3.14 ... 1852-12 

DEMBOWSKI 325-7 ... 3.17 ... 1865-52 

SCHIAPARELLI 3 2 4' 3'8 ... 1877-04 

A close double star, at the sf extreme of the ribbon of the Fishes, 

where it is readily identified by carrying a line from /3 Ceti over 6, and 

rather better than as far again to the N.W. It is also in mid-distance 

between v Ceti and a Arietis. A 5, pale green ; B 6, blue. [Dawes, 

white ; white. According to Knott, colour of B uncertain or changeable. 

The most extraordinary diversities of tint are on record ; and there is a 

general consensus of opinion now that this star is changing, angle and 

distance both diminishing.] 

Pisces is one of the old 48 asterisms, and the 12 th or last sign of the 
old zodiac. The constellation consists of 2 Fishes linked by a ribbon, 
or string, attached to their tails, and divided by Hevelius into linum 
boreum and linum austrinuwi; they occupy a large space in the firma- 
ment, the one being under the wing of Pegasus, and the other under 
the right arm of Andromeda, in the position described by Manilius : 

Dissimile est illis iter, in contraria versis. 

The conspicuous rectangular figure in Pegasus is a guide to the 
position of these two Fishes ; the line of a Andromedse and y Pegasi 
being parallel to the body of one Fish, and that of y and a Pegasi 
to the body of the other. The equinoctial colure now passes through 
this " watery trigon," which was not a favourite sign with astrologers ; 
indeed, Mr. John Gadbury, albeit it was notorious that, under domi- 
nance of " ye Fysches," it was good to " wed a wyfe, and to trete frendys," 
says, "I know Pisces to be a dull, treacherous, phlegmatic sign." 
Yet this visionary ^i\o^a6^ariKos was consulted on mundane affairs 
by the Parliament of England ! The star a the Syndesmos of the Greeks 
has been called Okda, from the 'Okdah al Kkaitain, or " knot of the 
two threads," of the Arabian savants. The component members of Pisces 
have been thus stated : 

Ptolemy ^ . . . 38 stars. Hevelius . . . , 39 stars. 
Tycho Brah . . 36 Flamsteed . . . 113 
Bayer .... 37 Bode 257 

Eratosthenes considered that this asterism symbolized the Syrian 



R.A. i h - 56 i h - 57 



m. 



53 



Derceto, and it has therefore heen represented with a woman's head on 
a huge fish's hody. The Scholiast on Aratus says, that the Northern 
Fish was figured with a swallow's head, and called Xe\i86vias while 
the two collectively were called Gemini Pisces, to distinguish them from 
the Southern Fish. 



118. 



TRIANGTJLI. (2. 201.) 

h. m. s. s. 

Prec. -f 3-49 
N 17-52 



LXXX. 



K. A. 1 60 33 
Bed, N 32 45 2 



Position, 

o 
STRUVE 119-6 

SMYTH no 
BDBNHAM 116-8 



Distance. 

37 

5 

4.1 



Epoch. 
1833.11 



1877-81 



A most delicate double star, on the np limb of Deltoton ; and a 
line projected from y Andromedge to pass between a and A Arietis, will 
pass over it in about mid-distance. A 5^, bright yellow; B 15, dusky. 
This object was marked "difficilis" by Struve. It lies diagonally be- 
tween two small stars, one of which, io th magnitude, precedes it by 
9'O S ; and the other, a deep orange -coloured 8 tla magnitude, follows by 
14 s , with a little neighbour 2* farther off. 



119. 



y ANDROMED-ffi. (S. 205. 


) 


h. m. s. 


S. 




K.A. 1 57 8 


Prec. -f 3- 


65 


o > 


// 




Decl. N 41 48-1 


"NT T*- 


50 


IN 17 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


o 


it 




HEKSOHEL, W. A B 70.4 


9-25 ... 


1779.65 


SMYTH A B 62-9 


io6 


1837-80 


DEMBOWSKI A B 63-2 


,,. 10-43 ... 


1862-80 


SCHIAPABELLI A B 62-6 


lO'IO 


1877-11 


STBUVE, W. BC 126-6 


0-51 ... 


1842.72 


JACOB B C 111.3 


0.5 


1852-78 


TALMAGE B C 106.3 


0-58 ... 


1865-76 


SCHIAPABELLI B C 104.1 


0-48 


1877.05 


GLEDHILL B C 102.4 


0-84 


1877.94 



LXXXII. 



A splendid double star, on the right ankle of Andromeda. A 3^, 
orange colour ; B 5^, emerald green ; and of these colours I feel pretty 
positive, although 1$ . and S. pronounced them to be yellow and blue, 



54 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

This beautiful object was seen to be double by C. Mayer in 1778. My 
results are sufficient to establish the relative fixity of these stars ; al- 
though this is against the opinion, that high-coloured stars possess the 
greatest velocity. A is remarkable as forming, with a star in the head 
and another in the belt, an almost direct line, across the parallel, from 
E. to W. ; it is called Al'mak, from the Arabic Al-Andk-at-ard, the 
11 badger," or caracal of Buffon. 

This star is readily found by drawing an imaginary line through the 
three stars of Orion's belt, and then over the Pleiades ; or, a ray from 
a Draconis to the Pole-star, at about two-thirds the distance beyond, 
leads to it. Should Orion's neighbourhood be obscured, an occult line 
carried through /3 and a, the two brightest stars of Cassiopeia, and ex- 
tended to rather more than five times their di&tance from each other, 
will strike upon Al'mak, after passing the star upon Andromeda's left 
ankle. 

Struve, in October, 1842, detected y Andromedee to be triple, the 
companion composed of two stars of equal size, separated at that time 
by an interval of less than 0.5"* 

[No change appears to have taken place in AB since its discovery, 
but with respect to BC the progressive diminution of the angle is mani- 
fest, and 02 thinks an augmentation in the distance probable. To 
divide B is a difficult task for any refractor of less than 8 in ' As to the 
magnitudes of the components of B authorities differ much.] 



120. 10 ABIETIS. (2. 208.) LXXXIII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 1 57 23 
Decl. N 25 24-3 



Free. + 3-37 
N 17-48 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

STEUVE,W. 25.3 ... 1.98 ... 1833-05 

SMYTH 26-8 ... 2-2 ... 1838-66 

MADLER 32.6 ... 1.54 ... 1850-99 

DOBEECK 43-0 .., 1*16 ... 1878-08 

A close double star, over the Kam's head, nearly in mid-distance 
between a Trianguli and a Aretis, and it has several followers exactly 
on the parallel A 6%, yellow ; B 8, pale grey. This is one of S.'s 
discoveries, and so beautiful an object, that H. calls it a miniature of 
Bootis. 

[An increase of angle seems certain, and a decrease of distance 
probable.] 



121. 





R.A. i*. 57 


m. _ 2 h. 


O m. 


01 CETI. 




h. m, s. 




S. 


B.A. 


1 58 10 


Free. + 


3-06 




/ 




n 


Decl. 


S 51-9 




17-45 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 







f f 




lERSCHf 


DL,W. AB 193.6 


... 37-8 


1782.78 


MYTH 


( AB 188-8 
1 C D 249.8 


;;; 3 ^| 


... 1834-88 


JURNHAI 


tf AB 193.3 


... 42-7 


1877.86 



55 



LXXXIV. 



A pair of double stars, at the back of the Whale's head, and 3 to the 
S., a little following a Piscium. A line from r Ceti through f, carried 
nearly double the distance, hits 61. A 7, pearly white ; B 11, greenish; 
C 7, white ; and D 8-J-, blue. [Estimates of magnitude of A fluctuate 
through more than a unit. Gould.] 

The above measures must imply a slight change in the orbital curve, 
but the difficulty of the measures must be taken into consideration, 

Near the following parallel, at a distance of 4 m 57 s , on the angular 
line =102 33', is the beautiful double star CD, which proved to be 
2. 218, of which other measures are: 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 



STRUVE, W. 
DAWES 



250-0 
248-3 



4-7 
4-9 



1832.36 

1854-07 



122. 



a ABIETIS. 



ItXXXV. 



K.A. 



h, 

2 



58 



Free. + 3-35 



Decl. N 22 56 '6 

Position. Difference of E. A. 



17-32 

Epoch. 
SMYTH 107 ... 19.5 ... 1835-10 

A Nautical Almanac star, on the Ram's os frontis. A 3, yellow ; 
B n, purple. The large star is followed by three small ones, forming 
a line across the parallel, of which the middle individual is B. 

Though this constellation only possesses stars of more interest than 
magnitude, it opened the astronomical year, 2000 years ago, as Princeps 
signorum and Ductor exercittis zodaici ; and bore the office for a similar 
period. The charge is now resigned to Pisces, for Aries has passed 
30 to the eastward of the point where the equinoctial is intersected by 
the ecliptic, or Via Soils. This is owing to the precession of the 
equinoxes, which apparent motion of the zodiac arises from a slow vibra- 
tion of the earth's axis, occasioned by planetary attraction. 

Thomas Hood, the Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who 
published directions for using the celestial globe, in 1590, and who 



58 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

considered the Triangle as only placed in the heavens in order that the 
head of Aries might be better known thus speaks of its first star : 

" Scholar. Why is that same starre placed so farre from the head of 
Aries 1 me thinketh it were good to keepe the figure and the signe 
together. 

" Master. That cannot be ; for the starres moving continually from 
the west towards the east, cannot keepe one and the same distance from 
the vernall equinoctiall point, but are carried on forward continually, so 
that the starres which are now in the signe Aries will be hereafter in 
Taurus, and from thence will come into Gemini," &c. 

Aries indicates the golden fleece of the adventurous crew of the 
Argo, albeit a stir has been made to identify him as Abraham's ram ; 
and he is recognisable by three stars crossing the head obliquely. The 
Earn has long been figured in his present attitude, for Manilius ac- 
curately describes him as advancing stern foremost, with his legs bent 
under : 

First Aries, glorious in his golden wool, 
Looks back, and wonders at the mighty bull. , 

The star under discussion was called Hamal by the Arabs, i.e. a sheep. 
A line made to pass between the Pleiades and Hyades, from a Andromedse, 
will pick up Hamal in the mid-distance, and pass through the Ham's 
flank ; it may also be identified by the brackish rhymes : 

From Eas Mothallath shoot a ray, in a south-following line, 

And where expand huge Cetus* jaws to gamma let it join ; 

One-fourth the distance thus expressed from Triangle to Whale, 

(If thus can such odd fish be termed,) will strike upon Hamal. 

The stars of Aries have been thus enumerated : 

Ptolemy . . , . 18 stars. Hevelius .... 27 stars. 
Tycho Brans' . . 21 Flamsteed ... 66 
Kepler .... 23 Bode 148 

123. 152 $. I. ABJETIS. (h. 193; H. 487; JR.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 2 1 26 



o 



Decl. N 10 27'9 



Free, + 3-19 
N 17-30 



A nebula thus described in Sir J Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; v S ; vl E ; svmb M ; * i o, 55" 320 j" which means : " bright ; 
very small ; very little extended ; suddenly very much brighter in the 
middle; there is a io tl1 mag. star at a distance of 55" on an angle of 
320." D'Arrest found this object too faint for his 4^ in Leipzig refractor, 
but it is classed as "bright" by Sir J. Herschel from a mean of 3 observa- 
tions. 



TLA. 



o in - 



em. 



57 



124. 



14 ARIETIS. 



LXXXVI. 



h. 
B..A. 2 



3 9 
Decl. N 25 25 3 



Free, -f 3' 39 

n 

N 17-23 



Distance. 



SOUTH 
SMYTH 



Epoch. 
1823.97 
1833.92 



Position. 

o // 

AC 277.9 ... 105-2 

[AB 43.5 ... 82.6) 
I A C 278-6 ... 106-5 $ 

A wide triple star, between the head of Aries and the base of 
Triangulum ; being the centre of the group mentioned as headed by 
10 Arietis, above described. A 5^, white; B 10-5-, blue; and C 9, lilac. 
A is the apex of a scalene triangle, with B in the nf and C in the np 
quadrant, in a field otherwise barren ; but immediately followed on the 
parallel of A by 16 Arietis. 



125. 



B.A, 



50 ANDROMEDA. 

h. m. s. 

2 4 12 



Decl. N 38 8T 2 

Position. 



(2. 222.) 

s, 

Prec. -f- 3-62 
N 17-18 



LXXXVII. 



HEESCHEL, W. 
SMYTH 



34-8 
34-7 



Distance. 
// 
15-2 

16-3 



Epoch. 
1783-48 



A neat double star, between the right foot of Andromeda and the 
Triangle ; which may be readily identified by running a line from a, 
close under /3, till it arrives nearly at right angles with y. A [6|-], bluish 
white ; B [7], pale violet. 

[The above observations tend to show the fixity of this object.] 



126. 



55 CASSIOPEIA. 



LXXXVIII. 



B.A. 



h. 

2 



5 51 



Decl. N 66 0'5 

Position. 

SMYTH If B 2 4 
(AC 120 



Prec. + 

N 



4-64 



17-11 

Difference of R. A. Epoch. 



23-8 



1834.63 



A star with two distant companions, in the Lady's right foot ; or, 
including an orange-coloured 8 tb magnitude star near the N. vertical, 
a quadruple object. A 6, yellowish; B n, and C 9, both greyish. 
It can be identified by passing an imaginary line from a through the two 
v's, and carrying it about three times that distance to the N. E. . 

To the northward of this object, in the open space under the sea- 



58 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



ij a new star suddenly burst forth in full splendour, in November, 
1572 ; and the locality ought to be diligently watched. 

Tycho Brah, Kepler, Beza, Maurolycus, and other exact spectators, 
wrote dissertations upon it; but to all the reasonings as to why it 
had not been seen before, Heisacher's answer is perhaps the best : 
" God knows." Dr. Dee started the idea that it moved alternately 
towards, and from* the earth, in a direct line. 

[Hind and Plummer pointed out in 1873 that there existed then within 
i' of the place assigned by Argelander to Tycho's star, a small star 
sensibly variable.] 

As there are vague impressions that similar stars appeared in 945 and 
1264, Sir J. Herschel thought it possible another such appearance might 
take place in 1872, or thereabouts. [Hence the fact that attention was 
directed to the matter in 1873, as noted above.] 



127. l TRIANGULI. (2. 227.) LXXXIX. 



h. 



R.A. 2 5 59 

Decl. 3ST 29 47 '2 



Free. + 3*47 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STBUVE, W. 79.1 ... 3-02 ... 1821.03 

SMYTH 78.8 ... 3.5 ... 1838-99 

SECCHI 76-9 ... 3-56 ... 1855-89 

BOBEROK 75-6 ... 3-86 ... 1877-85 

A fine close double star, under the base of the Triangle, and 4^ S. of 
/3, on a line leading through /3 to y Andromedge. A 5^, topaz yellow ; 
B 7, green. 

[The recorded observations are too contradictory to make it certain 
that the angle has really altered, though those which happen to be cited 
above seem to imply that it has.] 

128. 259 B. ANDROMEDA. (2. 228.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 2 6 59 
Decl. IS 46 50-1 



Free, -h 3-80 

// 
N 17*06 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 262.1 ... 1-08 ... 1831.46 

STEUVE, 0. 274.7 ... 1.32 ... 1841.94 

MADLEB 280-2 ... i-u ... 1852-19 

DEMBOWSKI 286.4 ... 0-75 ... 1862.79 

DUN&R 311*4 ... 0.52 ... 1875-20 

A double star. A 7, white ; B 8, white. Dun^r says : " Cette &oile 



E. A. 



io m - 



59 



est indubitablement binaire, et le mouvement est deja trks-rapide. , . . 
D'apres ces formules le compagnon e*tait au maximum de distance en 
1846 ou 1847, et s'approche maintenant avec rapidite' au minimum. 
Bien loin d'avance I'e'toile sera probablement simple m6me dans les 
lunettes les plus puissantes. II est done tres important de la suivre 
aussi longtemps que possible. Peut-tre pourra-t-on bientot en calculer 
line orbite, pas trop incertame." 



129. 



K.A. 

Decl. 



66 CETI. 

h. m. s. 

278 

o / 

S 2 54-3 

Positioi 


(2. 231.) 
Free. + 

N 


a. Distance 



xc. 



3-03 

1 7 -OS 



Epoch. 



16-17 1822-90 
15-54 1832-67 
15.4 ... 1837.89 
15-35 ... 1857.87 
not taken ... 1876-07 
A neat double star, on the neck of Cetus, nearly in mid-distance 
between y and 6. A 7, pale yellow ; B 8f , sapphire blue. 

[Both stars are affected by a considerable proper motion ; i| preceding 
o Ceti, a little K] 



HEBSCHEL, J , and SOUTH 226.1 
STRUVE, W. 228-9 

SMYTH 229-6 

WINNECKE 228.4 

DOBEKCK 229.8 



130. 



28 B. TBIANGTTLI. (S. 232.) 

h. m. 3. S. 

B.A. 2 8 17 Prec. -h 3-46 



Decl. N 29 53*1 




N 17-00 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


o 


a 




STRUVE, W. -245.5 


6.56 


1832-03 


MADLER 246.4 ,, f 


6-45 


1843.67 


DEMBOWSKI 247.2 


6-49 


1856.83 


DUN&R 248-4 


6.41 


1869-86 



A double star. A 8, very white ; B 8, very white. 



131. 



X PERSEI. 



K.A. 


2 10 20 * 


Prec. 


-f 4-i5 




/ 




n 


Decl. 


K 57 0-1 





N 16-90 




Position. Distance. 


Epoch. 


SOUTH 


to // 
AC 136-5 ... 124.5 


1824.99 


BUENHAM 


( AB 352-8 ... 70.5 ) 

1 A /"I i +. <* r^rt A \ 


1879.54 



XCI. 



A coarse triple star, in the weapon hand of Perseus. A 6|/yellow ; 



60 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



B 12, bluish; C 9^, greenish. An imaginary line projected from 6 
Cnssiopeise to aPcrsei will pass just below x> a ^ one-third of the distance. 
This is a multiple object, among rich fields, where the intermixture of 
greater and less individuals renders the vicinity very favourable for 
testing the light and definition of a telescope. A and C were measured 
by Sir James South in 1824, but he did not perceive B. 



132. 



38 [and 39] P. II. TBIA3STGULI. 

h. m. s. 

R.A, 2 11 6 



Decl. 



28 14 '3 



2. 239.) XCIII. 

s. 

Prec. + 3-54 

N 16-86 



Position. 



Distance. 



HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 
SMYTH 



33 !. 


VI 


. PERSEI. 


K.A. 


h. 

2 


m. s. 

11 20 


Decl, 


N 


56 38 5 






Position. I) 






o 
321.9 



Epoch. 

o 

208.9 ... 14.3 f .. 1821.96 

209.1 ... 14.1 ... '1834.92 
A fine double star, between the Ram and the Triangle, where it will be 
found by shooting a line from a Andromedse through a Trianguli, and 
extending it nearly 5 beyond : it is also near the mid-distance between 
y Andromedse and y Ceti. A 8|> and B 9, both silvery white. 

133. 33 !$. VI. PERSEI. (h. 207; H. 512 ; .) XOII. 

8. 

Prec. -f 4- 1 6 

N 16-85 

Distance. Epoch. 

9 ... 1836.78 

A delicate double star, in the glorious cluster of Pereeus's weapon 
hand. A 8, white; B 10, pale grey. This brilliant mass of stars, from 
7 th to 15 th magnitudes, fills the whole field of view, and emits a peculiarly 

splendid light. In the 
centre is a coronet, or ra- 
ther ellipse, of small stars, 
above an 8^ magnitude 
one, which, with its np 
comes, is here measured. 
The 7 tJl magnitude star 
which follows is handsome 
from the blackness of the 
space immediately around 
it. A line from a Persci 
carried to d Cassiopeia* 
PIG. 3. 33 #. Vi. PERSEI. passes over this brilliant 

assemblage, at two- thirds the distance. Sir "W. Herschel considered it a 




R A. 2 h - io m - 2 h - 13- 61 

protuberant part of the Milky "Way, in which it is situated ; and analogy 
indicates that it is comparatively near. 

This is followed by another gorgeous group of stars, from the 7 th to 
the I5 tl1 magnitudes, at about 3 m , and nearly on the parallel. It is 34 
1$. vi. ( = h. 212 ; H. 521). The components gather most towards the 
centre, but there is little disposition to form ; the sprinkle, however, is in 
a direction parallel to the equator. One of the central individuals is of 
a fine ruby colour, and a 7 th magnitude in the nfis of a pale garnet tint; 
with two sparkling but minute triplets S. of it. These two clusters 
are quite distinct, though the outliers of each may be brought into the 
same field under rather low powers ; and, on the best nights, the groups 
and light are truly admirable, affording together one of the most brilliant 
telescopic objects in the heavens. It is impossible to contemplate them 
and not infer, that there are other laws of aggregation than those which 
obtain among the more scattered and insulated stars. 

[Often called " The Cluster in the Sword- handle of Perseus/'] 

134. CETI. XCIV. 



CETI. 


h. 


m. s. 


a. 


K.A. 2 


13 47 


Prec. -f 302 


Decl. S 3 28-7 

Position. H 


// 

1ST r f\~ ** T 


i\ 10 73 
istance. Epoch. 


SMYTH 
BURNHAM 


o 
88-9 

82.4 ... 


// 
116-0 ... 1831-03 

1159 ... 1878.92 



A flushed yellow variable star, with a distant companion. A, recorded 
in extremes varying from 2 to 7, and from thence to invisible; B 10, 
pale lilac. This very extraordinary object is in the middle of the Whale's 
neck, and well known as Mira ; the epithet " wonderful" being given on 
account of its remarkable variation in brilliance, first noticed, in 1596, by 
David Fabricius. Forty-two years afterwards it was observed by Phocy" 
lules Holwarda, and treated of in his ttavcr&Tjvos as a new star, in a right 
line with lucida mandibulce Ceti. Bailly thus relates the circumstance : 
"En 1638, Hoi ward revit 1'etoile de la Baleine, et & peu-pres an m6me 
lieu oil elle avait 6t6 appercue par Fabricius. II ignoroit sa premiere 
apparition, il la perdit lorsqu'elle se cacha dans les rayons du soleil ; et 
lorsque cet astre, en s'avangant dans T6cliptique, e&t rendu visiWes les 
etoiles de la Baleine, Holward ne retrouva plus sou e*toile, quoiqu'il la 
cherchat avec soin ; mais il dut 6tre 4tonn6 de la revoir tout^-mmp le 
7 Novembre, 1639. On la vit les ann^es 1644, 45, 46, 47, 48, avec des 
alternatives de disparition et de renaissance, telles qu'on ne la vit jainais 
une anne"e de suite. Btevelius la suivit constamment en 1648 et en 1660." 
Since this time it has been found pretty regular in its periods, except in 



62 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

the four years 1672 to 1676, during which time Sevelius could not 
perceive it, though it was a particular object of his attention. Bullialdus 
determined its periodical time, from bright through all its gradations to 
bright again, to be 333 days, and Cassini made the same period to be 
334. Halley mentions that it was found to appear and disappear 
periodically ; and that its period is " precisely enough, seven revolutions 
in six years, though it returns not always witli the same lustre. Nor is 
it," he adds, "ever totally extinguished, but may at all times be seen with 
a six-foot tube," 

[This last-named statement is not correct. For fuller particulars see- 
my Handbook of Astronomy, 3rd ed., p. 497.] 

Count de Hahn thought he saw another companion, but I could not 
detect it. We are also told that Mira alters its colour with its magni-* 
tude, yet it was always reddish in my telescope. 

A line led from a Geminorum through a, Tauri, till it meets another 
shot from y Andromedae by a Arietis, will point out the place of this 
body to the casual gazer, by whom, however, it is rarely picked up. It is 
exactly in the direction, and half-way between y and Ceti. 



135. 19 $. V. ANDROMEDA. (h. 218; H. 527 j .) XCVj 

h. m. . 



B.A. 2 15 41 
Decl, N 41 50 -0 



Free. + 3-73 
N 16-64 



An elongated nebula, on the Lady's right foot, where a line from j3 
Persei to y Andromedee passes under it, at about two-thirds of the distance. 
This wonderful object was most indistinctly seen, though watched with a 
set attention on a glorious night, with the telescope in the highest 
possible order: yet it was discovered by Miss Herschel in August, 1783, 
with a Newtonian sweeper of only 27 inches focal length, charged with a 
magnifying power of 30. Sir William "Herschel describes it as having a 
black division or chink, in the middle; and in my 
telescope it is certainly brighter at the edges than 
along the central part. Sir J. Herschel (No. 218 of 
1833 Catalogue) has given a beautiful drawing of 
its aspect in the 2o ft reflector, and concludes that 
it is a flat ring, of enormous dimensions, seen very 
obliquely. It consists, probably, of myriads of solar 
FIG. 4. 19 $.V. systems at a most astounding distance from ours, and 
ANDROMEDA. a ff or j s a distinct lesson that we must not limit the 
bounds of the universe by the limits of our senses. The adjoining sketch 
gives a slight notion of it. 




B. A. 2 h - 13- 2 h - 20' 03 

[At Parsonstown the sides of this object are seen to be certainly joined 
together only at the N. end.] 

[Query, variable 1 " Could only Just trace something with 7| in in 
1856 ; could barely see it with 8| in in 1864." firodie.] 

[Engraved in Phil. Trans., 1833, PI, ii. Fig. 28 ; Rosse, Phil. Trans., 
1 86 1, woodcut.] 



136. 61 P. II. ANDROMEDA XCVI. 



h. 


m. B. 




8. 


B.A. 2 


15 59 


Prec. + 


3.70 




O f 




ff 


Decl. N 


40 54-0 


vr 


16-63 




Position. Distance. 


Epoch. 







11 




SMYTH 


355-0 


50-0 


1836-69 


BAWES 


355-2 


49.0 


1842.76 


BURNHAM 358-1 


53-4 


1880-05 



A wide double star, closely following No. 135, and about one-third 
the distance from y Andromedae to fi Persei. A 7, yellow ; B 1 1, pale 
lilac. This object was examined on seeing Piazzi's note of proxime to 
an 8^ magnitude star closely following the N. vertical at about 8' 
distance, which I am satisfied is No. 62 of his Catalogue ', although its 
mean place from A is found to be at an angle of 3 5' and at a distance 
of 283". Between these two there are three other small stars, which 
the Palermo telescope overlooked ; the nearest of which is here 
measured. 

[About ^ from y Andromedse towards /3 Persei.] 



137. 153 $. I. OETI. (H, 536.) 

h. m. s. 8. 



B.A. 2 17 59 
Deol. S 21 44*1 



Prec. + 2-77 
N 18-53 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : " c B ; 
V L ; E o . . . 90 ; " which means : " considerably bright ; very large ; 
extended in the direction of o towards 90 with the meridian." 

138. 72 P. II. CASSIOPEIJB. (2. 262.) XCVII. 



R.A. 2 20 
Deol. N 66 54*4 



Prec. -h 4-86 

N 16-43 



64 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

SMYTH lie ,t; ::: I - l834 ' 83 
*~ IIS SJ ::: S! 

GLEDHILL f* a6 *3 - ''* 
(AC 109.0 ... 7.9 

A beautiful triple star, under the Lady's right foot, and more than 
mid-distance between a Persei and y Cephei. A 4^, pale yellow ; B 7, 
lilac; and C 9, fine blue; the individuals running nearly in a line, 
with the colours well contrasted. There has been a little confusion 
as to the identity of this object, IjL having entered it as 55 Cassio- 
peise, and others calling it t ; but it is quite clear that it is as above 
named, and No. 292 of the British Catalogue ; where, as a note shows, 
it gave Baily some trouble. When IjL first enrolled it, he over- 
looked B. 

[Secchi considers it certain that the angle of A B is increasing ; but he 
is doubtful as to A C having any motion.] 



139. 23 $. IV. CETI. (h. 223; H. 544; tt<) XCVIII. 

h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 2 21 57 
DecL 8 1 38 



Free. + 3-04 
N i<6'5 



A planetary nebula, in the middle of the Whale's neck. It is round, 
bluish white, and pale, but very distinct, and brightening towards the 
centre. This object is situated equatorially between two very small stars ; 
and four larger, due N., form the letter L. It is about 7 from y Ceti 
on the line leading upon f 

[Engraved in D ; Arrest's Dissertation, 1861, Pl.ii. Fig. 7.] 



140. 13 TBIAiraiTLI. (2. 269.) XCIX. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 2 22 21 
Peel. 3ST 20 26'1 



Free, -f 3-50 
N iV 3 i 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH 342.1 ... 2.3 ... 1834-11 
PLUMMBB 342.2 ... i6i ... 1876.91 

A close double star ; being the northern of a small trapezium of tele- 
scopic stars, lying in the direction of a line carried from y Arietis 
through a the first and third fitars in the Ham's head and extended 



E. A. 2 1 *' 2o m -- 2 1 *- 2^'. 65 



about two- thirds farther. A 6, yellow ; Bio, grey. This exquisite and 
difficult object was discovered by Ip . ; but he only estimated a position 
and distance, which, however, approximate so nearly, that no motion can. 
be assumed from the recent measures. 

[Erroneously designated by Smyth "93 P. II." Owing to this mistake 
he fell into another, and thought the star he had measured was different 
from 89 P. II, whereas it is that very star.] 



141. 154 $. I. ANDROMEDA. (h. 226; H. 549; ,) 



h. 



R. A. 2 24 8 



o 



Decl. N 36 38 3 



Free. + 3-65 
N 16-22 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B ; L ; E ; vgb M ; " which means : " considerably bright ; large ; 
extended ; very gradually brighter in the middle." 

142. 96 P. II. ARIETIS. (2. 271.) C. 

h. m. 5. s. 



R.A. 2 24 13 
Dec! N 24 44' 9 



Free. + 3-43 
N 16-21 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

STRUVE, W. 180.5 ... 11.8 ... 1831.75 
SMYTH 182-0 ... 12 ... 1832-06 

A very delicate double star, over the Ram's back, and nearly in mid- 
distance between the Pleiades and a Andromedse, where it is intercepted 
by a line from /3 Arietis (the middle star of the Ham's head) to the 
lucida of Musca. A 6^, pearl white ; and B 14, blue. This fine object 
is in a poor field, with a 9* magnitude star in the nf quadrant, between 
which and A, a little following, is another of the 1 3^. 

143. 227 h. PEBSEI. (h. 227 ; H. 553.) CI. 



b. m. 



R.A. 2 25 36 



o 



Dec! N 57 2*4 



Free, -f 4-29 
N 16-14 



An irregular but pretty rich cluster, on the weapon arm of Perseus, 
and in a fine vicinity. It consists of individuals from the 9 tlx to the 15 th 
magnitudes, preceded by some largish outliers, one of which is of a re,d 
tinge. It may be fished up about 10 np a Persei, nearly in the mid- 
distance of a line shot from Polaris to the west of Algol, A 7 th 



j66 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

magnitude in the n$ quadrant is the avant- courier of this field, and 
three of the 1 1& magnitude form so correct a line in the nf as to attract 
attention. 

[Brodie describes this as " insignificant/'] 

144. 122 P. H. FOE3STACIS. (*h. 3506.) 



m. 



B.A. 2 29 1 



o 



Decl. 8 28 42*7 



Free, 4- 2-63 
N 15-96 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

O n 

HEESCHEL, J. 241-7 ... n-i ... 1836-34 
STONE, 0. 243-4 "'4 l8 7774 
A double star. A 5^ ; B 8. 

145. 2487 h. EBIDANI. (H. 587.) 



B.A. 2 29 12 



o 



Decl. 8 39 31*3 



Prec, + 2-40 

n 

N 15-96 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; L; pmE; smbM; bi-N;" which means: "pretty bright; 
large ; pretty much extended ; suddenly much brighter in the middle ; 
bi-nuclear/ 1 

This may or may not be 519 Dunlop. It is engraved in the Cape Obs., 
PL vi. Pig. 14. 

146. V CETL (S. 281.) OH. 

h. m. s. . 



B.A. 2 30 5 
Decl. H 56-8 



Prec. -f- 3-14 
N ifVQi 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

STBUVE,W. 83.3 .., 77 ,.. 1831-92 

SMYTH 85 ,.. 6 . 1833.88 

DuNfcR 82*2 ,,, 77 ... 1868-48 

A double star, in the Whale's eye, about 3 from y Ceti, slightly pre- 
ceding a line from y towards /3 Arietis, the middle star of the Ram's head. 
A 4^, pale yellow; B 10, blue. This very delicate object is one of those 
marked by S. "difficiHs ;" and not without reason, for the comes can only 
be seen by glimpses, on ardent gazing ; and its details are therefore mere 
estimations. It is followed exactly on the parallel, A E. A. =2 5 s , by a 
dusky star of the i i tlj magnitude. 

[" The magnitude of B is greater than Smyth gives it." Urodie.] 
, ["i found it easy with 5 in , i86i."~!Fe&6.] 



R.A. 



25 



m. oh. 



33 



m. 



67 



147. 



30 ABIETIS. (S. 5 App. I.) 

8. 

Free, -f 



CIII. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 2 30 37 



24 10 2 



3'43 

N 15-88 

Distance, Epoch. 

>/ 
38-4 ... 1821-99 

38-3 ... 1837-80 
38-3 ... 1865-81 



Decl. 

Position. 

o 
HEKSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 272-4 

SMYTH 73'0 

MAIN 274.5 

A fine double star, over the Ram's back, in the line from a Trianguli 
towards a Bootis, and about one-fourth of the distance ; it is also pointed 
out by a ray leading from y Pegasi to a Arietis, and carried about 7 
beyond. A 6, topaz yellow; B 7, pale grey; and Piazzi's 128 is on the 
following parallel, 44" off. The fixity of this star may be presumed. 

30 Arietis is the most southern of a group of about a dozen double 
stars, spread over the adjoining portions of the three constellations 
Aries, Musca, and Triangulum with extensive patches of dark and 
blank space between them. 



148. 



102 



B.A. 



h. 

2 



Bed. S 7 9-4 



I. CETI. (h. 244; H. 674; 



Free. + 2-97 

// 
N 15*74 



33 5 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"cB; pL; vB; mbM;" which means: " considerably bright; pretty 
large ; very round ; much brighter in the middle." D' Arrest found this 
object less bright than Sir J. Herschel's notes imply. 



149. 



156 $. I. PEBSEI. (h. 242; H. 575.) 

h. TO. 8. 

R.A. 2 33 30 



CIV. 



Free. + 3-73 



Decl. N 38 34-4 JN 15.77 

An elongated lenticular nebula, sp the head of Medusa, and pointed 
out by a line led from the Hyades through 
the Pleiades, and carried twice their dis- 
tance further. Though pale, it is very 
distinct in my instrument, and elliptical, 
not as the 2o ft reflector defined it len- 
ticular ; an appearance owing, perhaps, 
to its being a vast ring lying obliquely 
to our line of vision. It trends nf and sp, 
and is accompanied by many small stars, 

of which the nearest is a io th magnitude, FIG. 5. 156 $, I. PKBSJSL 
due 8. A notion of its form is afforded by the sketch. 

I 1 2 




68 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

[EngraveS in Phil Trans., 1833, K- v * Fig. 56 ; Phil Trans., 1861, 
PI xxv. Pig. 5.] 



150. 



33 ARIETIS. (2. 289.) 



CV. 



K.A. 2 34 15 
Bed. BT 26 35-4 



. 

Free, -f 3-48 
N 15-69 



Position. Distance. 



HEBSCHEL, W. 

HERSCHEL, J., and OUTH 

SMYTH 

WILSON and SEABBOKE 



o 

2-8 



0-2 

0-9 



29-1 
28-5 
29-1 



Epoch. 

1779.74 
1822-08 
1832.12 
1873.94 



A fine double star, over the back of Aries, but in the space assigned 
to Musca ; lying nearly mid-way between the Pleiades and ft Andromeda. 
A 6, pale topaz ; B 9, light blue. There may exist a slow orbital motion, 
but the inference that the stars are receding from each other cannot be 
supported, as 1$. marked his distance "inaccurate." 

[" 9 seems very small." Webb.] 



151. 



66 $. VHI. CASSIOPEIA. (H. 578.) 



B.A. 
Decl. 



b. m. s. 

2 34 18 



Prec. + 4-57 
01 4.5 N 15-68 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"Cl; L ; sc st, one 10;" which means: "a cluster; large; stars 
scattered, one of them is of the io tix magnitude.* 1 



152. 



34 M. PEESEI. (h. 248; H. 584; 
B.A. 2 34 5*7 



Decl, IT 42 15*7 



Prec. + 3*83 
N 15-70 



CVI. 



Position, Distance, Epoch. 

249.3 ,, 20.2 ... 1880-05 

| A double star in a cluster, between the right foot of Andromeda 
bmd the head of Medusa j where a line carried from Polaris between 
^ Cassiopeia and a Persei to within about 2 of the parallel of /3 Persei 
will meet it. A and B, 8 th magnitudes, and both white. It is in a 
scattered but elegant group of stars from the 8 th to the 13^ degree of 
irightness, on a dark ground, and several of them form into coarse pairs. 



E.A. 



i. _ 2 a- 35^. 



This was first seen and registered by Messier, in 1764, as% "mass of 
small stars;" and in 1783 was resolved by Sir W, Herschel with a 7 ft 
reflector: with the 2o ft he made it "a coarse cluster of large stars of 
different sizes." By the method he applied to fathom the Galaxy, he 
concluded the profundity of this object not to exceed the 144*** order. 

[" Just perceptible to the naked eye ; a very grand low-power field, 
one of the finest objects of its class." Webb.] 



153. 



12 PEBSEI. 



CVTI. 



B.A. 2 35 18 

Decl. N 39 43 '7 



Free. 



N 



3-76 
i*-62 





Position. 


Distance. 




o 


ff 


HERSOHEL, W. 


BC 212-0 


21.98 


SMYTH 


BC 209.8 


... 22*9 


MAIN 


BC 204-4 


... 23-1 



Epoch, 

1782.30 

I833-85 
1863-80 

A pointer to a double star (=2. 292) in the nf quadrant, with A RA. 
io 8 , preceding the head of Medusa ; and a line led through K and y 
Cassiopeiae passes over it between ft Persei and y Andromedae. A 6, yellow; 
B 7i, pale blue; C 8, lilac. Its fixity may be held to be proved; and it 
must be rated as an optical object, or one which is casually juxtaposed in 
the heavens. Still the components must be within a distance of each other 
which imagination may compass, since their relative brightness is ap- 
parently so nearly the same. A bright star, distant upwards of 4' in the 
sp quarter, is South's C ; and still nearer to A is a pair of io th magni- 
tudes, on the parallel with each other. 



154. 



84 CETI. 



R. A. 2 35 35 

Decl. 8 1 9-8 

PiSition. 



STRUVE, W. 

SMYTH 

SECCHI 

DOBBECK 



334-6 

334-5 
330-6 

325-0 



(2. 295.) 






8. 


Free, -f 


3-05 


N 


I5-60 


Distance. 


Epoch, 


H 




4-85 


1831-90 


5 


I833-97 


4-57 .- 


1858-03 


4*75 


1877.84 



CVIII. 



A very delicate double star on the Whale's under-jaw ; between a and 
Ceti. A 6, pale yellow; B 14, lilac, with several minute stars in the 
field. My observations, from the difficulty of the object, are little better 
than estimations. 

[A slow retrograde motion seems probable*] 



70 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



155. 63 #. L CETI. (h 254, 2403; H. 589; .) 

s. 
Free. 4- 2-94 

N 15-60 



h. m. 8. 

B.A. 2 35 40 
Decl. 8 8 43 5 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B; pL; E; mbM*i2;" which means: "bright; pretty large; 
round; much brighter in the middle, where there is a 12 th mag. star." 



156. 



PERSEI. (2. 296.) 



CIX. 



h. m. s, 

B.A. 2 36 41 
Decl. N 48 45*8 



Position. 



Prec. -f 4'3 

N 15-55 

Distance, 



Epoch. 



HEBSCHEL, W. 


A B 290*0 


13-52 


1782.64 


STBUVE, W. 


AB 294-6 


... 15-40 ... 


1832.20 


WILSON and SEABEOKE 


( A B 296-0 
1 A C 215.3 


16.5 ) 
... not taken 5 '" 


1873-93 


BURNHAM 


AC 218.5 


... 68.8 


1879.54 



A triple star in a rich field on the Hero's right shoulder ; and nearly 
in mid-distance between /3 Persei and 8 on the knee of Cassiopeia. A 4, 
yellow; B 13, violet; C n, grey. IjjL mentions a third star within i' 
towards the S. ; but both he and 2. measured the object only as double. 



157. 



77 M. CETI. (h. 262; H. 600; 

h. m. s. s. 

B,A. 2 37 3 



CX. 



Decl. S 28-3 



Free. + 3-06 
N 15-1 



A round stellar nebula, near 8 in the Whale's lower jaw, and about 
2|- from y on the line towards , or 8. by W. This was first classed 
by M. in 1780 as a mass of stars containing nebulosity. It is small, 
bright, and exactly in a line with three small stars, one preceding 
and two following, of which the nearest and largest is a 9 th magnitude 
to the sf. There are other minute companions in the field; and the 
place is differentiated from y Ceti. 

This object is wonderfully distant and insulated, with presumptive 



B. A. 2 h - m * 



37" 



evidence of intrinsic density in its aggregation ; and bearing indication of 
the existence of a central force, residing either in a central body or in 
the centre of gravity of the whole system. Sir "W. Herschel says, 
"From the observations of the large io ft telescope, which, has a 
gauging power of 75-82, we may conclude that the profundity of the 
nearest part is at least of the 910^ order/' That is, 910 times as far 
off as the stars of the i sfc magnitude ! 

[But this is highly imaginative, to say the least of it. The Earl of 
Roese noted this as a spiral neb. 

Engraved in PhiL Trans., 1861, PL xxv. Fig. 5; Eosse, Dublin 
Trans., 1879, Pi i. Fig. 600.] 



158. 



7 CETI, (2. 299.) 



CXI. 



h. m. s. 

R. A. 2 37 36 



Decl. 



2 33'5 



Prec. + 3- 1 1 
N I5-49 



STRUVE, W. 

SMYTH 

SMYTH 

MADLEB 

PLUMMER 



Position. 

o 

283-2 
289.0 
285.7 
292-0 
291-1 



Distance. 

n 

2.8 3 
2-6 
2-6 

3-7 
2-73 



Epoch. 

1825.43 
1831-85 
1843.16 
1858-07 



A Nautical Almanac star, in the Whale's mouth, and closely 
double. A 3, pale yellow ; B 7, lucid blue, the colours finely contrasted. 
With my instrument this beautiful object is certainly not so very difficult 
to measure ; I consider its fixity established. 

The Arabian astronomers applied the name of Kaff-alyidhmfo, the 
maimed hand, to a group of stars forming the Whale's head ; and which, 
though limited by Ideler to a, 8, A, jut, and Ceti, has been latterly 
applied exclusively to y. There are vestiges showing that the Orientals 
had a large asterism here in very early times, probably before Cepheus 
and the Ethiopian plague were thought of. 

A line from /3 Andromedae through j3 Arietis, the centre of the three 
stars in the Ram's head, points nearly upon y Ceti at about 25 beyond, 
or as far again; and it is nearly in mid-distance between y Pegasi afcd 
j3 Orionis. 

[Dembowski calls B olive-green; whilst Webb in 1850 marked it 
tawny."] . . 



72 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



159. 



160 P. II. TBIANGtTLI. (S. 300.) 

h. m. s. s. 

B.A, 2 38 4 
Decl. N 28 58'9 



CXII. 



SMYTH 
MADLEB 
TALMAGE 
PLUMMEK 



Position, 

297.8 
299.8 



299.9 



Free. + 


3*53 

15-46 

Epoch. 


Distance. 


2-9 

2-71 
2-79 ... 


1831.88 
1843-62 
1865-89 
1877-02 



A close double star, very near the wing of Musca, and forming the 
apex of a nearly equilateral triangle with the two brightest in that insect. 
A 8, B 8-J, both cream-white. This lovely object is in a barren field. 

[Gledhill says " probably binary/' but the evidence is not very con- 
clusive.] 



160. 64 $. I. CBTI. (h. 264; H 604; 



CXIV. 



K.A, 2 40 35 
Decl. S 8 23 



Free. + 2-95 
N 15-35 



An oval nebula, on the strange pectoral fringe of the Whale's neck, 
at rather more than a quarter of the distance from to a. It is pale 
though distinct, and brightens towards the centre. To insure the identity 
of so delicate a spot, it needs only be raised a little in the inverted field, 
when three equidistant stars of the 8 th magnitude will appear on the 
northern verge. There are several very small stars in the field, under a 
moderate power. 

[" Very faint in 8^ n refractor." (Brodie.) Seen at Parsonstown to 
have a dark streak on the N. edge.] 



161. 



48 1$. V. POB3STACIS. (h. 2495; H. 610.) 

s. 

Free. + 2 '55 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 2 41 37 



Decl. 8 30 43-9 



15-27 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; L; vmE 151; vbMN;" which means: "very bright; large; 
very much extended in the direction of 151 with the meridian; very 
much brighter in the middle, indeed there is a nucleus there," 



E. A. 2 h - 



43 



m. 



73 



162. 



?? PERSEI. 

h. m. s. 

R.A. 2 42 40 



Decl. 



55 26 3 



(S. 307.) 
Free. + 4-33 

n 
N Ig'22 



cxv. 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O tf 

HEKSCHEL, W. 290-1 ... 26-00+ ... 1779-72 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 299.9 ... 28-96 ... 1821-94 
SMYTH 300-4 ... 28-4 ... 1838-78 

A fine double star, on the Hero's head, and nearly in mid-distance of 
a line projected from a Persei, and carried between b and Cassiopeise. 
A 5, orange ; B 8, smalt blue ; the colours in clear contrast. A very neat 
object. There are distinctly 9 stars in the group, of which the principal, 
as Professor Barlow remarked, having three small stars nearly in a line on 
one side, and one on the other, forms a miniature representation of Jupiter 
and his satellites. The leader of this family precedes A a little below the 
parallel, or N. of it, in the inverted field, with a A B,.A.= i5 8 . 

This star is 179 P. II., or 9 Hevelius ; and was under no small 
confusion as to its identity in* the British Catalogue, until Baily's cor- 
rectives duly installed it 15 Persei 77, No. 348. And he adds: "In the 
British Catalogue it is stated to be of the 6 th magnitude : but in Halley's 
edition it is called the 4 tft . On consulting the original entry in the MS. 
book, I find it is there also noted as the 4 th ; which I have here adopted/' 
It is certainly bright for Piazzi's rating, but I see no reason for altering 
it, since it is less lustrous than or y Persei, its neighbours of the 4 th 
magnitude, 



163. 



7T AEJETIS, 


(I. 311.) 




h. 


m. s. 






s. 


n.A. 2 


43 9 




Prec. + 


3'33 




/ 






// 


Decl. N 


17 0- 


5 




I5'i9 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 













STBUVE, W. 


AB 


119-6 


3-06 


1829-89 


SMYTH , 


JAB 
(AC 


I2I-6 

109.9 


... 25 I 


... 1835-89 


SECOHT 


IAB 


121-3 


2.94 


... 1856-77 




(AC 


1 10-3 


... 24-8 


... 1856-55 


GLEDHILL 


AB 


121. 2 


3-2 


1870-01 



CXVI. 



A neat triple star, on the haunch of Aries, closely on the line and about 
one-third the distance from fi Arietis, the middle star of the Kam's head, 
and Aldebaran, A 5, pale yellow; B 8-J-, flushed; and C n, dusky. 
IjL says, the smaller stars are "both mere points," neither of which can 
be seen " except with considerable and long-continued attention ;" but 
they are comparatively so easy in my instrument, that they may have 
become brighter. It is remarkable that a MS. remark of J$L, adduced by 



t4 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

his son, describes C as " easier to be perceived h than B. If this was the 
case in 1782, the object merits watching, for variability. 

[Gledhill considers that there is " certain direct motion in AB," but I 
do not think this is yet established beyond a doubt.] 



164. 



41 AKIETIS. 



CXVII. 





h. M. 8. 


B.A. 


2 43 30 




O f 


Decl. 


1ST 26 48-5 




Position. ! 




o 




f AB 265.8 


BUBNHAM 


} AC 203*5 - 




(AD 230-2 



Free. 



N 



Distance. 



125.9 



3-51 
15-17 

Epojh. 
1879.40 



A coarse quadruple star, in the south wing of the Fly, and forming its 
lucida. A 3, white; B 13, deep blue; C n, lurid; D 9, pale grey, 

Piazzi's note to this star (=186 P, II.) mentions a couple of distant 
companions utraque 9 ae magnit. too far off to be very interesting. 

Musca Borealis is a little asterism to the N.E. of the Ram's head, 
and is known by three stars of the 3 rd and 4 th magnitudes. It seems to 
have been composed from informes by Barfcschius, the scientific son-in- 
law of Kepler ; for which reason, perhaps, it was afterwards retained by 
Hevelius, though reluctantly. To identify the object here treated, let a 
line from a Bootis be passed under the Pleiades and meet another 
carried from a Andromedae over a Trianguli ; it will pass Lucida Muscse 
in the mid-distance. 



165. 



B.A. 
Decl. 



i; PORNACIS. 

h. m. s. 

2 44 14 
S 37 52-2 



(*h. 3532.) 



Position. 

o 

HEKSCHEL, J. 150-6 
STONE, 0. 145-6 

A double star. A 6|; B 8. 



Prec. 



Distance. 
// 
8 est. 

5-3 



2*39 



Epoch, 

I837-9 
i877 73 



166. 



y 1 POB3STACIS. 


h. 


m. 8, 


8. 


K.A. 2 


44 59 


Prec. + 2-66 


Decl. 8 


/ 

25 0-7 


N 15-18 


Position. Distance. Epoch. 

// 

SMYTH 171 ... 45 ... 1837.94 
BUENHAM 157.5 * 49' 1 l8 79*95 



CXVIII. 



A star with a delicate companion. A 6, pale white; B 12, light blue* 



R. A. 2^ 43 m - 2 h - 46 m - 75 

This object is followed, a litfele N, of the parallel, A K,A.=25 S , by a star 
of the 8 tla magnitude. 

This star is close under the Whale's paw, but in the precincts given 
to Fornax Chemiea by La Caille. Bode, in altering the type of this 
asterism, says, " J'ai trac6 au lieu de ces instrumens, la delineation 
d'une des experiences de rimmortel Lavoisier/' A line from a Ceti 
through 17 Eridani, carried a little more than as far again to the S., 
strikes y Fornacis. 



167. 85 B. PEBSEI. (S. 314.) 

h. m. 8. 8. 



B.A, 2 45 2 
Decl. N 52 32 '2 



Free. -J- 4-19 
N 15-07 



Position. Distance. Epoch* 

tt 

STRUVE, W, 295-4 ... 1-45 ... 1830-46 

STKUVE, 0. 297.0 ... 1.71 ... 1841-44 

MADLER 297.9 ... 1-56 ... 1852-26 

SEOCHI 300-7 ... 1-46 ... 1857-62 

STRUVE, 0. 300-2 ... 1.45 ... 1872.18 

A double star. A y|, white ; B 8, white. Gledhill says, " Probably 
a binary," but the proof seems to me rather slender. 



168. 20 PERSEI. (2. 318.) CXIX. 

h. m. . s. 



B.A. 2 46 44 
Decl. N 37 53-5 



Free. + 3-75 

N I*-I2 



Position. Distance. ^P 00 * 1 - 

o // 

STBUVE, W. 236-8 ... 14-0 ... 1829.14 

SMYTH 236-5 ... 13-9 ... 1832.04 

BUENHAM 236'! ... 14*0 ... 1 8 78* 1 5 

A double star sp the larva, or mask of Medusa; which may be 
found by carrying a line from a Persei through /3 Persei and about 3 
to the 8. ; and a perpendicular to that point will cut 20 Persei at nearly 
i| to the E. of it. A 6|, pale white; B 10, sky-blue. This is a neat 
test object. [A itself is double, Pos. 158-7; Disk 0.34"; 1878-70. 
Burnham]. 

[Closely follows 16 Persei, a star of the 5^ mag.] 



76 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



169. 



101 P. II. CEPHEI. (2. 320.) 



cxx. 



h. m. s. 

R. A. 2 51 30 
Decl. N 78 5 9 



STRUVE, W. 
SMYTH 



Position. 

o 
226.1 

225.8 



Prec. + 


7 


74 




n 






M 


70 




Distance. 




Epoch. 


// 






4-4 




1831.60 


5-2 




1834-91 



A double star, with two telescopic companions at a little distance. 
A 6, orange; B ioj, smalt blue. A charming object discovered by 2. 

This star is in a strange corner of the / boundary of Cepheus, but in 
the part where Le Monnier squeezed in an asterism (" Rangifer ") between 
the Ethiopian monarch arid the Cameleopard, to commemorate his opera- 
tions in Lapland, in 1736. It is about 10 from the Pole-star, on a line 
leading from thence to /3 Persei. 

[This star is reckoned by B. A. C. and other authorities to be within 
Cassiopeia.] 



170. 



ARIETIS. (2. 333.) 



CXXIII. 



B.A. 2 52 55 
Decl. N 20 54-0 



Prec. + 3-42 
tt 

N 14 62 



Position. Distance. 
o // 

STRUVE, W. 186-4 - '5 l 

SMYTH 193.5 ... 0-5 

SECCHI 1967 ... 0.87 

WILSON and SEABROKE 200.7 ... 1.36 



Epoch. 

1827-61 

1835-77 



1877-09 



A very close double star, at the root of the tail. A 5, pale yellow ; 
and B 6J, whitish. When discovered by 2. he described it as " Inter 
omnes nostras fortasse vicinissima." And H., writing to me in 1831, 
asks, " Have you tried e Arietis ? My 2o ft , with power 480, has 
fairly separated it. I do not say it will always do so." It must? 
however, be widening, for I have divorced them myself latterly, though 
they generally hung in contact at my earlier attempts. [Both angle and 
distance appear to be slowly increasing.] 

Arietis is readily found, mid-way on a line drawn between the Plei- 
ades and a Arietis; and a ray shot fromyPegasi between /3 and y Arietis, 
in the Ram's head, and led as far again, strikes . 

[2. thought both stars variable.] 



E.A. 



77 



171. 



220. P. II. PERSEI. (2. 331.) 

h. m. s. s. 

R. A. 2 53 2 



CXXII. 



Decl. 



61 54-9 

Position. 



Prec. -f 4-24 

n 

N 14.60 



Distance. 



Epoch. 

85-3 ... i'i-9 ... 1823.97 
84-9 . 12-4 ,,. 1835-10 

85.0 ... I2-I ... 1863-08 

A neat double star, on the nape of the Hero's neck, slightly preceding 
a line carried from /3 Persei to Polaris, at one-third of the distance. A 6, 
silvery white ; B 8, sapphire blue. 



SOUTH 
SMYTH 
MAIN 



172. 



ERIDANI. 





h. 


m. 


s. 


s 




It A. 


2 


54 


5 


Prec. + 


2 


28 






o 


/ 




// 




Decl. 


8 


40 


44-8 


_ N 


14 


55 








Position. Distance. 




Epoch. 








O tf 






HERSCHEL, 


J. 


81.5 ... 8-6 




1835-77 


STONE, 


0. 




84-4 ... 8.5 




1877-83 



A double star. A 5 ; B 6. " One of the stars probably varies to some 
extent." (Gould.) 



173. 



104 B. PERSEI. (2. 336.) 



h. m. s. 

It. A. 2 54 44 

Decl. N 31 68 -6 

Position, 
o 

STRUVE, W. 8-5 

M ABLER 7-2 

SECCHI 7-2 
STRUVE, 0. 7-3 


Prec. 


+ 

N 


3-63 
14-50 

Epoch. 

1831-17 
1844.95 

1858.03 
1868-77 


Distance. 
tf 

8-2 

8-6 

8-3 
8-8 



A double star. A 7, yellow ; B 8|, blue. Gledhill says : " Angle 
unchanged ; distance augmented ; " but the latter part of this statement 
seems to me rather premature, 



174, 



h. m. s. 

It. A. 2 56 31 



CETI. 

Prec. -f 



cxxv, 



3-13 



Decl. N 3 39-5 N 14-39 

Difference of B. A Epoch, 
a. 
29*6 



Position, 

o . 

SMYTH 258 ,. , 29.6 ;, 1833.85 

A Nautical Almanac star, in front of the lower jaw, with a distant 



78 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

companion, A 2-J-, bright orange; B 10, pale grey. This is a curious 
object under a moderate power, on account of a decided blue star in the 
field, N, of it, of the 5 J magnitude. 

o Ceti is numbered among the insulated stars, and is called Menkal, 
corrupted from Al minkhir, the nose or snout, a name which the 
Arabians applied, with greater propriety, to A ; but though rated of equal 
magnitude with ft Ceti, it is not now so large. A line from Pollux by 
a Bootis, carried nearly as far again, brings the eye to a Ceti ; which 
star, with a Arietis, forms the lower points of a gigantic W, of which 
Aldebaran, the Pleiades, and /3 Persei make the upper portion. The 
poet says: 

To know the bright star in the Whale, the lower jaw which decks, 

From fair Capella send a glance through Pleiad's beauteous specks ', 

And bear in mind this cluster fine, so admirably seen, 

From Cetus' head to th' Charioteer, lies just half-way between. 

The figure of this asterism, a veritable monstrum marinum, with its 
long legs, ears, proboscis, missile tongue, and carnivorous jaws, ought 
rather to have retained the name '0/x^o*, Pistrix, as given by Hyginus, 
than Kijros, Cetus. 

Lubienietzki, in his Theatrum Cometwuw, 1667, attempted to lop off 
some of these redundancies ; but in fishifying the animal he has given 
him so capacious a mouth and throat, that a Munchausen's ship might 
well have sailed in. Indeed, the leading distinctions of a whale seem to 
have been overlooked by all the celestial delineators. 

Although this fish, as shown in Morell's edition of Aratus, 1559, i g 
a very queer-looking creature, yet it is better drawn than some later 
figures, in that it has no legs ; but as it is so furnished in the MS. of 
Cicero's translation of Aratus in the British Museum, it is evident that 
the monster is connected with the tale of Andromeda. Cetus, is, how- 
ever, the most extensive constellation of the firmament, occupying the 
large space to the S. under Pisces and Aries ; and it was one of the 
standard old 48 asterisms. Its constituents have been thus numbered : 

Ptolemy . * . 02 stars. Bayer .... 27 stars. 

Copernicus . . 22 Heveliua . . . 46 

Tycho Brahe* , . 21 Flamsteed . 97 

Kepler , . . 25 Bode . . . 301 

The Arabians appear to have given great attention to this fish. From 
a fancied resemblance of the stars of the head to the Kaff-al-Khadfo 
in Cassiopeia, they designated a, 8, A, /x, and , Kaff-al-jidhmd 9 the 
maimed hand; the five stars on the body 17, 0, r, and v were 
al-na'dmdt, the ostriches ; and $ i, 2, 3, and 4, which are nearly in a 
straight line across the tail, were called al-ni<}hdm t the necklace. 



E. A. 2 h * s6 m - 3 h . i m ' 79 



175. 52 ABIETIS. (2. 346.) CXXVI. 

h, m. s. . 



B.A. 2 58 59 
Decl, N 24 49'5 



Prec. + 3-50 
N 14-25 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

t AB 265.7 ... 0-8 J 
SMYTH ] A C 355 ... 5 [ ... 1835-88 

(AD 85 ... 105 ) 

DONEB J AB2(5 9'5 ... 0.64 ... 1872.26 

(AC 357-1 , ^5.14 ... 1872-68 

BURNHAM AD 82-5 ... 102-8 ... i88cx>3 

A quadruple group, between the Rain's tail and the Fly, followed 
nearly on the parallel by a small dusky star, A is 6^, bright white ; 
B 7, pale blue; C 15, blue; and D 13, lilac : the details of the latter 
two being, of course, mere estimations. It may be picked up by running 
the eye from 41 Arietis the lucida of Musca towards the Pleiades, in 
which direction it lies, at about one-third of the distance. A line led 
from y Pegasi between a and /3, in the head of the Earn, and carried 
nearly as far again, also hits this object. 

[Knott thinks C brighter than stated above ; brighter in fact than D.] 

176, 109 1$. I. SBEDAHI. (h. 283; H. 645.) 

h. m. s. . 



B.A. 2 59 21 



o 



Decl. S 26 28-7 



Prec. + 2-60 



14-22 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerschePs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B : p S ; vl E o ; r ; S* nr;" which means : " considerably bright; 
pretty small ; a very little extended in the direction of the meridian ; 
resolveable ; there is a small star near," 

177. ft 7BB8EX. CXXVII. 

h, m. s. 



B.A. 312 
Bed. H 40 31 9 



Prec, -h 3-88 

tt 
- N 14-12 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

BUBNHAM 192-9 ,,, 8l-8 .,. 1880-05 

A variable star, with a companion in the sp quadrant, and two 
others [in the */, both of about mag, i, and both about i' from 
A, according to Burnham.] A 2 to 4, whitish; B [10], purple. 
This star is generally known as Algol t a variation of Al-gMl^ the 
monster or demon; so harshly depicted in Hevelius's map of 



80 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

asterism. This ominous name was mightily noted in Astrology, and 
to its influence poor Padre Vitalis, in his dismal Jeremiad, attributed 
the then unhappy lot of the kingdom of Naples. Sedillot wrote rhdl for 
ghtil, but he adopted so singular a mode of expressing Arabic words, 
that it is not always easy to find out what he meant to denote. 

Algol is the most remarkable of the periodic stars, since its changes 
of light occupy but 2 d iofk; and this is best observed at the recurrence 
of the diminished light, because when brightest it is the more difficult 
to determine, from its varying in brilliance at different times. The most 
feeble light lasts about 2O m , from the examination of which, Argelander 
concludes that the period of Algol is not quite constant. The first who 
observed these variations was Montanari; and in 1694 Maraldi ascer- 
tained that it changed from the 2 nd to the 4 th magnitude. 

It varies from the 2 nci to the 4 tb magnitude in 3!^ and back again to 
the 2 cd in the same time, and so remains for the rest of the period, 
retaining its brightness. [For further particulars see my Handbook of 
Astronomy, 3rd ed., p. 499.] 

To find Algol by alignment, project a ray from Orion's belt through 
a Bootis, and carrying it something more than double the distance, it 
will hit the head of Medusa ; or, lisping in numbers, 

Thus belt of Hero, eye of Bull, so surely mark the place 

Where Algol shines, 'bove three faint stars, in fell Medusa's face. 

These same stars collectively, were formerly called the Qorgons. 

178, 94 CETI. CXXIX. 



h. m. 

B.A. 3 7 
Decl. S 1 

SMYTH 
BUENHAM 


94 Cl 

8. 

9 

36-5 

Position, ! 

o 

260.0 , , , 

2509 ... 


ESTI. 

Free. 


+ 3'4 

N 13-74 
Epoch. 

187770 


distance 

n 

57 .- 



A most delicate double star, on the tip of the cameleon-like tongue 
with which the celestial Whale is often figured ; it will be struck by a 
line thrown from a Arietis, in the Kam's head, through a Ceti, and 
carried about 6| beyond. A 5^, pale cream-colour; B 16, dusky. 
Sir J. Herschel registered the acolyte as of the 19 th magnitude. But 
as, after several toilful trials under the best circumstances, I caught a 
view which, though most evanescent, and under an averted eye, was 
sufficient to catch a guess by, I have assigned its brightness at the -point 
which is fixed upon as the minimum visibile of my telescope. It must, 
however, be esteemed among the intensive^ of faintness, and has been 
repeatedly sought in vain, with the same instrument. This acolyte, if 
"Dot physically connected with A, must be almost inconceivably beyond it 



B. A, 3 h * i m - 3 h " 7 m - 81 

in the vast profundity of those remote regions which may be but the 
beginning of the Universe. 



179. 12 ERIDAJSTL (*h. 3555.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 3 7 23 
Decl. S 29 26-0 



Prec. -f 2-52 

// 
N 13-72 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEKSCHEL, J. 310-0 ... 5.3 ... 1836-31 

JACOB 310.0 ,., 3-3 ... 1856-16 

STONE, 0. 316-0 ... 2.44 ... 1878.81 

A very fine double star. A 3^ ; B 8. 



180. 25 I. VI. PERSEI. (h. 290; H. 658; .) CXXVIII. 



K. A. 3 7 26 
Decl. N 46 49 '4 



Prec. + 4-10 
N 13-79 



A very extensive and compressed cluster, on the right side of Perseus, 
in a rich portion of the Galaxy; and it has a gathering spot, about 4' in 
diameter, where the star-dust glows among the minute points of light. 
This elegant sprinkle was registered, in December, 1786, by IjL, who 
says, " the large stars are arranged in lines like interwoven letters." 

[" A low power shows a very faint large cloud of minute stars (H., 
12-15 m.) beautifully bordered by a foreshortened pentagon of larger 
ones." Thus described at Parsonstown Nov. 23, 1848: "Coarse 
cluster strongly honeycombed. Would probably look annular with 
eccentric eyehole if it were far enough to be a nebula."] 



181. 362 S. CAMELOPAKDI. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 3 7 30 
Decl. 1ST 69 87 '8 



Prec. -f 4-69 
N 13-71 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STRUVE,W. AB 142.3 . 6-9 ... 1831.54 

MAIN 141-0 ... 7-2 ... 1863-22 

DEMBOWSKI AC 271.7 ... 35.3 ... 1866-1 

A double star. A 8 j-, very white ; B 8, very white. [0 10.] Other 
stars near make this a beautiful field. 



82 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

182. 369 2. PEBSEI. 

h. m. s. s. 



B. A. 3 9 9 
Decl. N 40 4-7 



Free. + 3-88 
N 13-61 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



STEUVB, W. 


28-8 


3-2 


1829.55 


DAWES 


26.5 ... 


3-8 


1840-15 


DAWES 


26-0 


3-5 


1854-08 


MAIN 


25-8 ... 


3'6 


1864.24 



A double star. A 7, yellowish white ; B 8, bluish white. 
183. 2518 h. EBIDANI. (H. 670.) 

h. m. B. s. 



B.A. 3 10 46 



o 



Decl. S 41 29'7 



Prec. -f 2-19 
N 13-50 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; R ; gmb M ;" which means : " very bright ; round ; gradually 
much brighter in the middle/' 



184. 487 Dunlop EBIDANI. (h. 2521; H. 685.) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 3 13 20 



o 



Decl. 8 41 30*1 



Prec. -f 2*19 
1ST 13-33 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864 : 
" J v B ; p L ; R; mbM ; er ;" which means : " a globular cluster ; 
very bright ; pretty large ; round ; much brighter in the middle ; 
easily resolveable." 



185. 1069 Lao. BETICULI. 



h. 
B.A. 3 

Decl. 8 


m. B. 

13 27 

/ 

64 51*1 


Prec. -f 

N 


. 

o-95 
// 


SOHEL, J. 


Position. Distance. 

// 

102*3 ,,. 19.7 


Epoch. 
1836*49 



double star. A J ; B 9 \. Gerald rates B at 8} mag. 



B.A. 



83 



186. 



eiei Lai. ERIDAETL (*h. 3565.) 



B.A. 3 13 43 

Decl. S 18 57-6 

Position. 



Prec. + 2-73 

N 13-31 

Distance. Epoch. 



HEESOHEL, J. 
STONE, 0. 



110-4 
in 6 



57 
5'9 



I835-78 
18760 



A double star. A 5 ; B 9. The K.A. given above is believed to be 
not very accurate. Gould's place gives 3^ i3 m 39 s for 1890. 



187. 



r 4 ERIDANI. 


B.A. 


h. 

3 


m. s. 

14 37 


Prec. + 


2*-66 


Decl. 


3 


O 1 

22 9*5 

Position. 


N 


13-26 


Distance. 


SMYTH 
JACOB 
CINCINNATI CBS 
BURNHAM 


AC 
AB 
AB 
AC 




240-8 
287-0 
287-1 
236-2 


n 
I^O 

5*4 
4-7 
J59-9 





CXXX. 



Epoch. 

1836-90 

1^57-95 
1877-86 
1880-02 

A bright star with a [near and a] distant companion, in the second 
reach of the Biver ; being one of no fewer than nine stars designated by 
the letter r in Bayer's Map of Eridanus. A 3}, light orange; [B 10 ; 
On]. This object is in a barren field, and the large star seems over- 
rated, since it appeared more than once diminished to nearly a 5 th 
magnitude; but the lowness of its position renders the case doubtful, 
from variable refraction. [B was discovered by Capt. Jacob. Burnham 
mentions 3 other stars at 40", 123", and 130" respectively, all visible he 
thinks in a 6^ refractor.] 



188. 



B. A. 
Decl. 



h. m. 

3 15 



37 P. III. PERSEI. 

3. 

25 Prec. + 



49 49 '1 



4-20 



N 13-19 



A 6 tn mag. orange star noted by Webb for having a fine blue com- 
panion in a beautiful field. Near a, S. and a little p thereof. It is 1035 
B.A.C. Persei. 



189* a PEBSEI. 

h. m. s. 

K.A. 3 16 28 

Decl. N 49 28*2 

Position. Distance. 

o 

BUBNHAM 195.4 ... 165.7 



CXXXI. 



Prec. -f 4-25 



I3-I3 

Epoch. 
1879.56 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a companion, in a rich galaxy field. 



G 2 



84 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

A a-f , brilliant lilac ; B 9, cinereous ; they are followed at a little dis- 
tance by many small stars. [Knott says : " No trace of Smyth's 9 th 
mag. star. There is a star of that magnitude which precedes a by 30", 
a little K of the parallel, and a faint triangle of i4 tb mag. stars in the 
sp quadrant."] It is now placed in the Hero's left side, but as it was 
called Mirfak, the elbow, or more fully Al mirfak al thureyyd^Q elbow 
of the Pleiades, to distinguish it from the other elbow, the figure may 
have once been differently situated : still its other Oriental name, Jenb 
Hershdwushy signifies the side of Perseus (Bershdwush ncpo-cvs), the p being 
lost in Arabic. Chrysococca calls it UXcvpa Uepcrdovs; and it must be 
from the word Jenb that it was corrupted to Algenib, the style and title 
of y Pegasi, an equivoque complained of by Sir J. Herschel. 

A fancied line projected from the Pole-star to the Pleiades passes 
through the left knee of Perseus, and points in the mid-distance to 
Mirfak ; which is also gained by a line from Castor to Capella onwards ; 
or by that which the rhymester points out : 

A ray from Algol to the Pole with accuracy guide, 

Near, but behind it, Mirfak shines in Perseus* manly side. 

Perseus, whose mythological story is too well known to require 
repetition, is one of the old 48 asterisms, and is placed in a very brilliant 
part of the Yia Lactea, nearly opposite to the three stars forming the 
tail of Ursa Major, on the other side of the pole, and directly N. of 
the Pleiades. The number of his stars may really be called infinite, on 
gazing with a powerful telescope ; but of his constituents, whose mean 
apparent places are tabulated, the numbers run : 

Ptolemy ... 29 stars. Hevelius .... 46 stars. 

Tycho Brails' . , 33 Flamsteed . . . 59 

Bayer .... 38 Bode . . , . , 196 

This asterism, in the Arabo-Latin Almagest, is designated Cheleab, 
which Grotius refers to kelb, a dog, but others to Jcullub, the harpago, or 
hooked weapon in the Hero's hand *. 

190. 46 P. III. ABIETIS. (2. 381.) CXXXII. 



h. m. s. 



R.A. 3 16 59 

Decl. 3ST 20 34'3 

Position, 
o 

STBUVE, W. 93*7 ,.. 
SMYTH 87.6 
STKUVE, 0. 91-1 
HALL 90-2 


Free. + 


3'47 
// 
13-02 

Epoch. 

1827.16 
1834.19 
1843.71 
1878-10 


Distance. 
// 
075 
0-8 
0-94 
0-85 



A close double star, just following the tail of Aries, at about one-third 

* Some of our crusaders must have better etymon for "club," than the clwppa 
imported this word ; for it is assuredly a and kluppel cited by Dr, Johnson. 



R.A. 



i6 m - 



2O m . 



85 



of the distance between b Arietis and the Pleiades. A 8, pearl white; 
B 9, yellow. This exquisitely delicate object is in a line with two distant 
stars of the 10^ magnitude in the sp quadrant, and there is another 
small one in the nf. The elongation was not immediately detected ; and 
the focus was slightly distorted to examine the outline of the spurious 
disc. This, if well managed, is often of great use on such occasions. 



191. 106 1$. I. ERIDANI. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 3 16 59 
Decl. S 15 47'3 



(h. 2523 ; H. 692 ; ,) 

8. 

Free. + 2-78 

// 
N 13-09 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"pB; cL; iE; gbM; *7, f7'5 8 , 211;" which means : " pretty 
bright ; considerably large ; irregular round ; gradually brighter in the 
middle; a 7 th mag. star follows at 7-5*, at an angle of 211 with the 
meridian." The bright star precedes, not follows, according to the 
Parsonstown observations, Jan. 9, 1877. Pos. = 2O9; Dist. 244". 



192. 



548 Duulop ERIDANI. (h. 2527 ; H. 607.) 

h. m. S. S. 

R.A. 3 18 28 



Decl. S 37 37-2 



Free, -f 2-29 

// 
N 13-00 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; c L ; vl E ; vsvmb M N j " which means : " very bright ; con- 
siderably large ; very little extended ; very suddenly very much brighter 
in the middle so as to present a nucleus/' 



193. 



2 (Hev.) CAMELOPARDI, (2. 385.) 

8. 

Free. + 4-77 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 3 20 8 



Decl. N 59 33*0 

Position, 
o 

STROVE, W. 161-3 



N 12-89 

Distance. Epoch. 

2-35 -. 1829.94 



A double star, A 4^, yellow ; B 9^, white. 



194. 



60 $. I. EBTDANI. (H. 709; *) 

s. 

Free. + 2*66 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 3 20 55 



Decl. 8 21 44*2 



N 12-83 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 



86 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

" v B j S ; E 90 ... 1 80 ; smb UN; np of 2 ; "which means : "very 
bright; small; elongated in the direction 90 to 180; suddenly much 
brighter in the middle and with a nucleus ; this is the north preceding 
one of 2 nebulae." 

The other nebula is 959 1$. Ill, and is "very faint and very small/' 
It follows at 1 8 s and is 26" to the S. 

195. 389 S. CAMELOPABDI. 

h. ra. s. 



R.A. 3 21 18 
Decl. N" 58 58'9 



Free, + 4-74 

N 1 2-8 1 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 61-8 ... 2-80 ... 1831-00 

DAWES 62.7 ,,, 2-82 ... 1854-75 

GLBDHILL 63-3 ... 2-7 .,, 1873.94 

A double star. A 7^, white ; B 8-|, purplish. 
196. 4 (Hev.) CAMBLOPARDI. (S. 390.) 



h. 



R.A. 3 21 36 

Decl. N 65 3'9 



Free. 



N 12-79 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

O H 

STEUVE, W. 159-6 ... 15-0 ... 1832-04 
A double star. A 5, greenish white ; B 10. 

197. 88 $. VIII. PEBSEI. (h. 301; H. 717; .) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 3 24 36 
Bed. N 36 56 '7 



Free. + 3-85 



12-58 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; v L ; ab 60 st ; " which means : " a cluster ; very large ; comprises 
about 60 stars." 

198. 396 2. CAMELOPAEDI. 

h. m. s. , 



B.A. 3 24 40 







Deed. 1ST 58 23*7 



Free. + 4-72 
N 12-65 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STBUVE, W. 241-8 ... 20.3 ... 1829.57 

MAIN 241-3 ... 20-1 ... 1863-80 

A double star. A 6|, white ; B 8, white. 



R A. 



87 



199. 



401 2. TAITEI. 



h. m. B. 

R.A. 3 24 42 

Decl, N* 27 11 '7 

Position. 



STRUVE, W. 

MAIN 



270-0 
267-2 



Prec. + 3- 60 
N 12-58 



Distance. 



IM 



A double star. A 7, white ; B 7^-, white. 



Epoch. 

1830-96 
1866-10 



200. 



400 2. CAMELOPABDI. 



h. 
B.A, 3 

Decl, N 
STRUVE, W. 

M ABLER 

STRUVE, 0. 
GLEDHILL 
HALL 

A double star. A ' 


m. B. 

26 20 

59 39-6 

Position. 

282-5 
288.5 

293-4 
295.0 
302-4 

7-|", yellowish w 


Prec. 


8. 

-f 4'8i 

N 12-46 
Epoch. 
1829.94 

1862-23 
1873.96 
1879.3 

J-, bluish white. 


Distance. 

n 
1-52 

1-08 

I-OO 
1.2 

0-68 
hite; B8 



" Certain 



change in angle and distance. Probably a binary." (Gledhill.) 



201 






7 


TAUBI. 


& 


412.) 


CXXXIII. 






h. 


m. 


8. 




8. 








B.A. 


3 


27 


55 


Prec. + 3-54 











t 




If 








Decl. 


3ST 


24 


6*7 




N 12-35 






Position. 


Distance, 


Epoch. 












o 












HERSCHEL, W. 






AC 66-7 




19-83 


1783.77 






STRUVE, W. 


( AB 269-92 


0-69 


1830-38 








(AC 63-02 ... 


22-40 


1830-92 






SMYTH 


JAB 265.0 


0-7 ) 


1833-21 




(AU 01-9 


21-8 J 








SECCHI 


AB 256-8 


0.42 


1856-35 






GLEDHILL 


AB 232-0 


0.4 


1873.94 




WILSON and SEABROKE 


AC 60-6 


... 


22*9 


1874-00 




A 


triple star, on the back of Taurus, 


about 3 to 


the np of 


the 


Pleiades. A 6, white 


; B 


6-|, pale yellow ; 


On, bluish. 


This is a 


fine 



and very difficult object. A and C point to a comes in the nf quadrant, 
Sir "William Herschel did not observe that A was double* It may have 
opened since. 

[It seems certain that A B form a binary, but the relations of C to 
A B are not by any means clear.] 



88 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



202. 



98 P. III. EBII 

h. m, s. 

R.A. 3 31 8 

Decl. N 13-9 

Position. 



SOUTH 225.2 
SMYTH 231.8 
SECCHI 237.3 

BUBNHAM 243-2 


)AWI. 

Prec. 


(s. 

+ 
N 


422.) 

8. 
3-07 

12-20 

Epoch. 

1824.02 
1834.93 
1857-06 
1878-87 


Distance. 

n 

5-8i 
5-9 
6-37 
6.4 



CXXXIV. 



A delicate double star, on a line with a Ceti and /3 Orionis, and nearly 
one-third the distance : /3 and a Tauri also point upon it, A 6^, yellow ; 
and B 9, pale blue. 

This object is between the Bull's chest and the northern branch of 
the Eridanus, in the part where the Abb6 Hell (who also placed 
Herschel's telescope among the celestials) squeezed in his JIarpa Georgii, 
to compliment a sovereign of these realms ; having filched from 
Eridanus about 30 or 40 stars, some of the 4 th magnitude, for the 
purpose. 

[Direct motion * certain, but the observations in distance are very 
contradictory.] 



203. 



574 Dunlop EEIDANI. (h. 2559 ; H. 739.) 

s. 

Prec. H- 2-31 



h. m. s. 

K.A. 3 31 18 



Decl. 8 35 22 "9 



12*12 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; L; R; psbMj" which means: "very bright; large; round; 
pretty suddenly brighter in the middle/' 



204. 



425 2. PEBSEI. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 3 33 9 
Decl. N 33 45 '1 



Position. 

o 
SOUTH 103-7 

MADLEB 103.9 

SECCHI 101.9 

WILSON and SEABBOKE 99.3 



s. 

3'77 



Prec. + 

N 11-99 

Distance. Epoch. 



3-4 
3-3 
2.8 
2-61 



1823.98 
1841.79 
1857.64 

1877.16 



A double star, A 8, very white ; B 8, very white. Webb writes : 
" a true ' pair,' a liibtle p 40 Persei, 6 th mag." 



E.A. 3 h> 3i m ' 3 h ' 34 m - 89 



205. 97 P. HI. CAMELOPARDI. 



h. 



R.A, 3 33 38 
Decl. N 59 36 '8 



Prec. + 4-87 
N i'i'95 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

KNOTT 34.3 ,., 55.6 ,,, 1863-00 

A double star. A 6, orange with scarlet glare ; B 9, blue. 



206. 58 I. I. TAURI. (h. 2566; H. 746.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 3 33 42 
Decl. S 23 22-9 



Prec. -f 2-60 
N 11-95 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; p S ; E ; psmb M ; " which means : " bright ; pretty small ; ex- 
tended ; pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle." 

Precedes the Pleiades 2, a little to the S. 



207. 34 B. TAURI. (2. 427.) 



h. m. 



RA. 3 33 55 
Decl. N 28 25-1 



Prec. + 3-64 
N 11-94 



Position. Distance, Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 208-6 ,,. 67 ... 1831-09 

208-6 ... 6-6 ,., . 1868-65 



A double star. A 7, white ; B 8, bluish white, DuneVs colours agree 
in the main with Struve's. 



208. 2569 h. BRIDANI. (H. 748.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 3 34 20 
Decl. S 35 48'9 



Prec. -f- 2-29 

// 
N 11-90 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" 0; vB; pL; psbM; rr; 1 which means: "a globular cluster; 
very bright; pretty large; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle; 
partially resolved some stars visible/' 



90 
209. 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

39 B. TAUBI. (2. 430.) 

s. 

Prec. -f- 3-16 



h. m. a. 

B.A, a 34 40 



Decl, W 4 46*0 

Position. 
STKITVE, W. 55.3 

BUBNHAH if* 55-4 
( AC 301.0 



N u-88 

Distance. Epoch. 

26.5 ... 1831-23 
1878-03 



26-4) 
37-7) 



A triple star. A 6, very yellow ; B g\ ; C 10. A and B at any rate 
are fixed. 



210. 107 $. I. EBIDANI. (h 2570 ; H. 752 ; ,) CXXXVII. 

h. m. s. s. 

B.A. 3 35 17 Prec. + 2*70 
Decl. S 18 54-0 N i'i-87 

A milky-white nebula, between the two northern reaches of the River ; 
it is pale, but distinct, round, and bright in the centre. It lies nearly 
midway between and preceding two distant stars, sf and nf y the three 
forming an obtuse-angled triangle ; there are only a few glimpse stars 
besides in the field. To fish it up, run an imaginary line from the coarse 
double star 40 Eridani through y, and extend it exactly as far again as 
the distance between those two points. 

[" Very faint in 8| in refractor." 



211. 



40 PEBSEI. (2. 431.) 



CXXXVI. 



B.A. 3 35 24 
Decl. N 33 36 '7 

Position. 

o 
STRUVE, W. 237.0 

SMYTH 238-3 

SMYTH 237-8 

BURNHAM 238-0 



Prec. + 3-79 
N 11-83 



Distance. 
tf 
19.77 

2O>6 



Epoch. 

1828-15 
1834-92 

1852-12 
1877-88 



A delicate double star, on the wing of the Hero's right ankle, if one 
of the talaria may be so called. A 6, pale white ; B 10, ash-coloured. 

The identity of this star has created some little confusion, since 
several astronomers, among whom are even Flamsteed and Piazzi, have 
designated 38 and 40 Persei under the letters o l and o 2 : but Baily 
has shown, in his edition of the British Catalogue, that 40 Persei is the 
"parvula supra o" in the Historia Ccekstis; and that 38 Persei is the 



E. A. 3 h - 34 m - 3 h - 39 



91 



Greek *o fUKpbv, while the other is the English o of Bayer. It may be 
found by running a line from /3 Persei a" little to the "W. of the 
Pleiades, and it will pass over 40 Persei at something more than half 
the distance. It is also struck by a ray carried from the cluster in the 
sword of Orion, over a Tauri, and extended a little more than as 
far again. 



212. 



h. m. s. 

H.A. 3 38 39 



19 PLEIADITM. 

s. 

Prec. 



CXXXVIII. 



Decl. JST 24 7'4 



3-55 



N 



Position. 



Distance. 



MAIN 
BUENHAM 



331.1 
329-8 



Epoch. 

64-6 ... 1863-08 
66-7 ... 1879-86 

A delicate double star, in the cluster on the shoulder of Taurus. 
A 5, lucid white; and B 10, violet tint. This object, though wide, is 
fine ; being Taygeta, a leading one of the seven sisters, whose name 
appears to have been of some weight in Sparta. In this group, Celeno 
and Electra appear to be affected with proper motions, similar in 
denomination though not in amount : yet they are lo^' apart, on an 
angle = 353. 



213. 562 Dunlop ERIDANI. 

h. m. s. 

R. A. 3 39 16 
Deol. S 36 28-4 



(h. 2581; H. 769.) 

s. 

Prec. -f 2-26 
N 0*56 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"; vB; pmE; pgbM;" which means: "a globular cluster ; very 
bright ; pretty much extended ; pretty gradually brighter in the middle." 



214. 



STBUVE, W. 
SMYTH 



15 PLEIADITM. (2. 444.) CXXXIX. 

h. m. s. s. 

Prec. + 3'55 
N 11-61 

Distance. Epoch. 

3-27 ... 1832.34 



B.A. 3 39 20 
Decl. N 22 48*2 



Position. 

o 
338.9 

342.0 



. 5 ... 1835.03 

A double star, in the cluster on the Bull's shoulder. A 8, bright 
white j B 14, fine blue. 



92 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



215* 443 2. PEBSEI. 

h. m. s, 



B.A. 3 39 28 
Bed. N 41 8'6 



Free. + 4-01 
N 11-54 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

STEUVE, W. 44-2 ,., 9.0 ... 1830-86 
A double star. A 9, white ; B 9^, white. 



216. 768 H. TAUBI. 

h. m. 8. 



B. A. 3 39 38 
Decl. N 23 25 '5 



Free, -f 3-54 
N 11-53 



Tempers variable nebula near the star Merope in the Pleiades. The 
above place is from Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864. On Oct. 19, 
1859, Tempel observed in Taurus an object which he took to be a new 
telescopic comet. The next evening, however, finding it still in the 
same position, he was able to determine that it was not a comet, but a 
nebula. On Dec. 31, 1860, it was seen again by Tempel and Pape, 
though with some difficulty. Auwers describes it as triangular in form, 
and 1 5' in extent, but he thinks that it might have escaped notice owing 
to its proximity to a bright star Merope, one of the Pleiades. Schia- 
parelli, at Milan, trying a new telescope on Feb. 25, 1875, saw this 
nebula very clearly, and was much surprised at its size. He noted it to 
extend from the star Merope, beyond Electra and as far as Cebeno. 

Maxwell Hall has seen this object well with a 4 in refractor in 
Jamaica. He estimates its dimensions at 45' by 30'. Tempel only makes 
it about 35' by 20'. Schonfeld has doubted the fact of variation. He 
thinks that this and other nebulae suspected to be variable being very 
feeble, large, and diffused, are influenced in their visibility by differences 
of magnifying power, the varying transparency of the air, and the con- 
dition of the observer's eye, so that the aperture of the telescope is a 
less important factor than it usually is. In spite of the novelty involved 
in the idea of a nebula being variable, it seems quite clear that several 
such exist. See my Handbook of Astronomy, 3 rd ed., p. 543. 



217. 23 PLEIADIUM. CXL. 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 3 39 48 
Peel, H 23 36 '4 



Free. + 3-54 
N i'i-53 



BA <?hf ^nm. <?h. /irkttl O^ 

* XJL, ^5 \Js ^^ O AU f /O 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SOUTH BC 119.7 ,., 34.5 ,., 1823.99 

BUBNHAM BC 122-4 ... 36-7 ... 1878-70 
A bright star on the Bull's shoulder, pointing to the small pair in the 
S. of the field, AS, silvery white ; B 8, purple ; and C 9, pale blue. This 
object Merope is in a fine neighbourhood, as viewed under a moderate 
magnifying power, being near the middle of the Pleiades. 

[Burnham finds A double. Pos. 11-2; Dist. i8-i"; 1878-67.] 
[In close proximity to this star (optically at any rate) is Tempel's 
variable nebula (= H. 768).] 

218. 77 TAUBI. (2. 8 App, I.) CXLII. 

h. m. s. , 



R.A. 3 40 56 






Decl. N 23 45*9 



Free. + 3-55 



N 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

SOUTH 288-7 IJ 6-4 ... 1824 

SMYTH 289-2 ... 115.6 ... 1836.97 
MAIN 288.9 ... 118-2 ... 1868-82 

Alcyone, a Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, in the 
midst of the Pleiades, called by the Arabians Jauza, the wall-nut, and 
Neyyir, bright, or lucida of the Pleiades. A 3, greenish yellow ; B 7, 
pale white. Piazzi marked this " duplex/' but the comes could only be 
151 P. III. 

This star has usually been considered as the one described under the 
32 nd of Taurus, in Ptolemy, and there marked in brightness. But 
JBaily says, " I do not think this star can be rj Tauri, on account of its 
magnitude : yet it is singular that the brightest star in the Pleiades 
should not have been noticed by Ptolemy *." 

The Pleiades constitute a celebrated group of stars, or miniature con- 
stellation, on the shoulder of Taurus ; their popular influences have been 
said and sung for many ages. Hesiod mentions them as the Seven 
Virgins, " of Atlas born ; " and in the ancient MS. of Cicero's Aratus, in 
the British Museum, they are finely represented by female heads, inscribed 
Merope, Alcyone, Celaeno, Electra, Taygeta, Asterope, and Maia, under 
the general title AtMantides, while the illustrations to Julius Firmicus 
in 1497 represent them as well-grown women. The moral may be, that 
Atlas himself first rigidly observed these stars, and named them after his 
daughters. But various are the appellations under which they have been, 
known, Theon likened them to a bunch of grapes ; Aratus says they 

* The occultations of this star, and h 1839, by my excellent friend Lord Chief 
Pleiadurn, by the dark limb of the Moon, Justice Tindal ; who thus elegantly occu- 
were well observed on the ipth March, pied the evening of an assize-day at Bedford, 



94 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

were called eirrdiropoi ; Manillas clusters them as glomeraUle sidus ; 
the Arabs paid they were Ath-thurayya, or the little ones; the French 
designate them poussinidre; the Germans, Gluckhenne; the Italians knew 
them as le gallinette ; the Spaniards term them the cabrillas, or little 
nanny-goats, which is the key of the Duke's query to Sancho ; and several 
schools called them the brood-hen, under the representation of a hen and 
chickens. There has also been much discussion as to the number of the 
individuals in the group, some of the ancients having advanced that 
there were seven, and others resolving to count only six, in the spirit of 
Ovid's oft-cited- 

Quae septem dici, sex tamen ease solent. 

The "lost Pleiad" is, however, rather a poetical than an exact 
expression, for in moonless nights I never had any difficulty in counting 
seven stars in the so-called Hexastron, with the naked eye; and indeed 
this is nothing to boast of, for many people may enumerate even more, 
though few will equal Mostlin, the discoverer of the new star of 1604, 
who, as Kepler avers, could distinctly see 14 stars in the Pleiades, 
without any glasses. Still, if we admit the influence of variability at long 
periods, the seven in number may have occasionally been more distinct ; 
so that while Homer and Attalus speak of six of them, Hipparchus and 
Aratus may properly mention seven. But they have a singularly brilliant 
light for their magnitudes, whence the unassisted eye becomes dazzled. 
The ancients allotted to them only seven stars ; but in modern catalogues 
their numbers have run thus : 

Kepler .... 32 stars. Hook 78 stars. 

Galileo .... 36 Jeaurat .... 103 

Be la Hire ... 64 F. De Rheita . .188 

An imaginary line through the wain of the Great Bear, passing a, 
Aurigse, leads to the Pleiades; or, from the S., a line from Sirius, 
carried over Orion's belt, meets them. 

An interest in the Pleiades is strongly excited by Job's beautiful, 
allusion to God's power, in the 9 th chapter of his book. "We are held 
to deal largely in chronology when, by reducing the occasus matutinus of 
these stars twenty- five days after the autumnal equinox to this time, 
we find that [2426] years have elapsed since the death of Thales ; but here 
we have recorded evidence of their being well notice^ more than 3000 
years ago ! Look also to the 38 th chapter, where, in convincing Job of 
ignorance and imbecility, the Omnipotent demands, 

Canst them bind the sweet influences of the Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion ? 
Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season? or canst thou guide Arcturui 

with hig sons? 
Knowest thou the ordinances of Heaven 3 canst thou set the dominion thereof in 

the earth? 



E.A. 3^ 40**' 95 

Now this splendid passage, I am assured, is more correctly rendered* 
thus : 

Canst thou bind the delightful dainties of Cheemah ? 
Or the contractions of Ch'seel canst th"u open? 
Canst thou draw forth Mazzaroth in his season? 
Or Ayeesh and his sons canst thou guide? 

In this very early description of the cardinal constellations, Cheemah 
denotes Taurus, with the Pleiades j Ch'seel is Scorpio ; Mazzaroth is 
Sirius, in the "chambers of the south;" and Ayeesh the Greater Bear, the 
Hebrew word signifying a bier, which was shaped by the four well-known 
bright stars, while the three forming the tail were considered as the 
children attending a funeral. St. Augustin, in his annotations on the 
above passage, assures us that under the Pleiades and Orion, God com- 
prehends all the rest of the stars, by a figure of speech, putting a part for 
the whole ; and the argument is, The all-powerful Deity regulates the 
seasons, and no mortal can intermeddle with them, or presume to scan 
the ordinances of Heaven. 

This beautiful group of stars also attracted very early attention in 
Greece ; and Hesiod, in the opening of the second book of Works and 
Days, has a truly astronomical passage upon the Pleiades, nearly 1000 
years B.C. It is thus rendered by Cooke : 

There is a time when forty days they lie, 
And forty nights, conceal'd from human eye, 
But in the course of the revolving year, 
When the swain sharps the scythe, again appear. 

Among the classical ancients the heliacal rising of the Seven Stars was 
esteemed the most favourable season for setting out on a voyage, though 
rain and storms were frequently then prevalent, whence Ideler thinks 
they merit the appellation of Schiffahrts-gestirn. Some savants tell us, 
that from the custom of letting fly a pigeon on the occasion, for auspices, 
they were named the Pleiades, or doves : others say the designation is 
derived from nXflv, to sail ; while another class insist that it is derived 
from TrAeos, full, from the genial bearings of the asterism. Thus etymo- 
logists dock and stretch words, and limbs of words, after a Procrustean 
fashion, to suit their own theories, a practice by which they fall into 
many a trap, even more fatal than that which assumed the Mount Sier of 
Ezekiel for Monsieur, over-the-way. Of this system of convertible terms 
and changeable terminations, which form the etymological battery, a 
notable expos occurs in Townsend's scourging of Sir W. Drummond ; 
from which we may instance the group in question, Succoth Benotih t or 

* On this point see my Handbook of Hartwellianwi as an improvement on 
Astronomy ', 3 rd ed. p. 481. The version what originally appeared in this place in 
above Is by Drach from Smyth's Speculum the lat ed. of the Cycle. 



96 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Pleiades, on the back of " Tur t Tor, Tau, whence is derived Turris, 
Topo-ts, Tapo-os, Tvptrof, Tavpoy, and Taurus" the Bull. By the way, 
Aldebaran was called Taliyu-n-nejm, as following or driving the Pleiades : 
can this have engendered the tally-ho of earthly chases 1 I have elsewhere 
remarked, what a capital hit a sharp wit might make between Almactts 
famous ball-room, and the beautiful double star Al'maJc, which being on 
Andromeda's right foot may be assumed to symbolize dancing. 



219. 



80 $. VIII. PERSEI. (H, 775; 2,446; .) CXLI., 

h. m. s. s, 

B.A, 3 41 3 Free. + 4-49 



Decl. N 52 19 '5 

Position. 

o 
STRUVE, W. 252.7 

SMYTH 255-0 



Free. + 

N 

Distance. 

8-54 .- 
9-5 



Epoch. 

1830-74 
1836-79 



A delicate double star in a cluster over the Hero's left thigh, and about 
one-third of the distance between y Persei and Capella. A 8, light yellow ; 
B n, pale violet. The large individual is placed equatorially between 
two small stars, and the secondary advances into the sp quadrant, forming 
a fine object. 



220. 



1237 Lac. DORADUS. (*h. 3592.) 

Free. + 1-52 
N i'i-37 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 3 41 45 



Decl. 8 54 36*9 



HERSCHEL, J. 
SANTIAGO OBS. 



Position, 
o 

"3 
6.0 



Distance. 
// 
6.0 

6.1 



Epoch. 

1836.99 
1851-93 



A double star. A 6, yellow ; B 10, pale blue. 



221. 



30 


TAUBI. 


(2, 452.) 




h. m. 


&. 




8. 


R.A. 3 42 


14 


Free. + 


3-28 





f 




n 


Decl. N 10 


48*2 


N 


"'34 


Position, 


Distance. 


Epoch. 







// 




HBKSOHEL,W. 


72.7 


11*27 


1782.69 


STEUVB, W. 


57-9 


8-89 


1830-71 


SMYtffc 


58-5 ... 


9-0 


1839.90 



A delicate double star, on the left shoulder-blade of Taurus, indicated 



E. A, 3 h - 40 m -- 3 h - 42**- 9T 



l>y a line drawn from fTauri, in the 8. horn, under a Tauri, and continued 
as far again. A 6, pale emerald; B 10, purple. 

[Smyth subsequently stated in the Speculum Hartivellianum that B 
was of mag. 9, and the colours not " so decidedly strong as they were 
1 8 years before." He would have entered them as "A, greenish; 
B, lilac."] 

H. has shown, from the existence of some error in IJTs observations, 
that "no conclusion respecting the motion or rest of this star can 
be formed." 



222. 27 PLEIADUM. (2. 453.) CXLIV. 



h. m. 

R.A. 3 42 
Decl. W 23 

Position. 



SMYTH 238-2 


8. 

37 
43 

Diifere: 


Free. -f 


8. 

3*55 
it 
11-32 

Epoch. 
1832-96 


ace of R. A. 
ii-5 



A bright star with a distant companion, bringing up the rear of the 
Pleiades. A 5, intense white ; B 9, pale blue. Hare the principal star 
is Atlas, which is marked in 2/s Catalogue of 1827 "fortasse cuneus \ " 
I was therefore induced to give it a rigid examination, at various times, 
under my fullest powers, but always made the disc perfectly round. 
On the arrival, therefore, of the Dorpat Catalogue, in 1837, I was not at 
all surprised to find that in 1836-74, 2. gazing at this star with a power 
of 800, records, " Stella simplex in optima nocte." Yet, as the same 
excellent astronomer had undoubtedly seen it double, with a visible line 
between the two individuals, it should be closely watched. These were 
his measures : 

Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

107-5 - o-79 ... 1827.16 

[All Madler's efforts to render certain the duplicity of this star failed. 
Burnham too has been unsuccessful in all his attempts to detect signs of 
duplicity ; and thinks that Struve fell into some error. But Hartwig at 
Strassburg, on the occasion of its occultation by the Moon on Jan. 1 1 , 
1876, noticed that it did not disappear instantaneously,] 

0. Struve, in examining the neighbouring star 165 P. III. (0. S. 64), 
with the refractor of \\-<f^ aperture, detected it to be double, the com- 
ponents being of the 8 th and io th magnitudes, and 10" apart, 

H 



98 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



223. 



h. m. 8. 

K.A. 3 44 33 



f EBIDANI. 

Free. 



Decl. S 37 57*8 

Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL, J. 199-7 
A double star. A 5; B 5 



2-21 



N 11-17 

Distance. Epoch. 

8.5 ... 1836-52 



Sir J. Herschel calls this object 
" superb." Gould says that probably the following star of this pair is 
variable. 



224. 



PERSEI. (I. 464.) 



E.A, 



h. m. a. 

3 47 13 



Decl. N 31 33-4 

Position. > 



Free. + 3-76 
N 10-98 



SMYTH 



KNOTT 



*' BUBNHAN 



t AB 206-6 

]AD 198-1 
(AE 185 

f AB 207-5 
UC 290.4 
)AD 1970 

'AE 184.5 

I AB 207-2 
(AC 286-0 



Distance. 



13-2 
82.9 

121 
I3'8' 

90.2 1 

122. 1 ' 
12-8 
32'5 



Epoch. 



1832-19 



1879-58 
1879-10 



CXLV. 



A delicate quadruple star, in the Hero's right foot, and about 7^ 
N. of and slightly / the Pleiades. A g-J-, flushed white; B 10, smalt 
blue; C n, blue; D 12, ash coloured. This is an elegant group, to 
which Sir J. Herschel added a fifth star, C, of the 17^ magnitude, at 
25" distance in the np quadrant. [Knott's mags, are, B 10-5; D 10; 
E 9-8 ; C 14.] The object gave some trouble, since Ip/s register is only 
for three individuals. 



225. 



32 


ERIDANI. (S. 470.) 


h. m. 


8. 




8. 


R.A. 3 48 


46 


Free, -f 


3-00 


o 


/ 




// 


Bed. 8 3 


16*8 


H 


ID'S? 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


// 




HE&SCHEL, W. 


343-4 


,., 4*3 


1781.81 


STRUVE 


349'7 


... 6-7 ... 


1825.00 


SMYTH 


346'5 


... 6.6 


1843-16 


DUN&R 


3477 


... 6.6 


1870-64 


JEDK2EJEWICZ 


348'5 


... 6,7 ... 


1880-03 



CXLVIJ. 



A very neat double star, between the chest of Taurus and the River ; 



E.A. 



44 m -- 



52- 



99 



and a line carried from y Eridani to the following part of the Pleiades, 
passes it at rather better than a quarter of the distance. A 5, topaz 
yellow ; B 7, sea-green [or blue] ; the colours in brilliant contrast. 

We may conclude that there has been little or no change, though the 
star is sufficiently easy for the results to have been more coincident. 



226. 



PERSEI, (2. 471,) 



CXLVIII. 



h. 



RA. 3 50 28 
Decl. K- 39 41-5 



Free, -f 4-00 

n 

N 10-74 



HERSCHEL, W. 
SMYTH 



Position. 

o 

8-5 
9.1 



Distance. 

H 

8-0 
8-4 



Epoch. 

1780.59 
1832-83 



A neat double star, under the right knee of Perseus ; where it will 
be struck by a line led from the Pleiades due 1ST. through Persei, and 
continued a little more than as far again : i. e. about 16 in the whole. 
A 3-^, pale white ; B 9, lilac. This is a fine and delicate object. 

Subsequent observations confirm its fixity. There is a third star in the 
sfj about 90" distant. 

As the components of 6 Persei were not too faint to bear a trifling 
loss of light, I successfully employed a method of separating them which 
was suggested to me by Sir J. Her&chel, viz. a central paper disc, of 2 in 
diameter, on the object-glass. 

[Webb has several times noted B to be small for its reputed magnitude.] 



227. 



y 1 EBIDANI. 




h. 


m. s. 




8. 


B.A. 


3 


52 53 


Prec. 


+ 2-79 


Decl. 


8 


o / 

13 49-3 





N 10-56 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


HERSCHEL 

BUBNHAM 


, J. 


233-6 

238-4 


45 


not stated, 
1878-88 



CXLIX, 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a companion, preceding the bunch 
of T'S with which Bayer's map is disfigured; to be readily identified 
by shooting a ray from Procyon through the cluster in Orion's sword, 
and extending it nearly as far again to the E., or by a like process 
with a Aurigee and the Hyades. . A 2$, yellow; B 1o, pale grey. It is 



H 2 



100 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

in the S. part of the upper reach of the River; and there is a third 
star, of the i I th magnitude, in the sp quadrant. 

y 1 Eridani is called Zaurak, from the Neyyir-al-Zaurak, or bright star 
of the boat, of the Arabians : and being at the flexure of the River, as 
well as large and bright, seems to be the one alluded to by Hipparchus, 
Patav. Uranolog.) as that which the equinoctial colure passed through in 
the time of Eudoxus. The same colure, however, could not have contem- 
poraneously passed through the right hand of Perseus. 



228. 213 P. III. TAURL (2. 470.) CL. 



h. m. 



B..A. 3 54 22 
Decl. 1ST 22 53 '4 



Free. + 3-54 

// 
N 10-44 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ir 

JAB 128-1 ... 7-2 ; 

240-0 

DUNER AB 128.2 ... 7-0 ... 1871-17 



SMYTH "^ '" <" [ ... 18^5-12 
( B C 240.0 ... 60 * 



A delicate triple star, in the neck of the Bull, at about one-third of 
the distance from the Pleiades towai ds the Hyades, and slightly to the 
N. of the line drawn between them. A 7^, white; B 8, grey; C 12, 
blue. 

[3 /the Pleiades, a little S. There seem grounds for supposing C to 
be variable.] 

229. 258 I. I. HOROLOail. (H. 703; &.) 

h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 3 54 47 
Decl. S 51 3-9 



Free. + 4-48 

// 
N 10-42 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; S; iF; bM; r; *inv. ;" which means :" very bright; small; 
irregular figure; brighter in the middle; resolveable; there is a star 
involved in the nebula/' 

230. 53 $. IV. CAMELOPARDI. (H. 801; ,) CLI. 

b. m. 8. s. 



B.A. 3 57 30 
Decl. N 60 37*6 



Prec. + 5-10 



10-28 



A bright planetary nebula, of a bluish white tint, about 60" ia 



R.A. 3 h> 52 m - 4 h - i rn< 101 

diameter, on the hind flank of the Caraeleopard. It is in a rich fi^kl of 
small stars, and was registered by Ij-L as an object whose light was 
uniform and definition abrupt. It is a curious body. 

[Thus described at Parsonstown, Nov. 15, 1873 : " Exquisite Planetary 
nebula. Star of mag. 14 in the centre surrounded by faint nebulosity 
and that again by a bright ring. Many stars in the field (diameter 8'). 
Diameter of nebula 56" by 54"." J 

[The decl. above is from H.'s Catalogue of 1864. Smyth made it less 

i>ys'.] 

[" Too faint to be worth looking at in 8 in refractor." Brodie.] 
Closely following the N. vertical of this object, and about ^ from it, 
is a beautiful and brilliant field of stars, the compact portion of which is 
47 1$. VII. Many of the components of this group are in pairs, the 
brightest of which is a neat double star, both of the 7*^ magnitude, and 
decidedly red. 

231. 485 2. CAMELOPABDI. 

h. m, s. B. 



R.A. 3 58 15 



o 



Decl. N" 62 3'4 



Free. + 5-20 
N io- 1 6 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STROVE, W. 303.3 ... 17.9 ... 1830-24 

DUNER 303.4 ... 17-8 ... 1871-86 

A double star. A 6, white ; B 6^, bluish white. B is, according to 
Struve, slightly inferior to A in brightness. 



232. 179 B. TAUBI. (2. 495.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B. A. 41 27 



o 



Decl. 1ST 14 52-0 



Free. + 3-37 

// 
N 9-92 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o ft 

STRUVE, W. 216-1 ... 3-6 ... 1830-43 

STRUVE, O. 2205 ... 3-9 ... 18729 
A double star. A 6^, yellowish white; B 9^, bluish. 

233. 60 IjjLVII. FERSEI. (H. 809; .) OLII, 

h. m, s. s. 



B.A. 41 47 



o 



Dec! N 49 12'8 



Free, -f 4*40 
N 9-95 



A pretty compressed oval group of small stars in the left knee of 



102 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Perseus, nearly mid-way between X and /*, in the space extending from 

a Persei to a Aurigse. It is a well-marked 
object, with a crown of larger ones around, 
somewhat in the form of the letter D, 
and is in a very rich vicinity of splashy 
groups of stars, one of which to the nf 
is magnificently radiated, and formed 
like a badge of knighthood. This figure 
will identify 60 Ij[. VII., an object which 
however insignificant and dim a blot 
it may appear is a myriad of worlds, 
for a powerful instrument reveals even 
thousands of stars in it : and various late 

operations show that we have not yet 

FIG. 6. 60 # . VII. PERSEI. . , , . * J \ 

arrived at our maximum of optical 

prowess. But J. Harris, F.E.S., tells us, even in 1729, that he does 
not " think our telescopes will be much farther improved ! * 

["Only a ring of small stars visible in 8| in refractor. Nothing 
resembling this sketch "(Brodie.) Seen at Parsonstown to occupy 
exactly the field of an eye-piece which was 13' in diameter.] 



234. 69 $ IV. TAUBI. (h, 311; H. 810; K.) CLIII. 




h. m. 



ft. A. 42 20 

Decl. K 30 28-8 



Free, -f 3-75 
N 9-96 



A nebulous star over the Bull's neck, about | th the distance of a line 
between the / portion of the Pleiades and a Aurigse. In the large 
reflectors this object presents an extraordinary aspect, but with my 
telescope looks only burred. It was first registered by 1$ . in November, 
1790, thus: "A most singular phenomenon; a star 8 th magnitude, 
with a faint luminous atmosphere of a circular form, about 3' in diameter. 
The star is perfectly in the centre, and the atmosphere is so diluted, 
faint, and equal throughout, that there can be no surmise of its con- 
sisting of stars, nor can there be a doubt of the evident connection 
between the atmosphere and the star/' From this wonderful aspect IjL 
draws the following consequences. Granting the connection between the 
star and the surrounding nebulosity, if it consist of stars very remote 
which give the nebulous appearance, the central star, which is visible, 
must be immensely greater than the rest ; or if the central star be no 
bigger than common, how extremely small and compressed must be those 
other luminous points which occasion the nebulosity t As, by the former 



E. A. 4^- i*- 4*>- 6 m - 103 

supposition, the luminous central point must far exceed the standard of 
what we call a star, so, in the latter, the shining matter about the centre 
will be much too small to come under the same denomination ; we there- 
fore either have a central body which is not a star, or a star which is 
involved in a shining fluid, of a nature totally unknown to us. Ip. 
maintained at first, that all nebulae were stellar masses ; but it will be 
obvious to those who have studied his condensation system, after the 
palinody of 1791, that he adopted the last opinion on further experience. 
This luminous matter seems more fit to produce a star by its condensation. 
than to depend on the star for its existence ; but, after all, it may be, 
that the star happens to fall in a line with the centre of the nebula, so 
as to be connected optically but not physically. (See 19 I$L VI., R.A. 



[ u No nebulosity visible in 8 in refractor." (Brodie.) On the other 
hand, described at Parsonstown, Nov. 16, 1873, as "an 8 th mag. star in 
a nebulous atmosphere which is irregular in brightness, being somewhat 
denser sf and somewhat fainter np. There is a i6& mag. star about 
10" N. of the N. edge. Diameter from N. to 8. 114"." D' Arrest with 
a 4^ in refractor found the nebulous atmosphere very conspicuous.] 

[Engraved in Phil. Trans., 1833, PI. ii. Fig. 31 ; Phil. Trans., 1861, 
PI. xxv. Fig. 17,] 

235. 61O 2. EBIDANI. 

t. m* ft. ft. 



B.A. 46 30 



o 



Decl. N 28*6 



Prec. + 3*08 
N 9*53 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 300.5 ... 10-7 ... 1831-02 

A double star. A 7, very yellow; Bio. 
236. H PEBSBI. CLIV. 



/i PEBSEI. 




h* to. . 




t. 


B.A. 


4 6 48 


Prec. 


+ 4-36 


Decl. 


N 48 7'7 





N 9-53 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


HEKSCHEL, J, 
SMYTH 
STBUVB, 0. 
BUBNHAM 


o 
AC 231.2 

AC 230.5 
A B 349.2 
AB 348.6 


91-9 
9*7 
J5'0 

. 14-8 


1821*94 
1832*10 
l85iio 

1878.15 



A star with a distant companion, on the left knee of Perseus, and 
nearly in mid-distance between a Persei and a Aurigse A 4^, greenish 
yellow; B 12; C 10; some others at a distance iu the sp quadrant 



104 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



237. 61 lij. VII. PERSEI. (H. 820; &.) 

h. m. s. s. 

B.A. 46 52 Prec. -f 4-52 

Decl. W 50 57'5 <- N 9-50 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; B ; v R i ; c C ; " which means : " cluster ; bright ; very rich ; 
considerably compressed." Webb calls it : " a good low-power object ; 
larger stars in curves." " The stars have rather a tendency towards a 
spiral arrangement. 30' sf is a very red star of mag. 9^." (Parsonstown, 
Oct. 13, 1872.) 



238, 



39 ERIDANI. 

h. m. s. 

R.A. 4 9 10 



Deci. s 10 are 

Position. 



(2. 516.) 

8. 

Prec. + 2- 

N Q- 



CLV. 



Distance. 



Epoch. 
o // 

SMYTH 154-0 ... 7-1 ... 1832-07 

SEABBOKE 151*0 ... 6-3 ... 1874-00 

A delicate double star, under the nf bend of the River, at one-fifth of 
the Hue which the eye carries from y Eridani to y Orionis, or nearly 6 
from the former, where it is so inflated as to be readily identified. 
A 5, full yellow; B u, deep blue and nearly points to an ii tjl magni- 
tude in the sf quadrant, 
[Alias A Eridani.] 



239. 26 



IV. EBIDANI. 

b. m. s. 

4 



B.A. 4 9 10 
Decl. 8 13 1-3 



(h. 2618; H. 826; .) CLVI. 

a. 

Prec. -f 2-79 

N 9-32 

A planetary nebula under the nf bend of the Eiver, about 4^ from 

y Eridani in the direction of ft 
Orionis. A splendid though not very 
conspicuous object, of a greyish white 
colour ; it is somewhat like a large 
star out of focus, with a planetary as- 
pect. !$ . remarked that it was slightly 
elliptical, with an ill-defined disc ; and 
concluded it might probably be a 

_ , very compressed cluster of stars at 

FIG. 7. 26 $ . IV. ERIDANI. . ,. . mi ,. . , 

an immense distance. The limited 

aperture of my telescope only permitted the object to appear spherical ; 
but the conjectural disclosure is the same. There are several telescopic 




R A. 



105 



stars in the field, of which two of the 8^ J magnitude in the sp quadrant 
point exactly upon it, as in the annexed diagram, where the nebula is 
shown under its best appect, highly magnified. 

[Laspell describes this as being the most interesting and extraordinary 
object of the kind which he had ever seen.] 

[Engraved in D' Arrest's Dissertation, 1861, PL ii. Fig. 9; Lassell, 
Mem. R.A.S.y vol. xxiii., PI. ii. Fig, 4.] 



240. 



K.A. 
Decl. 

SMYTH 
STBUVE, 0. 
BUBNHAM 


40 ERIDAM 

h. in. 6. 

4 10 12 

/ 

S 7 46-7 

Position, 
o 
AB 107-6 

( A B 105-8 
(BC 135-7 
BC 121.8 


1. (2. 
Prec. 


518.) 

8. 

+ 2-90 
N 9-25 

a^ 

I " 


Epoch. 

1837-09 
1874-10 

1880-09 


Distance 

.. 83.9 
82.3 

4-99 
3-28 



CLVII. 



A very [remarkable ternary] star, in the nf reach of the fiexous River, 
designated Keid, from the Arabic al- Kaid, the egg-shells; being rather 
better than a degree to the sf of o Eridani, or Beid, the egg, so called 
from its whiteness, and forming, with the stars around, Az~hq-l-na'dm, 
the ostrich's nest A 5, orange colour; B 9^, sky blue; [C ii]; other 
stars [2] follow in the field [but do not belong to the system]. This object 
is remarkable for the great amount of its proper motion. That there is 
a physical connection between these stars is strikingly shown by the fact 
that their relative position scarcely changed a second between 1*783 and 
1837, although the greater individual performed so large a proper move- 
ment as nearly 250" to the S.W. The values of the proper motions 
assigned to A by Argelander are : 

R.A. -2-19"; Bed. -3-45". 

[Alias o* Eridani. Many observations concur to show that the 
distance of A B is diminishing, but the angle seems stationary. It is 
remarkable that Smyth makes no explicit mention of C, though it was 
discovered by IjjL C is endowed with a retrograde motion amounting to 
about i per annum, and the distance is slowly diminishing.] 



241. 



R.A. 



y TATJBI. 

h. m. s. 

4 13 31 



CLIX. 



Prec, -f 3'39 

N " 



Decl. H 15 21*7 

Position. Difference of B. A. Epoch. 

o &. 

SMYTH 291 ... 17.8 ... 1835.17 



A bright star with a distant telescopic companion, in the Bull's 



106 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

nostril. A 3^, fine yellow; B n, pale blue, preceded by another small 
star in the sp quadrant. This is Hyadum primus, or the leader of the 
Hyades, which, as the name implies, was esteemed a showery group ; 
whence the jrfuviasqw Hyadas of Virgil, and the moist daughters of 
Spenser. The family of Atlas was mentioned at TJ Tauri, but the Hyades 
were considered to be another batch of his daughters ; though some, to 
lessen his burthen, dubbed them the Dodonides, or nurses of Bacchus. 
The ancients were not agreed as to their number, for while Thales merely 
reckoned the two eyes, a and 6, Euripides counted three, and Hesiod 
five. Though the identity of this star must be pretty well established, 
it may be stated, that it lies about one-third of the distance from the 
Pleiades to the cluster in Orion's sword. But we learn from the poetaster 
that this direction is almost needless ; for 

Among these gorgeous hosts aloft so gloriously shown, 

The Hyades, and Pleiades, to ail who seek are known. 

Pliny gives the name Palilicium to the Hyades, while others have made 
it proper to Aldebaran, because they rose heretofore at Rome, on the 
feast day of Pales; and Ovid lumps them together as Sidus Hyantis. 
The group was also called Y-psilon the Pythagorean symbol of Human 
life from its shape ; and from thence the Roman V, a and being the 
extremes, and y the angular point From a notion, either that the same 
letter resembles a pig's jaws, or that Aldebaran with the Hyades were 
like a BOW with her Utter, the Latins designated them Suculoe. Cicero, 
however, thinks the name a corruption, from having mistaken the Greek 
word vs 9 pigs* for vew, to rain* 



242. (f> TAimi, CLVIII. 



h. m. 



R.A. 4 13 34 



o 



Decl K 27 5 '4 



Prec. -f 3-67 

n 
N 9-01 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 240*4 ... 56-8 ... 1821.95 

SMYTH 241*8 ... 55.9 ... 1832.86 

MAIN 243-4 - 5 2 *7 1863-08 

DEMBOWSKI 2457 * 53'7* l8 73'7 

A wide double star, in the upper part of the Bull's neck ; within the 

mid-distance from Aldebaran towards e PerseL A 6, light red; B 8, 
cerulean blue. 



K.A. 4 h> I3 m> 4 h< I5 m - 107 

243. 1419 Lao. ERIDANI. (*h. 3642.) 



h. m. a. 



K.A. 4 15 13 
Bed. 8 34 9*1 



Prec. 4- 2-22 

N 8-86 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

Q H 

HEKSCHEL, J. 157-6 ... 5-8 ... 1837-90 
STONE, 0. 1609 ... 7-1 ... 187605 

A double star. A 7 ; B 10. Near 41 Eridani, a 3 rd mag. star. 
244. 639 H, TAUBI, (&.) 

h, m. & *. 



B.A. 4 15 32 
Dec! 1ST 19 15*7 



Free, -f 3-49 

N 8-83 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864:* 
" ! !!; vF; S; variable (Hind);" which means: "an exceedingly re- 
markable object ; very faint ; small ; found by Hind to be variable." 

On Oct. u, 1852, Hind discovered, at the Regent's Park Observatory, 
a small nebula about i' in diameter, with a central condensation of light, 
in the position noted above, and therefore about i| distant from Tauri. 

From 1852 to 1856 a star of the io th magnitude almost touched the 
nf edge of the nebula ; this star was first noticed on the night of the dis- 
covery of the nebula, and from the fact that it had escaped observation 
on many previous occasions when the same locality had been under 
examination, Hind was induced to suspect its variability a suspicion 
which eventually was shown to be well founded, as the star has now 
dwindled down to the 12*1* mag. But the most singular thing remains 
to be told: namely, that on Oct. 3, 1861, D'Arrest of Copenhagen found 
that the nebula had totally vanished. This statement was not credited at 
the time, on account of its apparent improbability, notwithstanding the 
known reputation of the observer who made it ; and it was assumed, too 
hastily, that some error of observation had crept in, though D' Arrest's 
good faith was not at all questioned. 

On Jan. 26, 1862, Le Verrier turned the large Equatorial of the Paris 
Observatory (of I2'4 in aperture) on the place of the nebula; not a 
single trace, however, could be obtained of it either by Le Verrier or by 
his assistant, Chacornac, and on the following night Secchi, at Rome, was 
similarly unsuccessful thus was confirmed beyond a doubt the statement 
of D'Arrest. Chacornac, whilst engaged in 1854 in forming a chart of 
the stars in the neighbourhood of the nebula, saw it, but in going over the 
locality again in 1858, with a much more powerful instrument, he did not 
see it, though the reason why he did not announce the disappearance is 
not stated. 



108 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Hence Hind infers that the disappearance of the nebula took place 
either during 1856 or some time in the course of the following year. 

On Dec. 29, 1861, the nebula was again seen in the I5 in refractor 
at Pulkova, and by March 22, 1862, it had to far increased in brightness 
as to bear a faint illumination. But on Dec. 12, 1863, Hind and Talmage 
carefully looked for it with the telescope with which it was originally 
observed, and failed to establish any trace of its visibility. The telescope 
in question (Mr. Bishop's) has only half the aperture of the one at 
Pulkova. 

Various attempts, but none of them very conclusive, have been made at 
Parsonstown with Lord Rosse's 6^ Reflector to detect this object. The 
dates of these attempts were Oct. n, 1872 ; Dec. 12, 1876 ; and Jan. 9, 
1877. Other observers, including Dreyer, Copeland, and Tempel, have 
also recorded negative testimony. 0. Struve, however, claims to have 
seen traces of it from time to time. 

I am not aware of any very recent attempts to ascertain whether this 
nebula continues visible or not. 



245. Y TAUEI. (I. 528.) CLX. 





"X TAUEI. 


(2. 528.) 






h. m. s. 




8. 


K.A. 


4 15 53 


Free. + 


3*^3 




O f 




n 


Decl. 


1ST 25 22 2 


N 


8-90 


Position. Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


n 




SMYTH 


25.1 


19-3 


1831-93 


MAIN 


24-1 


J9.2 


1863-05 



A neat double star, at the back of the Bull's ear ; where with v it 
forms what the Arabians termed A I Kelbein, or the two Dogs, A 6, white; 
B 8, pale sky-blue. The alignment of x is not difficult : a ray being shot 
from a Geminorum through ft Tauri, the tip of the Bull's northern horn, 
and extended about 15 further, towards the Pleiades, strikes upon it : 
a line from ft Orionis through a Tauri, carried half that distance beyond 
the Bull's eye, also hits it. 

246. EETICITLI. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 4 16 26 



o 



Decl. S 63 31*3 



Free. + 0-64 
N 8-74 



PoBition. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

HEBSOHEL, J. 6-1 ,. 6-4 ... 1835-87 
A double star. A 5| ; B 9. Gould considers A variable to the extent 
of ^ of a unit of magnitude. 



E. A. 



i8 m - 



109 



247. 



533 2, PBESEI. 



h. m. 



B.A. 


4 17 15 


Prec. + 


3*87 




o / 




ff 


Decl. 


N 34 3-8 


N 


8-69 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


tf 




STRUVE, W. 63-2 ... 19-5 


1831-25 


MAIN 


60.5 ... 


I9'5 


1868-82 


A double star. A 


6%, white; B 8, white. 


248. 


62 TAUKI 


, (2. 534.) 






h. m. s. 




s. 


B.A. 


4 17 22 


Prec. + 


3-60 




O f 




// 


Decl. 


N 24 2-8 




8-70 


, 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch 




o 


n 




HERSCHEL, W. 291.2 


28.0 


I782-9C 


SMYTH 


290-0 


28-6 


I835-9 


DUNJ&R 


290-3 


28-9 


1868.3, 



CLXI. 



A neat double star, on the tip of the Bull's left ear, at rather more 
than one-third of the distance from the Pleiades to f. A 7, silver 
white ; B 8, purple ; and there are several small stars in the field. This 
is a fair object for a moderate telescope. There seems to have been no ap- 
preciable change during an interval of 53 years from 1782 to 1835; 
though Piazzi's remark "Duplex. Comes 8 ne magnit. prsecedit r8" 
temporis, 10" circiter ad Boream" interposes a mystification. 



249. 



2635 h. DOBADUS. 

h. m. s. 

4 17 32 



R.A. 

Decl. S 65 12'2 



(H. 844.) 

S. 

Prec. -f 1-33 

N 8-67 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; v L ; vg, svmb M ; 1 5 s d in E. A. ;" which means : " bright ; very 
large ; very gradually, then suddenly, very much brighter in the middle ; 
its diameter is 15 s of R.A." This may be 338 Dunlop. 



250. K 1 TAUBJ. 

h. m. s. 

R.A. 4 18 38 

Decl. 1ST 22 2' 5 

Position. 

o 
STRUVE, W. 172-6 

MAIN 172.4 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 172*8 



(I. 9 App. I.) 

8. 

Prec. + 3-55 

N 8-58 



Distance. 

339 
339 

339 



Epoch. 

1836-21 
1866-09 
1879-60 



K 1 and K 2 form a wide pair as above. The former star is of mag. 5|-, 



110 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



and yellowish white ; and the latter of mag. 6-J-, and white. These stars 
may be connected, but there is no proof of this. The minute pair 
between K 1 and K 2 is 2, 541 rej., as to which Dembowski gives: Pos. 
324; Dist. 5-0"; Epoch, 1873-7; mags. 11-2 and 11*6. 



251. 



1 CAMELOPARDI. 



RA. 
Decl. 



h. 

4 



19 
53 



PJAZZI 

HERSCHEL, J., anil SOUTH 
SMYTH 



&, 

23 

33-3 

Position. 
o 
299-0 

306-5 
307.9 
308-2 



Free. 



(S. 550.) 

s. 

4-71 



CLXII. 



N 8-22 



Distance. 
tt 

I2-O 

10-45 
1 0-4 

10-2 



Epoch. 

1800-00 
1822-05 
1838-09 
1871-38 



A neat double star, between the animal's hind hoofs ; and nearly in 
mid-distance between a Persei and b on the head of Auriga. A 7^, 
white ; B 8, sapphire blue. The object consists of Piazzi's 83 and 84 of 
Hora IV. ; and though the process of obtaining a position and distance 
from the observed E/.A. and Decl. can hardly be expected to give a result 
absolutely exact, the Palermo observations merit grave consideration. 



252. 



548 2. TATJRI. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 4 21 55 



Decl. 



STBUVE, W. 

MAIN 



30 7'5 

Position, 

o 

35-8 

35-6 



Free. + 3-77 

N 8-33 

Distance. Epoch. 



14.1 
M'3 



1831-40 

1868-82 



A double star. A 6|>, yellowish ; B 8, bluish. 



253. 



6 l TAUBI. (2. 10 App. I.) 
B.A. 4 22 16 Free. + 3-41 



CLXIII. 



Decl. 3 


ST 15 43'1 





N 8-30 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


H 




STRUVE, W. 


34^-2 


337-3 


1836-13 


MAIN 


345-9 


337-1 


1866-09 


JEDRZEJEWICZ 


346-4 


337*3 


1879-16 



A wide pair of stars on the Bull's face, where it forms the southern 
vertex of a small triangle with a Tauri and the Hyades. A 5, pearly 
white ; B, which is # 2 , 5|>, yellowish. From an apparent identity in the 
values and signs of proper motions in space, the components of this object 
are suspected of being in physical connexion ; and imagination is con- 



R.A. 



i8 m - 



111 



founded at the probable period of the annus magnus, should the idea 
ultimately prove correct, [Jedrzejewicz, writing in 1880, remarks: 
" La suppositon de W. Struve de la conjonction physique de deux ^toiles 
si e'loigne'es se confirme tout a fait/'] 

Baily thought it probable that Ptolemy observed 1 and 0* as one star, 
and of course a fixed star. 



.254. 



1464 Lac. SCULPTOEIS. (*h. 3650.) 

h. m. a. f. 

R.A. 4 22 55 

Decl. S 40 46-4 
Position. 

o 

HEIISCHEL, J. 184-1 
A double star. A 7 ; B 9^. 



Prec. -f 2-02 

N 8-25 

Distance. Epoch. 

// 
4-9 ... 1836-91 



255. 



217 $. I. AUBIOffi, (h. 315; H. 853; &.) CLXIV. 

s. 

Prec. 4- 3-92 



h. m. a. 

E.A. 4 23 



Decl. N 35 1-8 



N 8-29 



A round pale nebula, between the legs of Perseus and Auriga, of a slight 
cream-colour. It is so faint that probably I should have overlooked it, 
but for H. having described its place so exactly, as " inclosed among six 
stars." Its approach is announced by a star of the 8 th magnitude, in the 
np quadrant. 

[Brodie thinks the " cream-colour" idea very ridiculous.] 

[Engraved in Phil. Trans., 1861, PI. xxv. Fig. 8.] 



256. 





80 TAUEI 


. (2. 554.) 


CLXV. 




h, m. s. 


s. 




R.A. 


4 23 51 


Prec. -f 3-40 






t 


n 




Decl. 


N 15 23*9 


No. T - 






Position. Distance. 


Epoch. 







it 




STRUVE, W. 


12.9 ... 1.74 ... 


1831.18 


SMYTH 


13-9 ... 1<6 


1839-16 


SMYTH 


15-2 


... 1-8 


1843-11 


DAWES 


io-6 ... 1.41 


1859.15 


WILSON and SEABKOKE 14.7 


... 1-29 ... 


1870.07 


BUKNHAM 


7-4 


... 0.57 ... 


1879-00 


j double star 


, on the Bull's 


face, and about ii c 


5 S.W. of a Tauri. 



A 6, yellow ; and B 8, dusky. 

[A small orbital movement seems probable, and a diminution of dis- 
tance certain, but the observations are remarkably discordant.] 



112 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



257. 



552 2. PEESEI. 



Free. + 4-07 
N 8-17 

Distance. Epoch. 

8-9 ... 1831-05 

A double star. A 6^, very white ; B 7, very white. 



B..A. 4 23 52 

Dec! N 39 46 '3 

#* 

Position. 

o 

STIUJVE, W. 



258. 



57 PERSEI. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 4 25 40 



Decl. 



42 49-7 



Free. 4- 4*19 
N 8-10 



Position. Distance. 



HEBSOHEL, J., and SOUTH 198-9 ... ITO-I 
SMYTH 199-8 ... 110-3 

DEMBOWSKI 198-9 ... 113-6 



CLXVI. 



Epoch. 

1821-91 
1833-08 

1873-7 



A wide double star, in the left ancle of Perseus, with several small 
stars in the field, of which a remarkable one of the n th magnitude is to 
the np of A, and seems to have escaped the eye of 1^1. A and B are both 
of the 8 th magnitude, and white. [Several later observers rate these 
stars at 6 and 6^, or 6 and 7, and call them yellow.] Nearly in mid- 
distance of a line run from a Fersei to /3 Tauri, at about 10 from the 
former. 



259. 



559 S. TAURI. 




h. m. B. 


*. 




K.A. 


4 27 1O 


Free, -f 3-46 






o / 


// 




Bed. 


K 17 47 


N 7-91 




Position. Distance. Epoch. 




o 


// 




STRUVE, W. 


278-6 


3-0 ... 1830-67 


DAWES 


278-8 


3-06 ... 1840-09 


DAWES 


276-6 


2.78 ... 1854 


-16 


DuidsB 


278-4 


2-73 -.. 187* 


79 



A double star. A 7|, very white ; B 7 J, very white. Between a and 
Tauri, rather nearer a, and following the line which might join them. 



R A. 4 h - 23 m - 4 h - 29 m - 113 

260. 58 PEBSEI. CLXVII. 

h. m. B. a. 



B.A. 4 29 2 
Decl. KT 41 2-3 



Prec. + 4-12 

H 
N 7-80 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STRUVE, W. BC 29-6 ... 11.71 ... 1828.72 
SMYTH BC 29.8 ... ii8 ... 1843-18 

58 Persei, a star on the left heel of Perseus, is an insulated object, 
assumed as a pointer to the distant pair in the sf quadrant [=2. 563], 
with A K.A. = 4 S . A 5^, orange tint; B 7^, greenish; and C 9, lilac. 
A line led to the N.W. from the preceding star of Orion's belt through 
y Orionis and 35 further, strikes upon it ; and it precedes the mid- 
distance of a ray shot from a Persei to /3 Tauri. The double star is 65 
ly . III., and there is another couple in the sp part of the field, of the 
lo^ 1 and nfo magnitudes, at about the same distance from A as the other 
pair. The measures of B and C have been very accordant. 

261. a TAUEI. CLXVIII. 

h. m. a. s. 



R.A. 4 29 36 
Decl. 3ST 16 17 5 



Prec. + 3*43 

If f 7l 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 36-0 ... 109.0 ... 1836-00 
BURNHAM 35-2 ... 113*9 ... 1877.9 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a telescopic companion, in the southern 
eye of Taurus. A i, pale rose-tint; B 12, sky-blue; a magnitude as- 
signed on deliberate comparison, for I was surprised on readily seeing it 
with my 5 ft telescope of 3f in aperture. 

[In consequence of the proper motion of the larger star the distance of 
AB is increasing. A third star has been added by Burnham with the 
i8| in refractor of the Dearborn Observatory. Pos. = ii2; dist. 30". 
Considering that this companion is " exceedingly faint' 7 with 18^- inches 
of aperture I will say no more about it.] 

Aldebaran is readily found by the eye, from being exactly between 
y Orionis and the Pleiades. The stars in Orion's belt also point nearly 
in its direction ; and it is moreover easily distinguished by its red colour. 
The rich appearance of its vicinity has been thus eulogized by the 
brackish poet : 

In lustrous dignity aloft, see alpha Tauri shine, 

The splendid zone he decorates attests the Power Divine : 

For mark around what glittering orbs attract the wandering- eye, 
You'll soon confess no other star has such attendants nigh. 

Taurus is now the second in the zodiacal march, though only 4000 



114 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

years ago he led the celestial signs, and continued to be their leader 
for 2000 years. The principal star is Al-debardn, the hindmost, because 
he drives the Pleiades, whence the name of Stella dominatrix, and 
Tdliyu4-nejm, were also applied; but it was most popularly known 
among the Arabians, with whom it was no favourite, as 'ain-al-ihaur, 
the bull's eye, though it was placed at a little distance from the animal's 
head in the ancient configurations. (See No. 241, ante.) It is a red star, 
and I have repeatedly seen it apparently projected on the disc of the 
moon, even to an amount of nearly 3 seconds of time, at the instant of 
immersion, when occulted by that body. This phenomenon seems to be 
owing to the greater proportionate refrangibility of the white lunar light, 
than that of the red light of the star, elevating her apparent disc at the 
time and point of contact. 

All these suppositions, however, are purely arbitrary, as other stars 
are liable to a similar affection; and notwithstanding that the call of 
the Astronomical Society for observations of the occultations of Aldebaran 
for 1829 and 1830 was zealously responded to from various parts of 
Europe, nothing satisfactory was elicited. Of 6 observers at the 
Greenwich Observatory, 5 distinctly saw the projection on the lunar 
limb ; and the majority of corresponding astronomers saw the star either 
projected or hanging on the moon's edge : but there were several practical 
men who saw nothing remarkable. The fact, however, of the singular 
phenomenon is admitted, but subject to much diversity of opinion as to 
its cause ; for it cannot be traced either to the character of the telescope 
employed, to the observer, or to the weather during the observation. To 
those who have not the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society at hand, an 
extract from one of my reports may be illustrative : 

"October J5th, 1829, I saw Aldebaran approach the bright limb of 
the Moon very steadily ; but, from the haze, no alteration in the redness 
of its colour was perceptible. It kept the same steady line to about f of 
a minute inside the lunar disc, where it remained, as precisely as I could 
estimate, two seconds and a quarter, when it suddenly vanished. lu 
this there could be no mistake, because I clearly saw the bright line of 
the Moon outside the star, as did also Dr. Lee, who was with me. The 
emersion took place without anything remarkable : the dark limb not 
visible. Telescope 5-foot achromatic, 3f aperture, power 78 ; adjusted 
on the star." Dr. Lee was watching with a smaller instrument. 

IjL measured the apparent diameter of this oculus Tauri as i'5o"; 
and others have attempted a substantive measurement. Its ruddy aspect 
has long been noted, and old Leonard Digges, in his Prognostication 
Everlasting, 1555, pronounces that it is "ever a meate rodde." Indeed, 
all late observers agree in its redness ; but Virgil wrote 
Candidus auratis aperit quum cornibus annum 
Taurus 



E. A. 



115 



which golden horns must rather refer to ft and , the two bright stars on 
the tips, than to the " horns of triumph" of the Scholiast. 

To account for this constellation comprising only half the animal, 
the mythologists have it, that as he personates the bull which swam 
away with Europa, his flanks are immersed in the billows. This is very 
much like the Dutch effigies behind a tree ; but it does not well explain 
why Taurus, Pegasus, or Equuleus are deprived of their hinder parts. 
Ovid, indeed, throws a doubt upon the gender of this sign, by making it 
the transformation of lo, but in either case it is still the munus amoris, 
in which the heathens delighted. The classical astronomers are, however, 
very weak in their mythological derivations and zodiacal origins. In the 
rare zodiac gold mohurs struck by Jehangir Shah in 1618, Taurus is 
represented as a complete though spiritless animal, with the gibbous 
hump common to Indian oxen : but on the silver rupees of the same 
monarch, the half animal is drawn in a bold butting attitude, exactly 
as described by Manilius. Yet Aratus must have seen that of Eudoxus 
differently placed, for he puts the Pleiades in the knees. Some of the 
Konians represented the animal as whole; since both Vitruvius and 
Pliny speak of cauda Tauri as being formed by the Pleiades, to the 
derogation of those young ladies, But the Arabians retained it merely 
as a section, calling o, or Flamsteed's No. i, the first star in A I Khat, 
the slash, or section. 

Taurus is one of the old 48 constellations, and contained the Fourth 
Mansion of the Moon. It is a very rich astcrism, and its components 
have been thus tabulated : 



Ptolemy . . 
Ulugh Beigh . 
Tycho Brand . 
Bayer . . 



44 stars. 
43 . 
43 

48 



Hevelius . 
BuUialdua 
Flamsteed 
Bode . . 



51 stars. 

52 
141 
394 



262. 



h. m. B. 

K.A. 4 29 36 



Decl. 



88 TATJEI. 

B. S. 

Free, -f 3-28 

9 56-1 N 7-70 



CLXIX. 



Position. 



Distance. 



HEBSOHEL and SOUTH 

SMYTH 

DEMBOWSKI 



299.0 
300-4 
299-0 



69.4 
68-5 
69-3 



Epoch. 

1822.88 
1832.93 
1874.4 

A star with a distant companion, in the right fore-leg of Taurus, 
being about 6 below a Tauri, where it forms the vertex of an acute- 
angled triangle with that star and y Orionis. 

I 2 



A 5> bluish white ; and 



116 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



B 8J, cerulean blue. Some minute stars follow A, and there is one of 
the 9 th magnitude in the np quadrant. 



263. 



. 2 CAMELOPABDI. (2. 566.) 

h. m. s. a. 

K.A. 4 31 13 



CLXX. 



Bed. N 53 15 4 

Position. 

o 
STRUVE,W. 31 1 -7 

SMYTH 3087 

JACOB 303-7 

WILSON and SEABBOKE 294.3 



Prec. -f 4-71 
N 7-60 

Distance. 
// 

1-58 
i-7 

1-54 



Epoch. 

1829.79 
1836-28 
1853-19 
1875-09 



A close double star, between the animal's hind hoofs. A 5^, yellow ; 
B 7, pale blue. An attentive observer will pick it up by casting a line 
from Polaris between a Aurigse and /3 Persei, leading it about 9 from the 
former;. and it will be intersected by another line, drawn from a Persei 
to 6 in the head of Auriga. Struve recorded it " vicinse ;" but it is 
certainly wider and easier of measurement than those usually so classed 
by him. It may, however, be increasing its distance, albeit my observa- 
tions afford no direct testimony of the fact. 

[There is evident retrograde motion, but whether the distance is altering 
is uncertain.] 



264. 



a DORADUS. (*h. 3668.) 

h. m. s. 0. 

B.A. 4 31 37 



Decl. S 55 16-4 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHBL, J. 108.5 



Prec. -H 1-28 
N 7-54 

Distance. Epoch. 
ft 

82-3 ... 183601 



A star with a distant companion. A 3 ; B n. 



265. 



4 B. AURIGWG. 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 4 31 41 



(S. 572.) 

8. 

Prec. + 3-69 



Bed. N 20 43-7 N 7-53 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STRUVE,W. 210-3 ... 3-i ... 1830.56 
DUN&R 204-6 ... 3.4 ... 1871-63 

JEDRZEJEWIOS 204.7 ... 3.7 ... i88o2o 

A double star. A 7, yellowish ; B 7, yellowish. 



RA. 4*1- 29" 



_ 4 h. 



35 ; 



m. 



117 



266. 



1551 Lao. BETICULI. (*h. 3670.) 



R.A. 4 32 27 



Decl. 8 63 3*1 

Position. 
HEBSCHEL, J. 





95.6 



Prec. + 0-62 
N 7-48 

Distance. Epoch. 

30 est. ... 1836.93 



A double star. A 6^, yellow ; B 83-, pale blue. 



267. 



or 1 TAUBJ. ( 

h. m. s. 

B. A. 4 32 52 

Decl. W 15 35-0 

Position. 



STEUVB, W. 192-3 
MAIN 192-4 
JEDRZEJEWICZ 192-6 


S. 11 Ap] 
Prec. 


P.I.) 

+ 3 
N 7 


41 

44 

Epoch. 

1836-22 

1871-22 
1879.32 


Distance. 

427 

429-8 
429-2 



o- 1 with or 2 form a wide pair ; the former is of mag. 5^ and the latter 6, 
both white. Struve having thought fit to catalogue them I have done the 
same, especially after Webb's remark that they " look like a connected 
system." But I am not acquainted with any evidence to show this. 



268. 



576 2. EBIDA3STI. 



R.A. 
Decl. 



h. 

4 



32 53 



STRUVE, W. 
STONE, 0. 



S 13 14-4 

Position. 

o 

172-0 
171-4 



Prec. 



2-78 

N 7-46 



Distance. 
12-3 

12- 1 



Epoch. 

1830-83 
1878.86 



A double star. A 7, yellowish white; B 8, yellowish white. 
Eridani, a 4 th mag. star. 



A little 



269. 



B.A. 
Decl. 

SOUTH 
SMYTH 

MAIN 


r TA 

h. m. s. 

4 35 38 

/ 

N 22 44*8 

Position. ] 
o 
an-5 
209-8 
210.5 


UBI. 

Prec. + 


0. 
3'59 

7-20 
Epoch. 

1824-00 
1831-96 
1862-02 


distance. 

6'2-8 
61-6 
63-3 .- 



CLXXI. 



A star with a companion, in a barren field, at the root of the Bull's 
left horn ; and about 6 N. of a Tauri, on a line leading from that star to 
a Aurigee. A g, bluish white, and B 8, lilac. 

The fixity of these stars may be held to be established. 



118 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

270. 122 $. I. ERIDANI. (h. 327; H. 888; 

h. m. s. t, 



RA. 4 35 57 

/ 

Bed. S 3 5*3 



Prec. -f 



N 7-18 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; L ; B ; vgb M ; er;" which means : " considerably bright; large ; 
round ; very gradually brighter in the middle ; easily resolveable." AJbout 
i nf JJL Eridani, a star of mag. 5. Several times suspected at Parsons- 
town to be spiral. Dreyer remarks that this object is not noted as 
" easily resolveable" by anybody except Sir J. Herschel. Engraved, Phil. 
Trans., 1861, PI. xxv. Fig. 9. 

271. 55 ERIDANI. (S. 590.) CLXXII. 

h. in. s. s. 



RA. 4 38 18 



o 



Decl. 8 8 59-9 



Prec. + 2-87 

/; 

N 7-0 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O A> 

HERSCHEL, W. 314-1 ... 9-16 ... 1783-08 
SMYTH 318.5 ... 10.2 ... 1832-12 

MAIN 316-7 ... 9-0 ... 1862-05 

A neat double star, under the nf extreme of the Elver, and close to 
the four vertical stars of the 4 th magnitude, which Kirch classed in 
1688 as Sceptrum JBrandenburgicum : and which was revived a century 
afterwards by Bode. A and B are both 7 J, and yellowish white. 

This object may be found by the out-of-door observer by running a line 
from /3 Geminorum through a Orionis, and leading it rather more than 
half as far again into the S.W., where it forms the vertex of an isosceles 
triangle, the base of which is formed by /3 Orionis and /3 Eridani. 

272. 1683 Lac. RETICTTLI. (*h. 3683.) 



h. 



R.A. 4 38 29 
Decl. S 59 10-1 



Prec. -I- 0-96 
N 6-98 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o 

HEBSCHEL, J. 81-2 ... 3.8 ... 1836-45 
A double star. A 8 ; B 8. 

273. 2666 h. SCTJLPTORIS. (H. 916.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 4 45 47 







Decl. 8 32 9*5 



Prec. -f- 2*27 
N 6-39 



A nebula thus described iu Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 ; 



E.A. 4 h - 35 m - 4 h * 48^- 119 

" v B ; L j i R ; 4 st inv ;" which means : " very bright; large ; of an 
irregular round outline ; 4 stars involved." 



274. 7 CAMELOPAEBI. (2. 610.) CLXXIII. 

h. m. s. a. 



R. A. 4 48 26 
Decl. N 53 34-4 



Free. + 4-77 
N 6-20 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STRUVE, W. A C 238-3 ... 25-6 ... 1831-57 

SMYTH A C 239.2 ... 27.0 ... 1838.71 

BRODIE AC 239.1 ... 27.3 ... 1865 + 

DEMBOWSKI AB 308-8 ... 1-2 ... 1864 

A delicate and difficult triple star, on the animal's hind hoof; and 
about two-thirds of the distance from a Persei towards b in the head of 
Auriga. A 4, white ; B 8 ; C 1 1. A and C point to a 4 th star in the sp 
quadrant, of the 12^ magnitude. 

[B was discovered by Dembowski in 1864.] 

Canielopardus is a large but indifferent constellation of recent forma- 
tion, occupying the vast sporadic space between the Pole-star, Perseus, 
and Auriga. It was introduced by Bartschius, on his 4 ft globe, and 
is said to have been reluctantly retained* by Hevelius ; who, though 
he did prefer plain to telescopic sights, yielded only to Flamsteed in 
diligence and accuracy of observation, among the astronomers of his day : 
at all events the Cameleopard is not among the new constellations which 
Hevelius is offering to Urania and her choice staff, in the elaborate 
frontispiece to his Atlas. The animal is fairly delineated in his map, 
although its very existence was, even after that epoch, questioned. 
He assigned it 32 stars, which Flamsteed increased to 58, and Bode 
to 211. 



275. 



i PICTOEIS. 




h. 


m. s. 




8. 


B.A. 


4 


48 28 


Free. + 


i'34 


Decl. 


3 


53 39'0 

Po.ition. 




H 

6-16 

Epoch. 


Distance. 


KSCHEL, 


J. 


o 

57-9 


// 
12-3 


1834.97 



A double star. A 5| ; B 



120 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



276. 62 ERIDANI. CLXXV. 

h. m. s. s. 

R.A. 4 50 59 Free. + 2-95 

Decl. S 5 20*8 N 6-00 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HEBSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 74.7 ... 65-8 ... 1821.97 
SMYTH 73.6 ... 63-8 ... 1831-93 

A wide double star, in the centre of the nfend of the River, A 6, 
white ; B 8, lilac ; a third star in the np, of the icA magnitude, makes 
A the apex of a scalene triangle. An imaginary line led from 8 Orionis, 
the third star in Orion's belt, close over /3 Eridani, touches 62, at about 
3 "W. of the said /3. 
[2^ preceding /3.] 



277. 



G) AURIGA. 

h. m. s. 

R.A. 4 51 47 

Decl. N 37 43'4 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 352.0 

SMYTH 352-6 

MAIN 350-0 



(2. 616.) 

s. 

Prec. -f- 4-05 

N 5-90 

Distance. 

... 7-89 ... 

... 7-o 

... 5-9 .- 



CLXXIV. 



Epoch. 

1822-90 
1833-88 
1863.12 



A neat double star, preceding the hip of Auriga ; and about one- 
1hird down a line passed from a Aurigae to the Hyades. A 4, pale red ; 
B 8, light blue. Though this fine object is well defined, from the dis- 
parity of size in the pair it is not at all of the easiest measurement : 
yet there are few double stars of which the results are more coincident. 
The star nf this object, 5 Aurigse [=0. 2. 92], has been found to be a 
most delicate double star by 0. Struve, the components being 6 th and 
io th magnitudes, and 2-8" apart : it should be remarked, however, that 
the acolyte is E.'s " io* n /' which in some cases cannot be estimated at less 
than my 15^. 



278. 



258 P. IV. ORIONIS. (2. 622.) CLXXVI. 



B.A. 

Decl. 



h. m. . 

4 52 23 

o / 

N 1 30-3 

Position. 



Free. 


-h 


3-10 






n 




N 


5-85 




Distance. 




Epoch. 


2*64 




1832-09 


2.4 


... 


1833.92 


2-41 


... 


1858.08 


2-7 


... 


1876-07 



STBUVE, W. 179-9 

SMYTH 180.4 

SECOHI 1 76.4 

GLEDHILL 173*2 

A fine double star, just preceding Orion's right knee ; and at rather 



E. A. h - o m - h - m - 121 



more than a third of the distance from /3 Orionis to a Tauri, where It is 
intersected by a line passed from /3 Geminorum through y Orionis. 
A 8^, white; B 9, pale grey. 
[Probably moving.] 

279. 257 P. IV. TAUBJ. CLXXVII. 



h. 



RA. 4 52 44 
Bed. N" 14 22-5 



Free. -f 3-39 
N 5-80 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

SOUTH A B 304.4 ... 3^.4 ... 1822-09 

MAIN AB 304-1 ... 40-5 ... 1863.05 

BURNHAM j A ** 3 4'4 39-o | ! 88o . o6 

(AC 88-3 ... 54-2) 

A wide triple star, between the Bull's ear and Orion's arm; and 
nearly one-third of the distance from a Tauri towards a Orionis, where it 
is also shown by a line carried from Sirius through y Orionis, and 
extended about 10 beyond. A 7, white ; B (which is No. 255 of Piazzi) 
8, cerulean blue; and C 10, purple, with a minute star following it. This 
is a pretty though coarse object, forming a neat arc. 

[Alias 26 B. Orionis.] 

280. 28 B, AUBIGJE. (S. 623.) 

h. m. s. . 



B.A. 4 53 2 
Decl. 3ST 27 0- 9 



Free, -f 3-72 



N 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 205-1 ... 20-4 ... 1829.90 
A double star. A 7^, very white; B 9, white. 

281. B. LEFOBJS. 

h. m. s. >. 



B..A. 4 54 36 
Decl. S 14 58-2 



Free. + 2-73 
N 5-64 



Hind's celebrated "crimson" star. Variable from mag. 6 to 9 with a 
period of 438^. The colour was first remarked by Hind in 1845, and the 
variability by Schmidt in 1855. Hind's account runs as follows: "Of 
the most intense crimson, resembling a blood-drop on the black ground 
of the sky; as regards depth of colour, no other star visible in these 
latitudes could be compared to it." Schmidt in 1855 considered it to be 
gaining light and losing colour, but in Jan. 1876 and again m Jan. 1880 
I saw it as deep a ruby as well could be, and quite deserving all the 
encomiums passed upon it. Schonfeld's description is "Intensiv blu troth ," 



122 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

282. 627 S. OBIO3STIS. 

h. m. s. s. 

Free. + 3- ig 
N 5-63 



B.A. 4 54 47 



Decl. N 3 26-8 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

STBUVE, W. 260-2 ... 21-3 ... 1831-51 

MAIN 258-8 ... 20-8 ... 1866-16 

A double star. A 6 J, white ; B 7^, bluish. 



283. 167 Dunlop DORADOS, (h. 2706 ; H. 976.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 4 55 56 
Decl. S 65 23-0 



Free, -f 0-26 

N 5-54 



A nebula thus described in Sir J, Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"vB; pL; B,; gbM; fof 2;" which means: u very bright; pretty 
large ; round ; gradually brighter in the middle ; the following one of 2 
nebulae." 

284. 278 P. IV. ORIONIS. CLXXVIII. 

h. m. s, s. 



R.A. 4 56 18 
Decl. N 1 26 '8 



Free, -f 3-10 
N 5-50 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o H 

SOUTH 48-3 ... 14-4 ... 1824.97 

SMYTH 49.3 " ... 13-7 ... 1833-92 
MAIN 49.0 ... 13-8 ... 1863-06 

A neat double star, on Orion's right knee. A 8^, silvery white 
B 9, pale blue. He who has no equatorial instrument may fish up this 
object by carrying an imaginary line from Sirius over the cluster in 
Orion's sword, and about 10 beyond : or it may be sought near the 
mid-distance between Aldebaran and a Leporis. 

[i/ TT e Orionis, a star of the 5 ttl mag,] 

285. 2711 h. DORADOS. (H. 982.) 



h. m. s. 



R.A. 4 56 35 



o 



Decl. 8 66 35' 



Prec. -|- 0*10 



5-48 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; vL; vimE;" which means: "very bright; very large; very 
irregularly but much extended." Engraved, Cape Obs., PL iii. Pig. 3. 



B.A. 4 h< 54 m< 5 h< i m> 123 



286. 96 Birm. ORIONIS. 

h. m. . 



B.A. 4 59 43 



o 



Bed. N I 1-6 



Free. + 3-09 
N 5-21 



A red star noted by Lalande as " rouge, 7 ; Bessel, " roth," 7 ; 
Birmingham, 1871, "fine red," 6; Birmingham, 1876, "splendid red," 
7 ; Webb, 1874, "pale ruby," 8. 

287. 61 y. VIII. ATTRIGAE. (h. 344; H. 996.) CLXXX. 

h. m. s. s. 

B.A. 

Decl. 



5 

N 


33 

37 12*8 

Position. 



219-2 

22O-6 

224.1 

22I I 


Free, + 

N 


4-04 

5-I9 

Epoch. 

1828-60 
1832-25 
1852.18 
1878.08 


Distance. 
// 
1-61 
1-8 
1-64 
1.71 



STKUVE, W. 
SMYTH 
MADLEB 
DOBERCK 

A loose cluster, on the lower garment of Auriga ; where a line from 
a Orionis passed over the stars and /3 Tauri, the tips of the Bull's 
horns, hits it at 10 beyond. This object is a bright though freely spread 
band of stars, from 8 th to 13^ magnitudes, having 4 brighter ones in a 
curve, of which the leader is double ; and there are 3 other pairs. Just 
to tlie N. of the parallel it is followed by the beautiful double star 
2. 644, (A 7, topaz; B 8, amethyst), which, from its aspect, being more 
likely to prove an optical object than the rest, was carefully measured, 
as above. 

[The measurements of the double star are very contradictory, and I 
can hardly concur in GledhilFs view that they imply "probable change in 
the angle."] 

[Webb gives the colours as " golden ; reddish blue/' and says they are 
remarkable and constant.] 

[' Rich field, but hardly a ' cluster.' " Brodie.] 

288. 66 EBIDANI. (S. 642 rej.) OLXXXII. 



h. 

R.A. 5 
Decl. 8 

SMYTH 
BUBNHAM 


m. s. 

1 19 

/ 

4 48*2 

Position, 
o 
13-8 ... 
9-4 


Prec. -f 


s. 

2-96 

5-08 

Epoch. 

1832-01 
1880-00 


Distance. 

47 

52-7 .- 



A coarse double star, close to the shin of Orion, where it will be seen 
closely preceding and N. of ft Eridani. A 6, white; and B n, lilac; 



124 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

these two nearly pointing upon a third small star, near the S. vertical ; 
and there are other stars in the field. It appears on the Dorpat 
Catalogue as 642, but without measures or description : and in the 
edition of 1837 nas ^ ne "*"*/" against it. 

289. " 205 P. IV. TAUBI. CLXXXI. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 51 24 

Decl. 3ST 24 7'2 

Position. ] 
SMYTH 195-5 

BUENHAM I97-O 


Prec. 


+ 
N 


S. 

3 

;/ 

5 


4 

07 

Epoch. 

1831.94 

1878-98 


Distance. 
n 
28-0 

35-o 



A double star, between the horns of Taurus ; where a line from Sirius 
passed close to the "W. of a Orionis, and led nearly as far again, will find 
it, lying between a and ft Tauri. A 6, pearly white ; B [9], pale blue. 

Edgeworth in 1878 found a minute star nearer than B. Of this 
Burnham gives : Pos. 148; Dist. 12-9" ; Epoch, 1878-98- mag. 12 J. 

290. 531 Dunlop (?) SCULPTORIS. (h. 2730; H. 1009.) 



h. 



B.A. 5 1 25 
Decl. S 38 9-0 



Prec. + 2-05 

N 5-07 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; vL; mE 314; glbM; rr;" "which means: "very bright; 
very large; much extended in the direction of 314 with the meridian ; 
gradually less bright in the middle ; partially resolved some stars visible." 

291. /3 ERIDANI. CLXXXIII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 52 26 



o 



Decl. S 5 13'7 



Prec. + 2-95 
N 4-98 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH 147-5 ... 120 ... 1830-98 

BUKNHAM 143.3 ... 1 1 6- 7 ... 1880-80 

A bright star with a distant telescopic companion, on the shin-bone 
of Orion. A 3, topaz yellow; B 12, pale blue. I examined this object 
with anxious care, because in S/s first Catalogue, No. 647, A is marked 
" vicinse ;" and he moreover considered it to be formed of two close stars 
of the 7 th magnitude. All my endeavours, however, could only raise a 
round disc, and 2. has since declared it " simplex. 1 ' 

[Possibly variable to the extent of ^ a unit, according to Gould.] 



E.A. 5 h - i m - 5 h - 4 m - 125 

This star is readily found from its vicinity to Rigel, being just above 
it, and in the direction of the Hyades ; the poetaster of these matters 
tells us : 

Where Bigel shows the Hero's foot, north-westerly not far 
Against his leg in glory shines the Hirer's second star. 

Many writers think this River, which, according to Sherburne, flows 
over the meridian at midnight in November, was originally intended to 
typify the Nile, and that the vanity of the Greeks led them to call it 
Eridanus. By other sage authorities we gather that the river represents 
either the Spartan Fluviorum rex, or the Po, or the Granicus, or Orion's 
river, or some other stream ; while Ptolemy merely terms it the Ilora/iou 
dcTTcpurpbs, or asterism of the river, which is followed in the ffluvius 
of the Latins. In the early wood-cut figures of illustrations to Hyginus, 
Eridanus is represented as a reclining female ; while in the MS. of 
Cicero's Aratus it is delineated as a river-god, with his urn and aquatic 
plant. At all events it is one of the old 48 constellations, and its 
members have been thus successively enumerated : 

Ptolemy ... 34 stars. Bayer 42 stars. 

Copernicus . . 34 Bullialdus ... 39 

Tycho Brah<* . . 19 Flamsteed . . . 84 

Kepler .... 39 Bode 343 

This star is called Cursa, from the Arabic al-kursd, a chair or throne, 

and is the principal individual of the asterism seen in this hemisphere ; 

a being far down in the S., though not quite at the end of the River, 

ultima Fluvii, as its name Acker nar implies, it being from dkher-nahr, 

the latter part. 

292. 47 B. AURIGJE. (2. 645.) 

h. in. s. 8. 



R.A. 52 50 



o 



Decl. 1ST 27 53 '1 



Prec. + 3-75 



4'95 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STRUVE,W. 26*8 ... 11.7 ,., 1829-90 

MAIN a6-6 .,, 12*1 ... 1864-30 

A double star. A 6, white ; B 9, ashy. 

293. 236 Dunlop DORADTJS. (h. 2749 ; H. 1031.) 



B. A. 5 4 4 







Bed. S 66 34*6 



Prec. + 0-07 
N 4-85 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 



126 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



" ; v B ; p L ; B ; vm C ; rr ;" which means : " a globular cluster ; 
very bright; pretty large; round; very much condensed ; partially re- 
solved some stars visible." 



294. 



269 P. IV. CAMELOPAEDI. (2. 634.) CLXXIX, 

h. m, s. s. 

B.A. 54 26 



S6 




Prec. + 975 






1 


"NT -i-fii 




JL 
Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 







w 






346-4 




1825-10 




348-9 


... 34- 


1834.15 




349' 1 


... 33-8 .- 


1836.25 




353-1 


26-2 


1858-33 


B 


360*1 


... 21-3 


1875.09 




2-1 


20.2 


1878.32 



SOUTH 

STRUVE, W. 

SMYTH 

DEMBOWSKI 

WILSON and SEABROKE 

JEDKZEJEWICZ 

A fine douhle star, at the lower part of the hack of the animal's neck. 
A 5^, light yellow ; and B 9, pale blue ; while in the np quadrant, about 
2 / distant, is the little star mentioned by Piazzi, " 2' ad Boream, 2" tem- 
poris precedit, alia io ae magn." This object is 19 Hev. Camelopardi. 

[The above changes are partly due to proper motion, and it is an open 
question whether they are not wholly so due. 0. 2. thinks that 10 or 
20 years will decide the point. Bull, de I'Acad. St. Pet., vol. xix.] 

To find this object look about 10 on a line carried from Polaris 
between a and /3 Aurigse : a line from /3 Draconis carried through the 
Pole-star also reaches it at the same distance beyond. 



295. 4 I. VII. TAUBI. (h. 349 ; H. 1030 ; &.) CLXXXIV 



K.A. 5 5 42 

Decl, N 16 34-1 

Position. 

o 
SMYTH 607 

BURNHAM 60. i 



Prec. + 3*45 

N 4-68 

Distance. Epoch. 

1837.73 
1880.07 



25.0 
19.9 



A very delicate double star preceding a tolerably condensed cluster, 
over the right arm of Orion. A 8, yellow; B n, bluish. This object 
is an outlier of a rich gathering of small stars, which more than fills the 
field; it was registered by Iff., under an estimation of 20' or 25' of 
diameter, but he did not notice the pair. However, Sir J. Herschel thus 
describes it: "Large rich cluster; stars 12 to 15 m.; fills field. Place 
that of a D *. The most compressed part is 42.58 foil, the D *, and 3' 



E. A. 



127 



south of it." Described by D' Arrest as "Ein ausserordentlich reicher 
Hauf " an extraordinarily rich cluster. 

The whole may be fished up by carrying a line from d Orionis the fore- 
most star in Orion's belt, through y Orionis, and there intersecting it by 
another from a Tauri, due E. towards y Geminorum. 



296. 



652 S. OBIONIS. 



h. 

R.A. 5 

Decl. N 

STRUVE, W. 


m. s. 

6 5 

o / 

53-8 

Position. 



184.3 


Prec. 


f 

N 


. 

3 
4 


09 

67 
Epoch. 

1830.18 


Distance. 
1.71 



A double star. A 6^, yellowish ; B 8|, white. 



297. 





I 


LEPOBIS 


. (S. 655.) 




h. 


m. s. 




s. 




B.A. 


5 


7 10 


Prec. 


+ 2 


79 






/ 




// 




Decl, 


8 


12 O'O 




N 4 


59 








Position. 


Distance. 




Epoch, 









// 






HERSCHEL, 


W. 


359'5 


12-3 




1782-69 


STRUVE, W 




337-6 


12-8 




1832-25 


MORTON 




335-4 


13-4 




1856-08 


BURNHAM 




337-3 


12*2 




1879-14 



CLXXXV. 



A fine and delicate double star, in the Hare's left ear ; where a line 
from a Orionis through e the middle star of the belt and extended 
rather more than as far again into the 8.W., will pick it up. A 4^, 
white ; B 1 2, pale violet, with a reddish distant star nearly N. Little of 
a decided character can be deduced from the observations of so difficult 
a star. 

[The observations are still very discordant ; even those of recent years, 
what few there are.J 



298. 



p l OBIONTS 

h. m. s. 

K.A. 5 7 32 

Decl. N 2 43-7 

Position. I 
o 

SOUTH 62-0 
STEUVB,W. 63.5 
SMYTH 6i8 
SEABEOKB 63.3 


. (2. 654.) 
Prec. -f 3 

XT T 


55 
Epoch. 

1825.12 
1832-05 
1835.89 
1874-09 


)istance. 
n 

7'5 
7-05 
6.S 


XI q. 



CLXXXVII. 



A pretty double star, between the right arm and thigh of Orion ; in a 



128 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



line with the stars of the belt, preceding it by exactly double its length. 
A 5, orange ; B [9], smalt blue the tints are so decided as to bear out 
E/s remark, " colores insignes." There has been no appreciable change 
in go years. There are several other small stars in the field, of which 
two bright ones in the sp quadrant form a coarse pair, at an L from 
A = 240, with A R. A. = 2 9 s . A natural index for the future detection 
of proper motions in the star p, is offered us in its just preceding and 
being nearly equidistant between two small stars, the one N. and the 
other S. of it. 



299. 



K LEPOBIS. (2. 661.) 



CLXXXIX. 



h. 

5 
8 

r 
EY 


m. s. 

8 9 

/ 

13 4 2 

Position. 

358-6 ... 
359-5 
359-5 
3-6 ... 
357-6 


Free. + 


2-77 

4*50 

Epoch. 

1832.23 
1835-02 
1857-90 
1862-05 
1877.95 


Distance. 
// 
3-5 ... 
3-7 
3-2 
2-16 
2-46 



B,A. 

Decl. 



STRUVE, W. 
SMYTH 
WBOTTESLEY 
MAIN 

STONE, O. 

A close double star, at the root of the animal's left ear, and which may 
be readily fished up about 5 S. of /3 Orionis, on a line run from y Orionis 
through the latter. A 5, pale white ; B 9, clear grey, pointing towards 
a distant star on the N. verge of the field. 

From these results, the general fixity of the components might be 
inferred ; but I do not place great confidence in my measures, which 
were troubled with variable refractions. 



300. 



14 AURIGA. (2. 652.) CLXXXVIII. 



R.A. 



h. 

5 



8 14 



Bed. 1ST 32 33*6 



Prec. + 3-90 



STBUVE, W. 



SMYTH 



Position. 

IAB 225.4 
1 A C 342.3 
(AB 224.5 
( A C 340 

WILSON and SEABEOKE j f ^ 226 ' 
( A C 348.4 

A fine triple star, over Auriga's right knee; about 15 down on the 
line which runs from a Aurigse to /3 Orionis. A 5, pale yellow ; B 7^, 
orange; C 16, purple. A and C point to a distant fourth star in the 
np quadrant. 



- -^ 4 4S> 
i. Distance. 


Epoch. 


. ... 14-65 | 
; ... 12.57! 


1830-55 


... 15 5 

... 14-94 1 

. ... 12 ) 


1832-81 

1877.15 



E.A, 5 h - ; s h - 8- . 

2. discovered the delicate companion C, which had escaped the gaze of 
all other observers, and requires the most careful attention even to be 
perceived by occasional glimpses, but when seen, has a peculiar deep 
purple tint, which strikes singularly on the eye from so excessively minute 
an object, 

[Webb noted B to be lilac in i8go.] 

301. a AUBIQ^B. CLXXXVI. 

h. m. s. s. 



R. A. 58 33 
Decl. N 45 53'5 



Free. + 4-42 
N .46 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEESCHEL,W. AE 151-4 ... 169-0 ... 1780-69 

HEBSCHEL, J., and SOUTH AF 348-0 ,. 454-2 .,, 1821-22 

! A B 317.5 ... 78-1 \ 
AC 183.2 ... 126.2 1 
AD 315-8 ... 143.21 * 

AE 146-1 ... 158-0 / 

A Nautical Almanac star, with several distant companions, on the 
right shoulder-blade of Auriga. A i, bright white; [B 14; C 12^; 
D Ji ; E 10.] 

Here the principal star is Capella, a name considered to allude to the 
goat and kids which Auriga, the waggoner, has charge of; but it is some- 
times called el-dyyuk, a word of doubtful origin and signifi cation. The 
Arabs distinctly termed it the Guardian of the Pleiades ; and many 
astronomers treated it as a single constellation, under the name of Hircus, 
or Capra, the goat, Capella is a brilliant object, and one of those stars 
which Piazzi attacked with the hope of detecting parallax. Sir W. 
Hersehel measured its diameter, and concluded it to be 2-5". Sir 
J. Herschel says, "I have a strong impression that Capella, within 
my recollection, has increased in brightness." *W. Struve was of the same 
opinion . 

Auriga is one of the original 48 asterisms, though it has gone by divers 
other denominations, as Heniochus, Myrtillus, Elasippus, and Erichthonius. 
It is thought to have been the Horus of the Egyptians ; but there is a 
want of apparent connection between the goat, kids, and carter, and the- 
potent son of I sis, The Arabians drew a mule, instead of the human form ; 
but they knew the latter figure also, and called it Muttisiki-l a' inan, or 
holder of the reins. Auriga has been thus tabulated : 

Ptolemy ... 14 stars. Bullialdus *, , 27 stars* 

Ulugh Beigh . . 13 M Hevelius . . . . 40 

Tycho Brahe . . 27 Flamsteed . , , 66 

Bayer .... 32 Bode . .... 239 

The goat in this constellation has been recognised as Amaltheea, the 

K 



130 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



nurse of Jupiter, and mother of the "Epi^oi, Hsedi, or two stars and 
77 in the arm of Auriga, emphatically termed " horrida et insana sydera :" 
with a third star they form an isosceles triangle. The Haedi were 
regarded by mariners of yore as affording presages of the weather : and 
they were so much dreaded, that they are said to have closed navigation 
at their rising. Hence, in an Epigram of the Anthologia, Callimachus 

says : - 

Tempt not the winds, forewarned of dangers nigh, 
When the Kids glitter in the western sky. 

Capella, the shepherd's star, is a brilliant insulated object, and there- 
fore of easy alignment. A line drawn from Polaris perpendicular to the 
line of the Pointers, and on the opposite side to Ursa Major, passes, at 
44 distance, through it. It will also be found by a ray projected through 
a and 5, the two most northern stars of the Great Bear's body, into the 
irregular pentagon formed by Auriga. If looking from the southward 
for it, take the rhymester's advice: 

From Eigel rise, and lead a line, through Bellatrix's light, 

Pass Nath, upon the Bull's north horn, and gain Capella's height 
"Where a large triangle is form'd (isosceles it seems), 

When beta is with delta join'd to lustrous alpha's beams. 

302. /3 OBIONIS. (2. 668.) CXC. 



h. m. 



B.A. 59 15 
Decl. 8 8 19-9 



Prec. -f 2-88 

// 
N 4-40 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o it 

HERSCHEL,W. '* 200.7 ... 9.53 1791-60 and 8 1-81 

STRUVE, W. 199-8 ... 9-14 ... 1831-53 

SMYTH 199-4 9'5 1832-07 

WILSON and SBABKOKE 201-8 ... 9-5 ... 1873-93 

A Nautical Almanac star, double, in the Hero's right foot, at the 
commencement of the flexuous Eridanus ; it is familiarly termed Kigel, 
from the Arabic JRijl-al-jauzd, the giant's leg ; and Eecorde assures us 
it was called "Algebar by the Arabitians." A 1, pale yellow; B 9, 
sapphire blue. This splendid object is somewhat difficult to measure on 
account of the component's disparity in magnitude and the brilliance of 
the large star*. [Mitchel found a distant companion of mag. 13 which 
Burnham places as follows : Pos. i'5; Dist. 44'4"; Epoch 1877*80.] 

[Webb always sees in A a blue tinge. Knott says : " Its blue tint is 
one of the finest in th$ heavens."] 

* Dawes has shown me a diagram which piece charged with a magnifying power 

he made of this delicate object, with a of seventy times. This same little m- 

2 ft telescope, of i^ny ln aperture, made strument showed the companion to Pola- 

by Dollond,. having a pancratic eye- ris distinctly. 



B.A. * 1 ' 8 m - 5*- io m - 131 



/3 Orionis has been designated E$i al-Jauza in Arabian astrognosy, 
as shepherd of the Jauza, whose herds, or thirst-allaying camels, are 
represented by a, y, 6, and K. Zahn tells us, in his Oculus Artificialis, 
1702, that Francis Grindel observed through his telescope that two stars 
in the right foot of Orion were surrounded with great splendour, as 
though emulous of the Sun ; and that a phenomenon resembling them in 
splendour cannot be found in the whole firmament. Now, as I cannot 
conceive either A or r to have been thus shining in the field with /3, I can 
only impute the remark to a spurious image in a bad instrument, 
coloured by the same enthusiasm which showed Padre de Rheita the 
seamless coat of our Lord and a chalice in this same asterism. 

Independent of the " nautis infestus Orion " character of the constel- 
lation, Rigel had one of his own ; for it was to the astronomical rising of 
this " marinus aster" in March that St. Marinus and 8t. Aster owe their 
births in the Romish calendar. It is easy to find. A line run from the 
head of Leo through Procyon, arrives at Rigel; as does one from 
a Qeminorum, by a Orionis; and the locale of the star is thus 
expressed : 

With glittering gems Orion's belt, his sword, his shoulders, blaze; 
While radiant Kigel on his foot pours forth its silver rays. 

This was one of the stars selected by Count d'Assas de Montardier, a 
captain in the French Navy, for his investigations of parallax; and 
he concluded he had detected an amount of from one to two seconds. 
But as he merely observed its appulse and disappearance behind an iron 
frame fixed on a mountain at different periods of the year, it would be 
difficult to prove such a quantity, right or wrong, even if the frame were 
absolutely immovable during the intervals, and insensible to the varia- 
tions of temperature. 



303. 20 P. V. TAUBI. (2. 670.) CXCI. 



20 P. V. TAUBI. (2. 


670.) 


B.A. 


h. m. s. 

5 10 18 


Free. 


8. 

-f 3 


50 


Bed. 


N 18 19*0 


. 


H 

N 4 


33 


IUVE, "W 
?TH 
JN 


Position. 

r . 171-1 
168*5 
174-7 


Distance. 

2'33 
2.1 

3-6 


... 


Epoch. 

1830-53 
1834-89 
1862-10 



A neat double star, on the Bull's southern horn ; where a line run 
from the cluster in Orion's sword, and extended as far again to the N., 
passes upon it. A 8, and B g ; both bluish, and lying between two stars 
in the sp and one in the nf quadrant, and nearest to the latter. 

Struve styled A, alba ; but in noticing so slight a difference of shade, 

K 2 



132 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



even on so small an object, it is requisite to know to what degree his 
field of view was illuminated, and in what manner. It is possible that 
colour may interfere with our exact perception of size, which points out 
the necessity of obtaining greater accuracy of expression in the language 
of sidereal astronomy. 



304, 



16 ATJBIG-ffl. 


(O. 2. 103.) 


h. 


m. 


8. 




s. 


B A. 5 


10 56 


Free, -f 


3-92 







/ 




ft 


Deel. W 


33 14-7 


N 


4-27 


Position. Distance. 


Epoch. 









/f 




STRUVE, O. 


56.5 


... 


4-5 


1848-02 


DEMBOWSKI 


57.0 




4-3 


1867.40 


BUBNHAM 


54*3 


... 


3*9 


1878-65 



A double star. AS; B n. 



305. 



25 P. V. TAUIII. (2. 674.) 



B.A. 6 11 
Decl. N 20 6'9 

Position. 

O 

STRUVE, W. 147-3 
SMYTH 148.4 



+ 3-54 
N 4-24 



Distance. 
// 
10-5 

10.0 



Epoch. 

1828-19 
1839.76 



CXCIII. 



A neat double star, in the middle of the Bull's southern horn ; and 
about 1 1 along a line projected from a Tauri towards /3 Qeminorum. 
A [6^,] bright white ; B [9^,] bluish ; and there are other companions. 



306. 



1780 Lao. COLTTMB.. (*h. 3740.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 5 11 19 
Peel. 8 36 46*7 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL, J. 2847 



Free. + 2-19 

ft 
N 4-22 

pistance. Epoch. 

30^. ,,, 1835-99 



A double star. A 7 ; B 



E. A. 5 h - io m 5 h - I2 m - 133 

307. A AURIGJE. (AC =2 3 App. II.) CXCII. 



h, m, 8. f. 



B.A. 5 11 22 
Decl. N 40 6-6 



Free. + 4-16 
N 4-23 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

// 

SOUTH 34-6 ... 102.1 ,,, 1825.10 

SMYTH 30.2 ... 102-8 ... 183^88 

STRUVE, 0. 22.7 ... 109.7 ... 1852*14 

FLETCHBB 13.9 ... 121-8 ... 1877-13 



. AB 107-6 ... -.--. . 

BUBNHAM J AC *' 6 lIl.cC '" ^79^28 

A star with a distant companion, on the "Waggoner's loins ; and rather 
more than 6 down a line drawn from a Aurigse to y Orionis. A 5, pale 
yellow; [B 13]; C 9^, plum colour. As IjL described it merely "mul- 
tiple, 2 within 30," it is impossible to identify them in the group 
of small stars of the galaxy wherein they are placed. [A little coarsely- 
double star about 3' distant in the nf quadrant, not far from the 
parallel, is South's C. (=Pos. 81; Dist. 193".) " The motion is 
rectilinear." Gledhill.] 

308. 33 Ig[. VII. AURIGA, (h. 350; H. 1067.) CXCIV. 

b. m. s. ft. 



B.A. 5 12 9 
Decl. N 39 13 '7 



Free. 4-4-13 
N 4-16 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

BURNHAM 42-8 ... 33-3 ... 1879.59 

A very delicate double star in a group, on the Waggoner's loins, A 
7|-, pale white ; B [n], dusky. A fine field of small stars in a rich 
neighbourhood, with but little disposition to form. The most prominent- 
member is a bright orange-coloured star of the 7*8 magnitude, forming a 
scalene triangle, with two others to the sf ; near it, in the np quadrant, 
is the delicate pair above estimated, while on the N. verge of the field 
is a triplet of 10^ magnitude stars. 

Ijl. describes it as a pretty compact cluster, " with one large star, the 
rest nearly of a size ; " but he makes no mention of the strong colour 
seen both by his son and myself. 

It is about 7 on the line from a Tauri towards y Orionis, or nearly 
one-sixth of the distance between those stars. 



134 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

309. r OBIO3STIS. CXCVI. 

h, m. s. 



B.A. 5 12 16 
Bed. S 6 57-8 



Prec. -|- 2-91 
N 4-15 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o *> 

I AB 250-1 ... 36-0 \ 

HALL JAC 59.8 ... 36-0 > ... 1876-2 

(Bb 49^3 ... 3^5 

( AB 249.1 ... 36-2 \ 

BURNHAM < A C 6o-0 ... 36.1 > ... 1877.9 

( B b 506 ... 4-0 ) 

An extremely delicate quadruple star, on Orion's right instep ; where it is 
the vertex of an obtuse-angled triangle, formed with J3 Orionis and /3 Eri- 
dani. A 4, pale orange; B [14], blue; C 12, lilac; [b 16]. A B and C lie 
nearly in a line sp and nf. The duplicity of B was discovered by Burnham. 

310. 681 2. AUBIG^S. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 5 12 26 
Decl. N 46 61 '3 



Prec, + 4*4^ 
N 4-13 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

STBUVE, W. 180-5 ... 23.4 ... 1831.95 
BURNHAM 180*8 ... 23-2 ... 1878-90 

A double star. A 6^, yellowish white ; B 9, bluish white. 

311. 37 P. V. TAUBJ. (2. 680.) CXCV, 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 5 12 45 
Bed. Iff 20 1-2 



Prec. -f 3-56 
N 4-10 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o tt 

STEUVB, W. 201-7 ... 8-7 ... 1827-85 

SMYTH 204-1 ... 9-0 ... 1830.81 

A very delicate double star, in the middle of the Bull's southern horn 

at nearly one-third of the distance between f and Aldebaran. A 7, deep 

yellow; B u, bluish. It is the last of a curious series of 6 stars nearly 

in the same declination ; the one immediately preceding it being 35 P. V. 

312. 28 LEPOBIS. (*h, 3750.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 6 16 44 



o 



Decl. 3 21 21*2 



Prec. -f 2-56 
N 3-86 



Position. Distance. E och. 

__ _. O H 

HEKSCHBL, J. 295 ... 3 est. ... 1835-9 

BUBNHAM 283-3 -. 4-2 ... 1879-1 

A double star. A 6 ; B i-oj. Described by Sir J. Herschel as " most 
beautiful. 1 ' 



R.A. 5 h ' I2- 5 b - i7 m - 135 



313. 23 OBIONIS. (2. 696.) CXCVII. 

B.A. 5 17 3 Free. + 3-15 



o 



Bed. 1ST 3 26*3 



N 3-77 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STRUVE 28.2 ,., 31.7 ... 1*31-44 
SMYTH 27.9 ... 32.3 ... 1835-17 
MAIN 28.4 ... 31-1 ... 1862.05 

A neat double star in Orion's right arm-pit. A 5, white ; B 7, pale 
grey. This is a fine object for telescopes of moderate power. 

Taking all the probable errors of observation into consideration, there 
is perhaps no appreciable change, notwithstanding that Ip, in 1782 gave 
the distance as 26-1". 

[3 S. of y, a little p it.] 

314. 70 P. V. LEPOBJS. (*h. 3752.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 5 17 15 



o 



Decl. 8 24 53*3 



Free. + 2-46 
N 3-71 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

::: Sl - I837 ' 3 

STONE, 0. AB 105-0 ... 3-5 ... 1877.0 

A triple star. A 6 ; B 9 J ; .9. 

315. 700 2. ORIONIS. 

h. m. s. 8. 



B.A. 5 17 25 



o 



Decl. MT 56-8 



Free, -f 3-09 
N 3-70 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STBUVB,W. 5-2 ... 4-5 ... 1831.48 
A double star. A 8 J, white ; B 9, white. 

316. 698 2. AUBIGJB. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 5 17 54 

Decl. N 34 44-8 



Free. + 3-98 



N 3-66 

Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

STBXJVE,W. 346-1 ... 31.1 ... 1831-23 
A double star. A 6.5, yellow ; B 8J, bluish. 



136 



317. 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 5 17 59 



111 TAURI. 

8. S. 

Prec. + 3-47 



cxcvni. 



Decl. N 17 17'1 

Position. 



Distance. 



3-66 

Epoch. 



HERSCHEL, W. 

SOUTH 

SMYTH 

FLAMMARION 

BURNHAM 



273.8 

27i-3 

271-2 



5o-4 
61.7 

63 

75-2 
74-8 



1825.06 
. 1832-95 

I 8?7-i3 
270.7 ... 74.8 ... 1879-06 

A star with a distant comes, below the middle of the Bull's southern 
horn, in a poor field ; and in the mid -distance between y Orionis and 
Tauri. A 6, white ; and B 8 J, lilac. 

[The distance is increasing owing to proper motion.] 



318. 



88 B. ORIONIS. (2. 701.) 

h. m. s. s. 

R.A. 5 18 2 



Decl. 8 8 31-2 

Position. 
STRUVE, W. 



145-9 



Prec. + 2*87 

Distance. Epoch. 

5-9 ,., 1830.48 



A double star. A 7, very white ; B 9, ashy. 



819. 



B.A. 



7] ORIONIS 

h. m. s. 

5 18 56 



Prec. 4- 3-01 



J-/C/UJ.* K7 ft 4f7 ty 


^ 3 > 


Position. 


Distance. Epoch. 





// ' 


DA WES 88.7 


0-94 ,,. 1848.11 


JACOB 83.7 


o-75 ... i 8 53-99 


DuidsR 88o 


0-84 ,,, 1869.19 


DEMBOWSKI 84.7 


1-02 ,,. 1873-70 


DOBERCK 87-3 


I- 12 ,., 1878-08 


BURNHAM 81.9 


1-06 ,,, 1879.10 



A close double star, discovered to be such by Dawes in 1848. A 4, 
white ; B 5, purplish. The measures are very discordant, 



320. 



120 Dunlop HYDRI. (h. 2827 ; H. 1117.) 

h. m. s. s. 



It. A. 5 18 58 
Decl. S 69 19-7 



Prec. + 0-41 
N 3-57 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFg Catalogue of 1864 : 



E.A. s h . i7 m - 5 h i9 m - 137 

" Cl ; L ; p Ei ; i E ; st 1 1 ... 16 ; " which means : " a cluster ; large ; 
pretty rich ; of an irregular round outline ; composed of stars from the 
ii to to the 1 6 th magnitudes." 



321. y OBIOKTS. CO. 



E.A. 


h. m, s. 

5 19 13 


Free. + 


8. 

3-21 


Decl. 


N 6 15-0 

Position. 


- "NT 


3'55 

Epoch, 


Distance. 


SMYTH 
CHALLIS 
BURNHAM 




150-0 
148-1 
I44'4 


178-0 
180-4 
177-8 


1838-85 
1841-19 
1880-00 



A bright star, with a minute distant companion, on Orion's right 
shoulder; and one of IL's insulated objects. A 2, pale but clear yellow ; 
B 15, grey; a third star precedes by about 34 s , in the sp quadrant. 
y Orionis was rejected from the Nautical Almanac List in 1830, there 
being no fewer than four others of this constellation retained as standards: 
it is called Bellatrix, or the female warrior, and is the smaller of the 
two upper stars in Orion. The gender of this star puzzles Hood, who 
knoweth not why it should be female, " excepte it be this, that women 
born under this constellation shall have mighty tongues." y Orionis is 
the N.W. star of the 4 at the corners of this asterism, so to speak ; and 
an ideal line, carried from Sirius over a Tauri to the BulFs ear, passes 
over it in the mid distance ; the rhymester then directs, 

From Bellatrix now pass a line, to Betelgeuze the red, 

And, to the north, three little stars will mark Orion's head. 

A friend considered my distance as " much too large/' and the colour 
of A to be " reddish." On referring to Mr. Challis, that gentleman 
examined the object with the great Northumberland equatorial, and pro- 
nounced A to be " yellowish." 

Bellatrix has a small though sensible movement in space; but the 
doctors differ respecting its amount and direction. 

322. /3 TAUBJ. CXCIX. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 5 19 20 
Decl. N 28 31 '0 



Free. + 3-78 
N 3*53 



Position, Difference of E. A. Epoch. 

O 8. 

SMYTH 225-0 ... 14-5 ,.. 1836.65 
A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, and three other 



138 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

small stars in the field, forming a regular figure with the 2 preceding 
and 2 following j3. A 2, brilliant white; B 10, pale grey. This object, 
/3, is on the "very tip of the horn of Taurus, and therefore at the 
greatest distance from the hoof. This position gained it the name of Nath, 
from Al-ndtih, the butting ; and as it is also in the Waggoner's left ancle, 
it was called Jfab'dhi-l-indn, i.e., heel of the rein-holder, and entered on 
several Catalogues as y Aurigee. In finding Nath by alignment, it must 
be sought about half-way between the Pleiades and Pollux ; or, following 
the poet's dogma, a line sent 

From centre of Orion's belt to where Capella's seen, 

Will point to the observant eye Nath in mid-way between. 



323, 84 P. V. OEIONIS. (S. 708.) CCI. 



h. 


m. s. 




8. 


B.A. 5 


19 28 


Free. 


+ 3-n 




o / 




n 


Decl. W 


1 49*4 





N 3-52 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 






HEESCHEL, W. 


322.8 


2-0 + 


1782.76 


STEUVE, W. 


323-2 


2.61 


1831.81 


SMYTH 


322.5 


2-6 


1835-11 


MAIN 


305-9 


2-4 


1862-11 



A close double star on Orion's right side ; where a line from Orion's 
belt towards a Tauri passes it at about 4^ below y Orionis. A 8, 
silvery white ; B 10, grey. This delicate object was placed by S. in his 
First Class, " plurium maxima." There are few close double stars whose 
fixity for upwards of half a century has been more satisfactorily proved 
than this, so Main's angle would seem to be a misprint. 

324, 79 M. LEPOBIS. (H. 1112.) CCIII. 



B.A, 5 19 53 



o / 



Decl. 8 24 36*9 



Free, -f 2-47 
N 3-53 



A bright stellar nebula, of a milky white tinge, under the Hare's 
feet, the following edge of whose disc just precedes a line formed by two 
stars lying across the vertical, and it is followed nearly on the parallel by . 
a 9 th magnitude star. It is a fine object, blazing towards the centre, 
and was discovered by Me'chain in 1780. It was resolved by IjL into 
a mottled nebulosity, in 1783, with a 7 ft telescope; but on applying the 
2o ft in the following year, he fairly made it a "beautiful cluster of stars 
nearly 3 minutes in diameter, of a globular construction, and certainly 
extremely rich/' The mean apparent place is obtained by differentiation 



E.A. 5*1- 19^' 5*. 2i* 139 

from Leporis, a fine wMte star, with a red companion of the 7 th mag- 
nitude in the np quadrant. 

An imaginary line run from a Orionis before a Leporis and over ft will 
hit this object about 4 S.W. of the latter. 

325. 30 1. VII. AUEIG^S. (h, 354; H. 1114; .) COIL 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 5 20 38 
Decl. N 35 13 '3 



Prec. -f- 4*oo 
N 3-43 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH 235 ... 5 ... 1836-79 

A minute double star announces this cluster, on the robe under the 
left thigh of Auriga. A 9| and B n, both grey. The object is a 
compressed oval cluster of io th to 14^ magnitude stars, about 3' in 
diameter , trending s/*and np, with a pair of 10^ magnitude stars to the 
N. ; in a splendid district of the heavens. 

It is about 1 2 down on the line which the eye projects from a Aurigse 
towards a Orionis, and is there intercepted by another line drawn from 
y Orionis through ft Tauri, and extended 6|- beyond. 

[" Neat little cluster. Its centre consists of about 40 or 50 stars ; 
the outlying stars are arranged in curved branches." Parsonstown Obs.] 

326. \P ORIONIS. 

h. m. B, * 



B.A. 5 21 3 

o / 

Decl. 4- 3 O'O 



Prec. + 3-14 



N 3-39 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ff 

KNOTT 322.1 ... 2-5 ... 1863-15 

DEMBOWSKI 324.9 ... 2-6 .,. 1875.10 

A neat double star discovered by Knott in 1863. A s|-, yellow ; B 1 1, 
blue. A little sp is S. 712 (Pos. 55; Dist. 2-9"; Epoch 1878-0), which 
is a double star, mags. 7 and 9, the angle of which is evidently increasing. 

327. 10254 Lai. LEPOBIS. (*h, 3759.) 

h. m. s. B. 



E.A. 5 21 15 



o 



Decl. 3 19 46*6 



Prec. -f 2-59 
N 3-37 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

O H 

HEBSOHEL, J. 315-2 ... 28.7 ... 1837-95 

STONE, 0. 317.4 ... 27.9 ... 1877.10 



A double star. A 6 ; 



140 
328. 



A Cycle of Celestial Oljecfs. 

COLUMB-aS. (*h, 3760.) 

B.A. 5 21 58 Prec. 4- 2-13 

// 
N 3-32 



Decl. S 35 26-7 



Position. Distance. 



HEBSCHEL,J. 



(AC 271 
A triple star, A 6 ; B 7 ; C 1 1. 



7-3 

20 + 



Epoch. 

I835-57 
1836*02 



329. 



38 M. AURIGA. (H. 1119 ; .) 

8. 

Prec. + 4'O2 



CCIV. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 5 22 2 



Decl. N 35 44 '1 



N 3-39 



Position. Difference of R. A. Epoch. 

o s. 

SMYTH 251 .,, 14.5 ,., 1835-80 

A rich cluster of minute stars, on the Waggoner's left thigh, of 
which a remarkable pair in the following part are here estimated, A 7, 
yellow; and B 9, pale yellow; having a little companion about 25" off 
in the sf quadrant. Messier discovered this in 1764, and described it 
"a mass of stars of a square form without any nebulosity, extending to 
about 15' of a degree;" but it is singular that the palpable cruciform 
shape of the most clustering part did not attract his notice. It is an 
oblique cross, with a pair of large stars in each arm, and a conspicuous 
single one in the centre ; the whole followed by a bright individual of 
the 7 tn magnitude. 

The very unusual shape of this cluster recalls the sagacity of Sir 
W. Herschers speculations upon the subject, and very much favours 
the idea of an attractive power lodged in the brightest part. For 
although the form be not globular, it is plainly to be seen that there is 
a tendency towards sphericity, by the swell of the dimensions as they 
draw near the most luminous place, denoting, as it were, a stream, or 
tide of stars, setting towards a centre. As the stars in the same nebula 
must be very nearly all at the same relative distances from us, and they 
appear to be about the same size, Sir William infers that their real 
magnitudes must be nearly equal. Granting, therefore, that these 
nebulae and clusters of stars are formed by their mutual attraction, he , 
concludes that we may judge of their relative ages by the disposition of 
their component parts, those being the oldest which are the most 
compressed. 

To fish up this object, a line from ft Orionis must be carried north- 



E. A. 5 n * 2i m ' 5 h * 23 m * 

wards through /3 Tauri, on the tip of the Bull's left horn, and about 
7 beyond, where it will be intersected by the ray from a Aurigse to 
a Orionis. 

[" Glorious neighbourhood/' Webb.] 

["Query, if the right place f Parsonstown Obs. But this query 
applies to Sir J. Herschel's place, which for 1890 is B,. A. 5* 1 2i m i7 8 .] 

330. 118 TAUBI. (%. 716.) CCV. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 5 22 30 

o / 

Decl. "N 25 3* 



Prec. + 3-68 
N 3-24 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

HERSCHEL, W. 1927 .., 5-0 ... 1782.94 

STBUVE, W. 196-7 ... 4-8 ... 1829-63 

SMYTH 195-9 ... 5-0 ... 1838.91 

WILSON and SEABKOKE 200.1 ... 5.0 ... 1874.10 

JEDKZEJEWICZ 200-7 ... 5-1 ... 1880-09 

A very neat double star, between the tips of the Bull's horns ; and 
mid- way between the Pleiades and 8 Geminorum, A 7, white; B 7^, 
pale blue. 

331. 175 Dunlop DOBADUS. (h. 2844; H. 1142.) 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 5 22 36 
Decl. S 68 4-7 



Prec. 0-21 
N 3-25 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ! ; p B ; S ; B ; 4 th of Group ;" which means : " a remarkable object ; 
pretty bright; small; round; the 4 th of a group." The other members 
of this group are all very faint. 

Engraved, Cape Obs., PL iii. Fig. 2. 

332. 109 P. V. OBIONIS. (S. 722. rej.) CCVII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 5 23 25 
Decl. S 8 28-0 



Prec. + 2-87 
N 3-14 



Position. Distance, Epoch. 

o n 

BUBNHAM 300-3 ,,. 26.2 ... 1880.00 

A delicate double star, in the space between Orion's right heel and 
left knee ; where it may be found by drawing a line from the third star 
in Orion's belt, over the sword cluster, and carrying it nearly as far again 
beyond, A 7j, pale white; and B 10, blue. This pretty object was S/s 



142 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



722, but is not placed among his measured stars; being branded in the 
great Catalogue with "re/." It is in a barren but brightish field, in 
which an occasional glow seems to verify the " diffused nebulosity" which 
H.'s powerful light-grasping 2O ft reflector saw. 



333, 



/3 LEPOBIS. 


h. 
RA. 5 


m. . 

23 31 


Prec. H 


Bed. S 

HEKSCHBL, J. 
BUENHAM < 


20 50*8 

Position. 

A C 145.9 
AB 288-3 
AD 75-0 
AE 57-6 


j 


Distance. 

70 est. 
2-68 J 
... 206.3 ( 
... 241.5 ) 



CCVIII. 



2-57 

n 
3-19 



Epoch. 
1834.94 

1879.88 



[A close double star with distant telescopic companions, between the 
legs of Lepus. A 3, deep yellow; Bn; C 12 ; Dn; E 10.] This star 
is often called Nihal, but the name is more properly applied to a, /3, y, 
and 6, the Arabian Al-nih<tt> or thirst-slaking camels ; it will be identified 
by drawing a line from the middle star of Orion's belt, through the sword, 
and extending it 3 below a Leporis. [Estimates of A's mag. vary. 
Gould puts it at 3 ; and so Flamsteed and Lalande : but Argelander has 
3^; Piazzi, and Taylor, 4, About i m 5o s preceding this star is a pretty 
pair ( =/3 3 19) of mags. 7|- and io|-,of which Dembowski gives : Pos. 231; 
Dist. 3.9"; Epoch 1876-1.] 



334. 



96 B. AUEIQ-ffl. (2. 718.) 



R.A. 5 23 43 



Decl. 3ST 40 18 '3 

Position. 

o 
STBUVE, W. 74.1 

MAIN 74-2 



Prec. -f 4-60 

N 3-16 

Epoch. 
// 
78 ... 1829.90 

77 ... 1863-22 
A double star. A 8, very white ; B 8, very white. 



Distance. 



335. 



31 OBIOinS. (2. 725.) 



R.A. 5 23 50 
Bed. 8 1 10-8 



Prec. -f 3*04 

// 
N 3-12 

Epoch. 



Distance. 



Position. 

o // 

STBDVE, W. 87.5 ... 127 ... 1829.41 

STONE, 0. 88.4 ... 127 ... 1879.09 

A double star. A s|, golden; B ir, blue. The colour of A has 



E.A. 5 h ' 2 3 m 5 h * 2 4 m * 

attracted the notice of many observers. Lalande called it " rouge ;" 
Schmidt "gelb-roth;" Birmingham, "light orange." The last-named 
observer remarked on the contrast it afforded to its blue comes in 1876. 



336. 261 $. I. AUBIQ^SE. (h. 355; H. 1137; it.) CCVI. 



h. m. 



B.A. 5 24 9 
Decl. 'N 34 9*0 



Free. -I- 3-97 
N 3-13 



A resolveable nebula, on the lower garment of Auriga, about a5 m sf 
38 M. Ip. remarked that it "seems to have one or two stars in the 
middle, or an irregular nucleus." This object was next examined by H., 
who described it as a nebula including a triple star, surrounding them 
like an atmosphere. The nebula is situated in a rich field of minute 
stars, with 5 of the io th magnitude, disposed in an equatorial line 
above, or to the S. of it, and preceded by a bright yellow 7|- magnitude 
star in the same direction. After intently gazing, under moderate power, 
the triangle rises distinctly from the star-dust, and presents a singular 
subject for speculation. 

[ " Very faint : not resolveable in any ordinary telescope/ 1 Brodie.~\ 

[Engraved in Phil. Trans., 1833, PL v. Fig. 49.] 



337. 32 ORIONIS. (2. 728.) CCIX. 



h. 


m. 


s. 




9. 




R.A. 6 


24 


54 


Prec. + 


3' 


20 







/ 




n 




Decl. N 


5 


52'0 


jf 


3' 


10 


Position. 


Distance. 




Epoch. 









n 






HERSCHEL, W 




217.8 






1782.05 


STEUVE, W. 




203.7 


., 1-04 ,., 




1830-96 


SMYTH 




206.2 


I-O 




1839.20 


JACOB 




202.4 


... I-7I ... 




1853*43 


SP5RER 




188.9 


.. 0-44 ... 




1877-19 


BURNHAM 




196-6 


.. 0-48 




1878-50 



A close double star, on Orion's right shoulder. A 5, bright white ; 
B 7, pale white. This elegant object was discovered by Iff.., and his 
observations compared with later results show retrograde motion [and a 
diminution in the distance ; though the observations as set out in full 
by Gledhill are very discordant.] 

A line from the leading star of Orion's belt carried towards ft Tauri 
passes 32 Orionis at rather more than 6, where it will be seen just to 
the E. of y Orionis. 



144 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



338. 



33 OBIOHT8. (2. 729 


) 




h. m. 


8. 




8. 


B.A. 


5 25 


28 


Prec. -f 


S-H 




o 


t 




f f 


Decl. 


N 3 


12-5 


N 


3-02 


Position. Distance. 






o 


/f 




HERSCHEL, J., 


and SOUTH 26-2 


2-O2 




STBUVE, W. 




25-6 


... 1.87 




SMYTH 




25-8 


2-O 




DuN&a 




26*2 


... 1-7 





OCX, 



Epoch. 

1822-02 
1831-22 
1,838.21 
1872-86 

A close double star, on Orion's right shoulder, where it is a little 
more than one-third of the distance from Bellatrix to the last, or following 
star of Orion's belt. A 6, white ; B 8, pale blue ; with a distant 8 th 
magnitude star in the np quadrant. This superb object is not of very 
difficult measurement, though rated as one of S.'s " vicinee." No change 
in the angle ; but as IjjL says the stars were only half the diameter of the 
small star apart, the distance may possibly have increased. 

[Between y and , but nearer the former.] 



339. 



730 2. TATJEI. 



h. m. 8. 

B.A. 5 25 51 

Decl. N 18 58-1 

Position, 
o 

STRUVE, W. 141-8 



Prec. + 3-47 



Distance. 
// 
9-8 



2-97 

Epoch. 
1831-42 



A double star. A 7, very white; B 7|, very white. 



340. 



H.A. 

Decl. 



8 OEIONIS. 



h. m. . 

5 26 23 
8 22*9 



Position. 

o 

HEBSCHEL, W. 358-2 
STBUVE, W. 359-2 
MAIN 359.0 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 359.6 



(2. 14 App. 

t 
Prec. -f i 

N -- 



Distance. 
52-9 

53-6 , 
52.8 



Epoch. 

1779.77 

1835-70 
1863-06 

1877-82 



CCXI. 



A Nautical Almanac star, coarsely double ; it fe the leader of the 
three "bullions" in Orion's girdle or belt, and nearly on the equator. 
A 2, brilliant white; B 7, pale violet. [Burnham has found a very 
minute companion of mag. 14, in Pos. 227; Dist. 33-8"; Epoch 1878-9, 
This is ft 558.] 



B. A. s h - 25 m 5 h - 27 m - 145 

The coincidence of these results proves the fixity of the large star, 
and militates against the large amount of proper motion which has been 
imputed to it. 

This star being the leader in Orion's beautiful belt, has been popularly 
distinguished under various names. Among astronomers it is usually 
known as Mintaka, from the Arabian Mintakah-al-jauza t the giant's belt ; 
which some people also designated al-lekaf, the gold grains or spangles. 
It was also called, with its associates, Jacob's staff, perhaps from the tradi- 
tional idea mentioned by Eusebius, that Israel was an astrologer. It was 
also the Golden Yard of seamen, the Three Kings of soothsayers, the 
Ell-and-yard of tradesmen, the Rake of husbandmen, and Our Ladys 
Wand of the Papists. The belt points on one side to Sirius, the brightest 
of all the stars ; and on the other to the Hyades and Pleiades ; and the 
rhymester points out the individual before us : 

In the blue vast, Orion's Belt shines with its bullions three, 

And of those bright conspicuous gems the first as delta see. 

341. 1 M. TAUBJ. (h. 357 ; H. 1157 ; tt.) CCXII, 



h. m. 



K.A. 5 27 51 
Decl. 3ST 21 56-6 



Prec. -f- 3-60 



N 2-80 



A large nebula, pearly white, about i N. W. of the star on the tip of 
the Bull's southern horn, and on the outskirts of the Galaxy, It is of an 
oval form, with its axis-major trending np and $/, and the brightest 
portion towards the S. Sir J. Herschel registers this in his Catalogue of 
1833 as a "barely resolvable cluster ;" and figures it with a fair elliptical 
boundary. He applied his 7, 10, and 2O ft reflectors, and endeavoured to 
ascertain its relative distance by a modification of their space-penetrating 
capacity. "As all the observations," he concludes, "of the large telescopes 
agree to call this object resolveable, it is probably a cluster of stars at no 
very great distance beyond their gauging powers; its profundity may 
therefore be of about the 980^ order." All this shows the difficulty of 
what to my view is rather a milky nebulosity than a cluster. The 
powerful telescope constructed by Lord Eosse, however, not only displays 
the component stars distinctly, but also shows several fringy appendages 
around, and a deep bifurcation to the S. So do sidereal wonders increase 
with our optical means. 

This fine nebula is remarkable as having been discovered by M. Messier 
the comet-ferret of Louis XV. while observing Tauri and a comet 
in 1758, when he caught up a "whitish light, elongated like the flame of a 
taper." This accident induced him to form his well-known and useful 
Catalogue of nebulae and clusters, from the observations of himself, La 



146 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



Caille, and Mechain, in order to prevent astronomers from mistaking any 
of those objects for comets ; and the List of 103 which he furnished to the 
public was considered to have scraped them all together, as far as climate 
permitted. Whence D'Alembert, speaking of Messier, observed, "on ne 
peut s'empdcher de regretter qu'un Observateur si exact et si plein de 
zele, n'ait pas e'te' place* dans un climat plus heureux." But the progress 
of astronomy has not depended upon climate, as the names of Tycho, 
Homer, Flamsteed, Bradley, Hevelius, Huyghens, Schroter, Gibers, and 
others of the icpa <jbaAai>, abundantly testify. Indeed, in the department 
before us, within twenty years of Messier's publication, the illustrious Sir 

W. Herschel increased the 103 by 2500 
new members, in the decried climate 
of England, thus affording a strong 
instance how moral causes can control 
the physical. Piazzi, whose observa- 
tory in the Conca d'Oro was to the 
eye most charmingly situated, was so 
troubled with a peculiar flickery hot 
aerial refraction, that one night he ex- 
claimed to me, "Ah, Greenwich is the 
paradise for an observer !" 

It is rather curious, on recollecting 
that this nebula was first caught up 
in seeking the comet of 1759, that it 
was also a mare's nest to more than 
one astronomical tyro in August, 1835, when on the look-out for the 
return of Halley's comet, in the very month in which it had first been 
seen 77 years before: and Tauri was aleo the star which served as a 
" pointer " on that interesting advent. 

[Engraved iu Phil. Trans., 1833, PI. viii. Fig. 81; 1844, PL xix. 
Fig. 8 1 ,* Rosse, woodcut, Phil. Trans., 1861 ; D' Arrest, Dissertation, 
1 86 1, PI. ii. Fig. 4; Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., xxiii, PL ii. Fig. i ; Eosse, 
Dublin Trans.j PL ii. Fig. 1157.] 

[Dreyer remarks : " No published drawing is satisfactory : the one in 
Phil. Trans., 1844 [Rosse], is not at all like the object. The diagram in 
Phil. Trans., 1861, gives a very fair general idea of its form, the dark 
lanes/' &c.] 




FIG. 8. i M. TAUKI. 



342. 









a LEPOBIS. 


R. A. 


h. 

5 


m. 

27 


52 


Prec. 


Decl. 


3 


o 

17 


54 2 


__ . ,,-..-..- 



+ 2-64 
N 2-80 



CCXIII. 



B.A. 5 hf 2; m s h - 29 m - 147 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ff 

HBRSCHEL, J. 154.8 ... 25 ... not stated. 

STONE, O. 156-0 ... 35.6 ... 1877-11 

A Nautical Almanac star of 1830, with a distant companion, on the 
body of Lepus. A 3^, pale yellow ; B 9 J, grey ; a bright 6 th magnitude 
in the np quadrant. This object is easily found by alignment ; for a ray 
carried from e, the central star of Orion's belt, through B and its nebulous 
patch on the sword, as low down as Sirius, falls upon a Leporis ; it is 
thus recorded in galley-rhymes : 

Orion's image, on the south, has four stars small but fair: 
Their figure quadrilateral points out the timid Hare. 

This asterism is one of the old 48, and is said to have been placed 
immediately below Orion, as emblematic of caution and celerity. The 
Arabians called a, Arneb, from al-arneb, the hare ; it was also, in con- 
junction with /3, y, and 8, named Kursa, from Kursd-l-ja4zd, or 'Arsh- 
al-jauzd, the giant's chair or throne. It is a poorish constellation if 
such a term may be applied to those wondrous assemblages and has 
been thus registered : 

Ptolemy . . . 12 stars. Hevelius . . . 1 6 stars. 

Tycho Brand . . 13 Flamsteed . . . 19 

Bayer .... 14 Bode .... 66 



343. 36 M. AUBIGJE. (h. 358 ; H. 1166 ; 2. 737; M.) CCXIV. 



h. m. 

B.A. 5 29 2 

Bed. N 34 4*2 



Prec. -f 3-96 
N 2-70 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



STBUVE,W. 305-0 ... 10-6 ... 1829.24 
SMYTH 308-7 ... 12 ... 183671 

A neat double star in a splendid cluster, on the 'robe below the 
"Waggoner's left thigh, and near the centre of the Galaxy stream. A 8, 
and B 9, both white ; in a rich though open splash of stars from the 8 th 
to the 14 th magnitudes, with numerous outliers, like the device of a star 
whose rays are formed of small stars. The double star, as H. remarks, is 
admirably placed for future astronomers to ascertain whether there be 
internal motion in clusters. 

A line carried from the central star in Orion's belt, through f Tauri, 
and Continued about 13 beyond, will reach the cluster, which follows 
< Aurigse by about 2. 

L 2 



148 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



344. 



A 


ORIONIS. 


(S. 738.) 






h. m. . 


a. 




B.A. 


5 29 5 


Free. 4- 3-30 






o / 


// 




Bed. N 9 51-5 


Nn. Hf\ 








Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


n 




HERSCHEL, W. 


AB 44.8 


... 5-8 


1779-88 


STRUVE, W. 


AB 40.5 


4.2 


1830-81 


SMYTH 


AB 43-0 


4-5 


1843-19 


DUNR 


AB 43.6 


4-1 


1870-22 


JEDRZEJEWICZ 


AB 43.0 


4-3 


1879.30 


BURNHAM 


AC 1827 


... 28.6 


1880-07 



ccxv. 



A neat double star, in Orion's ear; where it will be seen at about 5 
on a line shot from a Orionis to a Tauri, being the northern of the three 
small stars forming Orion's head. A 4, pale white; and B 6, violet. 
[A yellow; Bblue. Dembowski.] This fine object appears to be fixed. 

This double star, and the two (/>'s in Orion's head, forms, says Kazwini, 
an athdfi constituting the V th Lunar Mansion; the peculiar aspect of 
which gained A. the name of Heka, from al-hek'ah, a white spot. On 
the early application of the telescope to this spot, Galileo found it to 
consist of 21 stars; but this definition of it does not seem to have 
obtained generally. "It is evident/' says IjL, "the whole appeared 
nebulous to Flam steed for no other reason than because his telescope 
had not sufficient power to distinguish them." Hence the term, in 
capite nebulosa, of the Catalogues. It forms the apex of a triangle, the 
base of which extends between a and y Orionis. 

[Gould considers this star certainly variable to the extent of " more 
than half a unit."] 



345. 



743 2. ORIONIS. 



R.A. 
Decl. 



STROVE, W. 
STONE, O. 



h. m. s. 

5 29 16 

8 4 28*2 

Position, 
o 

277-7 

278-2 



Free. -f 2-97 

N 2-60 

Distance. Epoch. 
// 

1*82 ... 1830-70 



1.90 ... 1879-10 
A double star. A 7^-, very white ; B 8-J-, very white. 



346. 



133 B. ORIONIS. (S. 747.) 



K. A. 5 29 48 
Bed. S 6 5*3 



Free, -f 2-93 
N 2-63 



R. A. 5 h * 29 



m. 



149 



Position. 



Distance. 



STRUVE, W. 223-1 ... 35.8 
MAIN 223-2 ... 36.0 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 223-1 ... 35.9 
A double star. A 6, yellowish ; B 7, ashy. 



Epoch. 

^33-59 
1871-21 
1879-60 



347. 



380 B. TAUI 

h. m. s. 

B,A. 5 29 50 

Decl. N 21 55'8 

Position. 
o 
WVE, W. 247-1 

ADLER 249-7 
AWES 251-3 
AIN 2 5**7 
VLMAGE 255-8 

tr. A 8, yellowish ; I 


II, (2. 

Free. 


742.) 

s. 

+ 3" 

/f 

N 2- 

e. A 


60 
63 

Epoch. 

1828-19 
1841-22 
1852-64 
1863-23 
1872-14 

slow increase in the 


Distance. 

3-47 
3-26 

3-66 
* 8, whit 



A double star, 
angle is certainly taking place. 

348. O 1 OBIONIS. (M.42; h.360; H.1179; 2.748; ,) CCXVI. 



K.A. 
Decl. 


h. 

5 

8 


m. s. 

29 52 

o / 

5 27'7 

Position. 


Free. 


+ 

N 
ce. 


8. 

2 

tt 

2' 


94 
64 


DisUn 



Epoch. 



SMYTH 



JEDRZEJEWICZ 



1834-07 



1877.8 



!AB 311-1 ... 13-0 \ 

AC 60-2 ... 13-5 f 

AD 344-7 ... 16-7 I 

BE 350 ... 5 * 

TAB 31-9 ... 8.71 

A C 131-6 ... 12-8 

AD 95-6 ... 21-4 ^ 

B C 162.7 ... 16-9 j 

B D 299-6 ... 19-2 

C D 241-0 ... 13.3 J 

A multiple star, the beautiful trapezium in the "Fish's mouth" of the 
vast nebula in the middle of Orion's sword- scabbard. A 6, pale white ; 
B 7, faint lilac ; C 7^, garnet; D 8, reddish; and E io|, blue. This had 
the honour of being the object to which the grand 40^ reflector was 
first directed by IjjjL, in February, 1787, and by him was designated 
" quadruple." As a trapezium it was gazed at, measured, and delineated, 
for upwards of 50 years, when 2. announced it "quintuplex," by the addition 
of the little star E. Now when we consider the eye of I$L, the measures of 
South, and the rigorous examination of H., this little companion must be 
looked upon as variable ; indeed nothing can exceed the confidence with 
which H. assured me of its not being visible when he made the beautiful 



150 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

drawing of 1824, confirmed by himself and Mr. Eamage on the 13^ of 
March, 1826 ; and yet in 1828 it was not to be overlooked but by wilful 
inattention. 

[A 6*h star of mag. 12, now known as F, was detected by Sir J. 
Herschel in 1830, and since then some others have been seen with more 
or less certainty, and Huggins now puts the number of the constituents 
at 9. (See the Handbook of Astronomy, 3^ ed., p. 532.) There being 
so many stars to deal with, it becomes rather a complicated matter to 
tabulate angles and distances," and it is best to have resort to a diagram. 
In the opinion of O. Struve, no changes in angle or distance have taken 
place since the earliest observations: he thinks, however, that E and 
F, and perhaps some of the others, are variable. His measures of AF 
are: Pos. 131; Dist. 3-8"; Epoch 1870*70.] 

Ptolemy, Tycho Brah, and Hevelius ranked 6 of the 3 rd magnitude, 
as did Bayer in his Uranometria, all evidently supposing the two con- 
tiguous stars and the bright spot constituted a single star. The effulgent 
nebula in which it is placed, familiarly called the Fish's head, with its 
streaming appendages, certainly has an irregular resemblance to the 
head of some monster of the polyneme genus. Its brilliancy is not equal 
throughout, but the glare of the brighter parts gives intensity to the 
darkness which they bound, and excites a sensation of looking through it 
into the luminous regions of illimitable space, a sensation not entirely 
owing to any optical illusion of contrast. This supposition must have 
forced itself upon Huyghens, independently of any recollection of the 
empyrean heaven of the ancients ; and had Voltaire seen the object 
under powerful means, he would hardly have lashed Dr. Derham for 
asking whether nebulae be not this shining region, seen through a*chasm 
of the primum mobile. Another wonderful singularity is, that the nebu- 
lous and apparently attenuated matter seems to recede from the stars of 
the trapezium, so as to leave a black space around each, between them 
and the glow, as though they were either repelling or absorbing it. 

This is a most splendid object under any telescope, but the greater 
the optical power applied, the more inexplicable does it become. My 
own telescope showed it to very great advantage, but it is here where 
the light-grasping quality of reflectors is brought advantageously to 
bear. Thus in the 2o f * telescope at Slough, Sir J. Herschel gained 
perceptions of its modification which were not decided to my view. " I 
know, not/ 1 he says, " how to describe it better than by comparing it to a 
curdling liquid, or a surface strewed over with flocks of wool, or to the 
breaking up of a mackerel sky, when the clouds of- which it consists 
begin to assume a cirrous appearance. It is not very unlike the mottling 
of the sun's disc, only, if I may so express myself, the grain is much 
coarser, and the intervals darker; and the flocculi, instead of being 
generally round, are drawn into little wisps. They present, however, no 



K.A. 



151 



appearance of being composed of stars, and their aspect is altogether 
different from that of resolveable nebulae." Such, at present, are the only 
ascertained peculiarities of the wondrous mass. It is pronounced to be 
of the singular nature termed milky nebulosity by Sir "W. Herscliel. 
" To attempt," he remarks, " even at a guess at what this light may be, 
would be presumptuous. If it should be surmised, for instance, that 
this nebulosity is of the nature of the zodiacal light, we should then be 
obliged to admit the existence of an effect without its cause. An idea 
of a phosphorical condition is not more philosophical, unless we could 
show from what source of phosphorical matter such immeasureable tracts 
of luminous phenomena could draw their existence and permanency: 
for though minute changes have been observed, yet a general resem- 
blance, allowing for the difference of telescopes, is still to be perceived in 
the great nebulosity of Orion, ever since the time of its first discovery." 
This illustrious astronomer was, at first, inclined to consider all the 
nebulae as resolveable, but this milky instance, with that in Andromeda, 
contradicted the notion, and led him to inferences respecting nebulous 
matter, and its possible gradation to stars by condensation, so as to form 
a distinct and plausible theory of cosmogony. 

We are told that this nebula was one of the first-fruits of Galileo's 
telescope ; but it is certain that Huyghens discovered it by accident in 
1656, as stated in his Sy sterna Saturnium, where he notes, "Portentum, 
cui certe simile aliud nusquam apud reliquas fixas potuit animadverti." 
Prom a comparison of the descriptions and drawings of this object, since 
his time, great alterations might 
be inferred; but astronomical 
delineation was not then suffi- 
ciently advanced to render the 
diagrams at all satisfactory, 
nor were the instruments suffi- 
ciently powerful. Thus, while 
one man thinks his 3^ ffc tele- 
scope indicated "myriads upon 
myriads" of stars in its com- 
position, Lord Rosse, with the 
most powerful and perfect in- 
strument then extant, gained 
no appearance of resolution. 
It may therefore be concluded, 
that the first rigidly accurate 
representation of it, is that by 
Sir J. Herschel ; and he who 
wishes to acquire all the actual 
knowledge we at present possess on the subject, cannot refer to a better 




FIG. 9. O l ORIONIS. 



152 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

description than that contained in his paper, published in the Memoirs of 
the Astronomical Society, vol. iii. "Several astronomers," says Sir John, 
" on comparing this nebula with the figures of it handed down to us by 
its discoverer, Huyghens, have concluded that its form has undergone a 
perceptible change; but when it is considered how difficult it is to 
represent such an object duly, and how entirely its appearance will differ 
even in the same telescope, according to the clearness of the air, or other 
temporary causes, we shall readily admit that we have no evidence of 
change that can be relied on." To the drawing which illustrates that 
account, posterity will refer with confidence, in order to "catch Nature 
in the fact : " meantime, it seems clear, that if the parallax of this nebula 
be no greater than that of the stars, as one hypothesis assumes, its breadth 
cannot be less than a hundred times that of the diameter of the Earth's 
orbit : but if, as is still more probable, at a vast distance beyond, its 
magnitude must be utterly inconceivable. 

This luminous spot is so well known to all star-gazers, that it is 
hardly necessary to add, that a line projected from a Orionis, through , 
the third of the belt, will pass upon 6 arid the nebula, in the sword- 
scabbard. The portion called the Fish's mouth, with the well-known 
trapezium, is rudely sketched in the preceding figure. 

2 Orionis, which is 133" from 1 , on an angle =135, is coarsely 
double, of the 6 th and 7 to magnitudes. At ttie epoch above named, 
viz. 1834-07, the components measured 91-5 as the angle of position, 
and 52" for the distance. 

[Observations during the last 40 years have given rise to strange 
discrepancies in the accounts of different observers, both as to the nature 
and as to the physical appearance of this object. Many have asserted 
that it has undergone change, but the evidence as to this falls far short 
of what is needed for absolute proof. Huggins as the result of spectrum 
observations asserts that it is gaseous /] 

[Engraved in Cape Obs. 9 PI. viii. Fig. i ; Bond, Trans. Amer. Acad., 
N.S., vol. iii. p. j6: Lassell, Mem. R.A.S. } vol. xxiii. PL i. Pig. i.J 

849. i QRIONIS. (I. 752.) CCXVIII. 



h. m. 

B.A. 5 30 




8, 

3 

A 


8. 

Free. + 2-93 


HAA! 1 


a K 


KQ.A 


v 


n . f\^\ 


X/oCl. u v w v 

Position. 


Distance. Epoch. 









H 




STRUVI, W. 


AB 


143*2 


... n-3 


I83I.86 


SMYTH 


JAB 
(AC 


I 4 1.7 
102-8 


, M 48*9 


... I832.I3 


DAWBS 


AB 


141.2 


. , 1 1 6 


... 1847.65 


MAIN 


AB 


J 39-5 


II-2 


J86306 



A fine triple star, in a good field on Orion's sword-scabbard ; and 5 



K A. 5 h - 2g m - 



30" 



153 



8. of the middle star in the belt. A 3^, white; B [8], pale blue; and 
C n, grape red. Piazzi says of t, in his Notce, "Duplex: comes 0-4'' 
temporis sequitur, et vix distingui potest," but his instrument befog 
fully equal to distinguish such a magnitude as that of B, his remarjj 
excites a suspicion that it may be variable. There is a glow about th^l 
object when viewed under favouring circumstances ; yet I cannot asse^j 
that the nebulosity in which it is enveloped is clearly seen. But undei 
proper means it is well worth scrutiny; for nebulous stars are certainly 
among the most remarkable objects in the heavens, and perhaps should 
be distinguished from stellar nebulae in being of a less doubtful character 
as to the state of condensation, the central matter in such being suddenly 
vivid and sharply defined. 

When Sir J. South re-examined this star, in 1824, A and B were con- 
sidered, from the apparent change of angle in 45 years, to have a direct 
orbital motion = + 0-2 per annum ; but more recent observations do not 
support the inference. 

[The synonymes of this as a nebula are 31 Ijl. V. ; h. 361 ; H. 1183.] 



350. 



362 h. OBIONIS. 



R.A. 
Decl. 



h. 

5 



30 4 



(H. 1184; &.; 2.750.) CCXVII. 

s, 

Prec. 4* 



S 4 25' 

Position. 



N 



STBUVE, W. 
DAWES 

MAIN 
STONE, 0. 



61-8 
61-8 

58-6 



Distance. 

n 

4'3 
4i 
3-7 
4*3 



2-97 

2-6o 

Epoch. 

1831-21 
1 840-1 4 
1870-06 
187909 



A delicate double star in the wide-spread cluster on Orion's sword. 
A 6, lucid white ; B 9, pale blue. The principal members of this group 
of stars are of the 6*k and 7^ magnitudes, with some smaller; and 
from their brightness and disposition form a capital test for the light of 
a telescope. 



351. 



43 M. OBIONIS. (H. 1185.) 



R.A. 5 30 6 
X>ecl. S 5 20-5 



Prec. -f 2-95 
N 2-61 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ! v B; v L ; B,, with tail ; mb M * 8-9 ;" which means : " a remarkable 
and very bright object ; very large ; round with a tail ; much brighter in 
the middle where there is a star of the 8*9 magnitude." 

Engraved, Cape Obs. t PI. viii. Fig. i ; Bond, Trans, Amer. A cad., 
N.S., vol. iii. p. 96 ; Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., vol. xxiiu PL i. Fig. i. 



154 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



352, 



749 S. TAUEI. 





h. m. *. 

B.A. 5 30 16 


Prec. 


+ 3'74 








o / 




tt 






Decl. 


26 51-5 


_ 


N 2-95 








Position. 


Distance. 


^Epoch. 








o 










STBUVE, W. 


23.4 


0-70 


1827-26 






MADLEB 


18.9 


0.77 


1844-04 






STROVE, 0. 


17-0 


0-80 


1849-24 






ROMBERG 


186.9 


0-8 


1864-20 




A double 


star. A 7^ 


r, very white 


; B 8, very white. Slow 


retrograde 


motion. 













353. 



214 Di^nlop DORADOS, (h. 2890 ; H. 1205.) 

8. 

Prec. 0-05 
N 2-58 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 5 30 24 



Decl. S 66 57 9 



A nebula thus described in Sir. J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"vB; S; R; -|-neb in vL elf which means: "very bright; small; 
round. There is a double star besides the nebula in a very large cluster/' 



354. tOBIONIS. (34 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 5 30 38 
Decl. 8 1 16*4 



.; h. 363; H. 1193; .) CCXIX. 

8. 

Prec. + 3*04 

// 
N 2-53 



Position. 



BURNHAM 



Distance. 
179.9 



Epoch. 
1879-90 



A Nautical Almanac star, in the centre of Orion's belt, with a distant 
companion. A 2^, bright white, and nebulous; B 10, pale blue. This 
fine star, rated a full 2 nd magnitude by Flamsteed, is in a neat trapezium 
of the 8 th magnitude, in a rich vicinity. It is often called Alnilam, from 
the Arabic Al-Nidhdm, or Nigdm, the string of pearls, in allusion to its 
situation between and 8, forming, as Robert Recorde says, the bullions 
get in Orion's girdle. It may assist the alignment of the vicinity to state 
that the belt extends exactly 3, or i on each side of this star. The 
galley-poet tells us : 



Our Lady's wand is blessM by all 
And centre of that brilliant zone 



who watch those gems on high, 
epsilon meets the eye. 



This beautiful constellation is a wonderful spot ; and there is food for 
the theorist in the brilliant oblique zone exhibited by Taurus and Orion, 
coming to a full stop at Sirius. 



A. h - o m - h - 2 m * 155 



["No nebulosity seen around A with 8|* n refractor, 1864." flrodieJ] 
[The Parsonstown Observations are somewhat contradictory. In 1850 

and 1852 a nebulosity appears to have been seen; but in 1874 and 1878 

it is emphatically stated that none was seen.] 

355. 158 B. OBIONIS. (2. 754.) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 5 31 14 
Bed. 8 6 8*4 



Prec. + 2-93 
N 2-51 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 287.6 ... 5*1 ... 1830-09 
A double star. A 7, white ; B 10, blue. 

356. 26 AUBIG-SB. 2. 753. CCXX. 



26 AURIGA 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 5 31 34 

Bed. N 30 25-6 

Position, 
o 

HERSCHEL, W. 272-6 
STRUVE, W. 268-0 
SMYTH 267.8 
DUNE"R 268-9 
BURNHAM AC 113-2 


3. (2. 753.) 

s. 

Prec. -f 3'i 
// 
N<?-t 


o 

>l 

Epoch. 

1782-68 
1828-61 
1833-09 
1870-15 

1877.87 


2 i 
Distance. 

12-3 
12-3 
12-3 

25-8 



A neat double star, on the Waggoner's left shin ; where a line from 
the cluster in Orion's sword, led through the middle star of the belt, 
through Tauri, will hit it at less than 10 beyond the latter. A 5, 
pale white ; and B 8, violet. A fine object. [The mag. of Burnhain's C 
is 11-5. A is yellow according to Knott. 3 nf (3 Tauri.] 

357. 757 2. OBIOKIS. 



A 


B.A. 
Decl. 

STRUVE, W. 
STONE, 0. 

double star. A 


b. 

5 

8 

8 


m. s. 

32 27 

/ 

15 9 

Position. 

239-8 
238-6 

|, very whr 


Prec. 


8. 

+ 3 

N 2 

very 


06 

45 

Epoch. 

1831-16 
1878-11 

white. 


Distance. 

1.68 
1.76 

:e; B 9, 



This pair is 

followed at a distance of 35 8 by 5). 758, the components of which are 
placed in Pos. 297; Dist. 11"; Epoch 1831-67, and are of mags. 9 and 
9-}-, and both white. 



156 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



358. 



124 TATJBJ. (BO = S. 755.) 



CCXXI. 



h. m. a, 

R.A. 5 32 34 
Decl. N 23 15 '5 



Position. 



STRUVE 



Free 


. + 

- N 

e. 


3'64 
2-41 

Epoch. 


Distanc 


5*9 
1457 
5-6 


... 


1830-55 
1879.85 



B C 3I5-7 

SAB 214-8 

B C 315*1 

AD 175.7 

A coarse quadruple star, in the space over the Bull's southern horn. 
A 8 J, garnet ; B 8, and C 9, both pale white, and forming a very delicate 
object; D 10, bluish. This star does not appear in the British Catalogue, 
but was well observed by Piazzi, who remarked, " Prsecedit telescopica 
ad Austrum, nee alia inventa." This group was examined because it 
happened to be near the spot where I was on the look-out for Halley's 
comet, on its most welcome return to our neighbourhood, in August, 



124 Tauri is rather more than one-third of the distance from a Tauri 
to a Geminorum; and about 2 K, very slightly following f on the tip 
of the right horn. 



359. 



a ORIONIS. (2. 761 and 762.) 

8, 

Free, -f 3-01 
N 2-30 



CCXXII. 



h. m. a. 

B.A. 5 33 3 



Decl. 8 2 38*0 

Position. 



SMYTH 



MAIN 



pAa 2.35.9 

AB 84*2 

I AC 63.8 

| AD 321-6 

DE 266-8 



AB 
AC 



84.3 
6i-a 



Distance. 



I2 
12.5 
41-8 
211-5 
8.5 
67.8 
12.7) 
41.6! 



Epoch. 



1832.20 



186307 



A multiple star, just below the belt of Orion, forming a scalene triangle 
with f and e. A 4, bright white; an, ash-coloured; B 8, bluish ; C 7, 
grape red ; D 8 J, dusky ; E 9, white ; F 8, pale grey. This is a fine 
group of 10 members, forming 10 and n 1$. II., where it is denominated 
"a double-treble star, or two sets of treble stars almost similarly 
situated; 1 ' H. and S. call it "a very pretty double-triple star:" but 
Professor Barlow, with greater precision, says it is "double-quadruple, 
with two very fine stars between the sets." 



E. A. 



5 h - 34 1 



m. 



157 



As this is a good object for trying the light and definition of a 
telescope, and the following of its groups is both delicate and pretty as 
a quadruple set, the explorer is recommended to examine it when in 
apparition. Nor need he be very much annoyed with his instrument 
should he be unable to distinguish the minute comes a; since it is so 
small a point of light, that it escaped ever the searching eye of Ip. 

This group may be readily fished up, as it forms the southern vertex of 
a triangle with the 2 last stars in the belt, as above stated ; and it is 
rather less than a degree from , in the direction of /3. 

[Smyth's measures are all in close agreement with those of BJL 
J. Herschel and South (1823), and S. (1831).] 



360. 



45 IiEPOBIS. (*h. 3780.) 



R.A. 5 34 25 
Decl. S 17 56-6 



Position. 






o 




AB 


136-0 


DEMBOWBKI 


AC 


6-2 




AD 


298 




f AE 


48.7 




AF 


310.4 


BURNHAM 


Aa 


137-8 




| Bb 


359-7 




LBG 


31-8 



Free, -f 


2-64 




" 


Di stance. 


2*21 

Epoch. 


89.4 j 




76.2 | 


... 1876-59 


126.4 ' 




60.3 -j 




41-8 1 




-93 h 


... 1878 &c 



Described by Sir J. Herschel as quintuple, mags. 7, 7, 8, 8, 8. He 
gave no measures, and the above E. A. &c. only as rough. These 
particulars, imperfect as they are, excited the attention of Burnham, who 
examined the group with care. " The group was found to consist really 
of 6 stars, 2 of them being quite small. The star E is probably the 
one not noticed by Herschel. The relative places of these stars are given 
with rough measurements. The star B was at once perceived to have a 
near companion, and the principal star, A, suspected to be a very close 
pair, but was not satisfactorily verified until some nights later. The 
latter is very difficult with my aperture, and the other by no means easily 
seen under ordinary atmospheric conditions. Taken together the group 
is a very interesting one. The large stars, A, B, C, and D, are respec- 
tively 10726, 19728, 10727 and 10725 of Lalande. The system is just 
visible to the naked eye, and shown on Heis's Star Atlas as 6-7 mag. 
It is 6 m 35 s exactly following a Leporis." Later observations have led 
Burnham to assign magnitudes as follows : A 6*8 ; a 8-3 ; B 9-3 ; b 9-7 ; 
C8; D8-5; 8-5; F 13; G 10. 



158 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



361. 



OBIOWIS, 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 5 35 12 

O f 

2 



(2. 774.) 


OK 


8. 




Prec. 4- 3*02 




N 2-14 




i. Distance. 


Epoch. 


2-62 


1822-61 


. 2-35 ... 


1831-22 


... a-5{ 

... 5<5-o5 " 


1839.19 


2-64 


1851-11 


2.61 


1878-17 


... 57-1 


1879.17 



Decl. S 2 0*2 

Position, 
o 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH A B 150.0 
STKUVE,W. AB 151-3 

IIS'U 

FLETCHER AB 1.49-6 

JEDBZBJEWIOZ AB 152-1 

BUKNHAM AC 9.1 

A fine triple star, the last or lowest on Orion's belt, formerly one of 
the Nautical Almanac List, but rejected in 1830. A 3, topaz yellow, 
and very bright for its magnitude; B 6, light purple; and C 10, grey. 
The principal star is designated on Piazzi's and other Catalogues, Alnitak, 
the Arabian al-nitdk, the girdle ; otherwise in conjunction with 8 and e, 
Mtnfakah al-jauzd, the giant's belt. 

Presumably IjjjL, in 1780, could not have seen the large star double; 
and yet it seemed difficult to account for his overlooking so remarkable 
and elegant a pair, wherefore it has been surmised that the comes was 
under occultation at the time. Later observations do not countenance 
this singular idea. 

[Gledhill considers that the angle of A B is slowly increasing, but the 
evidence is not very conclusive, it seems to me.] 



362. 219 (?) Dunlop DOBADTTS. (h. 2913 ; H. 1235.) 

8. 

Prec. 0-16 



B.A. 

Decl. 



h. m, a. 

5 35 36 

S 67 38'7 



N 2-13 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerschePs Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; L ; E ; 2 nd of 3 ;" which means : " bright ; large ; extended ; the 
2 nd of 3 nebulae." The other 2 nebulae are both marked as bright and 
large: and precedes H. 1235 by 20 s ; the other follows it by 13". 
Engraved, Cape Obs. } PL iii. Fig 5. 



363. 34 $. IV. ORIOHTIS. (h. 365 ; H. 1225 ; *) CCXXIV. 



B.A. 5 36 5 
Decl. N 9 2-0 



Prec. -f 3-28 

// 
N 2-09 



A planetary nebula, of a bluish white tint, on the nape of Orion's 



1. A. 5*- 35 m ' 5**' 39* 



159 



neck ; and about 3^ on the line from a towards the three small stars 
forming Orion's head, This is a small and pale, but very distinct object, 
with a faint disc : it is described by H. as " rather oval, and perhaps of a 
mottled light :" a power of vision beyond what my means afforded. [The 
adjective "planetary" is not applied to this object in the Parsonstown 
Observations, but it is twice mentioned as suspected to be a " globular 
cluster,"] It is preceded by several small stars, the foremost of which is 
coarsely double, and of the 8 fctl and io th magnitudes. 

[Engraved, D' Arrest, Dissertation, PL ii. Fig. 2 ; Lassell, Mem. R. A. S. 9 
vol. xxiii. PI, ii. Fig, 2.] 



364. 



3115 2. CAMELOPARDI. 



B. A. 5 38 

Decl. K* 62 44 '2 
Position. 

STRUTS, W. 35-5 
MADLEB 34.5 
BEMBOWSKI 28-4 
STBUVE, 0. 28-3 


Free. + 

1ST 


5^4 
// 
1*92 

Epoch. 

1831-63 
1845-92 
1866-83 
1872-31 


Distance. 
// 
1-68 

1-52 
1-48 
**37 



A double star. A 7, white ; B 8, ashy white. 
the distance have evidently diminished. 



Both the angle and 



365. 



102 Dunlop HYDEI. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 5 38 7 
Decl. S 70 13'6 



(h. 2933 ; H. 1259.) 

S. 

Prec. 0-63 

- N 1-91 

A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; p L ; H ; gb M ; 3 rd of 7 ;" which means : " very bright ; pretty 
large ; round ; gradually brighter in the middle ; the 3 rd of 7 nebulae." 
These 7 nebulae all have the same degree of declination, and are included 
within a limit of 2 m io 8 in R. A, Most of them are very faint. 
Engraved, Gape Obs., PL iv. Pig. 9. 



366. 



785 2. TAUEI. 



RA. 5 39 5 

Decl. K 25 5 2 

Position. 

o 
STBUVE, W. AB 348.6 

STROVE, 0. AC 66.4 



Prec. + 3-71 

n 
N 1-83 

Distance. Epoch. 

13-8 ,.. 1830.74 
18-3 ... 1846.04 



A triple star. A 7, white; B, 8; bluish white; C 12, AC=OS u<5. 



160 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



367. 30 DOEADITS. (h. 2041; H. 1269.) 

R,A. 5 39 29 Free. - 0-42 
Decl. S 69 9-4 N 1-79 

A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"!!!; vB; vL; looped;" which means: u an extremely remarkable 
object ; very bright ; very large ; in the form of a loop." 

Engraved, Cape Obs., PL ii. Fig. 4. 



368. 



2007 Lac. HYDBJ. (*h. 3796.) 

h. na. s. . s. 

B.A. 5 39 34 



Bed. S 69 8'8 

Position. 



HEBSCHEL, J. 



Prec. 0-43 

N 1-78 



Distance. 



" AB 180+ ... 


9 1 


AC 304 


12 + 


AD 44 ... 


12 + 


AE 359 - 


I8 


AF 44 ... 


2O 


AG 132 


25 . 



Epoch. 



18351 



A septuple star. Mags. 8, 14, 13, 14, 13, 13, 12. A is the chief 
star in the centre of the great looped nebula in the Nubecula Major. 



369. 



y LEPOBJS. 

h. tn. s. 

B.A. 5 39 53 
Decl. S 22 28-7 



ccxxv. 



. 

Prec. + 2-52 



N 1-62 



Position. 



SMYTH 



Epoch. 
1832-06 



Distance. 

9 2 '9 I 
!BC 345-0 ... 45 ) 

A wide triple star, in a barren field, in the Hare's left hind foot; 
where a line passed from 8 Orionis, the preceding star of the belt, through 
the sword cluster, and carried 16 beyond, hits upon it. A [3^], light 
yellow ; B 6, pale green ; C 1 3, dusky ; and a fourth star, of the 
i2 tn magnitude, follows at A B/.A. = 2i 8 . This poor object was only 
examined because, under 50 Ijl. V., we are told there is a companion 
within 40' of A, of course meaning forty seconds. This escaped my 
search ; but on the whole, though y Leporis is of a fine lustre, I have little 
doubt of B and C being the stars which 1$. classed. 



R A. 5 h - 39 m - 5*- 4i m - 161 



370. 780 2. CAMELOPARDI. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 5 39 58 



o 



Decl. 1ST 65 43*0 



Prec. -f 6-01 
N 1-75 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STBUVE.W. j "3-5 ... 3-7 ... 1831-79 

( I54-8 ... 10.9 ... iS^I.OO 

A triple star. A 7, yellow; B 8|, blue; C 12. 



371, 187 B. OBIONIS. (2. 790.) 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 5 40 36 
Decl. 3 4 18 2 



Prec. + 2-97 
N 1-70 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O If 

STROVE, W. 89-0 ... 6-8 ... 1830-84 
STONE, 0. 87-7 ... 6-6 ... 1877.95 

A double star, A 7^, reddish yellow; B 10, blue. 



372. 78 M. OBIONIS. (h. 368; H. 1267; K.) CCXXVI. 



h. 



B.A. 5 41 6 
Decl. N 2-1 



Prec. + 3*07 
N 1.55 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

BUBNHAM jABa2.a ... 50.8 ... 1880-03 
<BC 85-3 ... 1.74 ... 1878-12 

Two stars in a "wispy" nebula, just above Orion's left hip; where 
a ray from ft carried between the centre and last stars of the belt, and 
extended 2 farther, picks it up. A 8, and B 9, both white ; [C 11*5]. 
This object was found by Messier in 1780, and described as "two bright 
nuclei surrounded by nebulosity.*' It is a singular mass of matter trending 
from a well-defined northern disc into the sf quadrant, where it melts 
away. The nebula lies equatorially between two small stars, which are 
nearly equidistant from it, in a blankish part of the heavens ; and in 
its most compressed portion is the wide double star, 
[" Very faint but curious." Brodie.] 
[" The southern star rather the brighter." JSfnott.] 
[Burnham found B double. It is No. 559 of his lists.] 
[Engraved in Phil. Trans., 1833, PL iv. Fig. 36 ; Rosse, woodcut, Phil. 
Trans., 1861 ; Bosse, Dublin ZVatM., 1879, PL i. Fig. 1267.] 

M 



162 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



373. 



52 OBIOMTS. (2. 705.) 

b. m. s. 



CCXXVII. 



R A. 5 42 6 
Decl. N 6 25^0 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL, W. 200.3 

STBUVE, W. 200-0 
SMYTH I 99'9 

KNOTT 198-9 



Prec. -f 3-22 

// 
N 1-52 



Distance. 



1.8 
1.6 



Epoch. 

1781.76 
1831.23 
1838.27 
1863-06 



A close double star, on Orion's left shoulder; about 2 S.W. of a. 
A 6, pale white ; B 6^, yellowish. This very elegant object may perhaps 
be altering both in position and distance. 



374. 



225 P. V. AURIGA. (2. 796.) CCXXVIII. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 5 42 45 
Decl. 3ST 31 45 



Position. 

o 
STBtfVE, W, 6 1. 1 

SMYTH 61-5 

WILSON, &c. 63.1 



Prec. -f 3-89 
N 1-52 



Distance. 
// 
3.6 

3.8 
3-7 



Epoch. 

1830-79 
1832-00 
1874-13 



A very neat double star, on the Waggoner's left shin ; lying in 
the line formed between J3 Aurigse and 8 Orionis, the preceding 
star in Orion's belt; nearly in mid-distance between /3 and the three 
small stars forming Orion's head. A [7^], creamy white; B 8|, pale 



375. 594 Bunlop COLUMBJ9B. (h. 2944; H. 1288.) 

B.A. 5 43 1 Prec. -f 2.16 
Decl. 8 34 17'6 N 1-47 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
<( ; B; pL,; iR; gbM;" which means: "a globular cluster; 
bright ; pretty large ; of an irregular round form ; gradually brighter in 
the middle^' 



E. A. 5 h - 42^ 5 h - 4901- 163 

376. 37 M. AURIGA, (h. 369 ; H. 1295 ; &,) CCXXX. 

h. m. e. 8. 



It. A. 5 45 2 
Decl. K" 32 81 '3 



Prec. + 3-92 
N 1-32 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

BURNHAM 345.8 ... 17-4 ... 1879-85 

A double star in a cluster in front of Auriga's left shin. A and B, both 
of the io th magnitude, and pale yellow. A magnificent object, the whole 
field being strewed as it were with sparkling gold-dust ; and the group 
is resolveable into about 500 stars, from the io th to the 14 th magnitudes, 
besides the outliers. Messier described it as "a mass of small stars, 
much enveloped in nebulous matter." This nebulous matter, however, 
yields to my telescope, and resolves into infinitely minute points of lucid 
light, among the distinct little individuals. It is immediately preceded 
on the parallel by another small double star : and is about ^ N.E. of 225 
P.V. Aurigse. 

[" Even in smaller instruments extremely beautiful, one of the finest of 
its class. Gaze at it well and long." Webb.] 

[" Wonderful loops and curved lines of stars, as also remarked by 
D' Arrest." Parsonstown ObsJ\ 

377, 809 2. OBJONIS. 

h, m. i, s. 



R. A. 5 45 3 
Bed. S 1 27'6 



Prec. -f 3-04 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STROVE, W. 101-2 ... 25.7 ... 1831-16 

BURKHAM 98-3 ... 25-2 .,. 1879-02 

A double star. A 8, yellow ; B 9, ashy. 



378* 816 2. ORIONTS. 

h. m. *. 



R.A. 6 49 2 



o 



Decl. N 5 50-1 



Prec. -f- 3-21 
N 0-96 



Position. * Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

STBUVE,W. 289.3 ... 4*2 ,,, 1830*13 

A double star. A 6 J-, very white ; B 9. 

M 2 



164: A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

379. a OBIONIS. CCXXXI. 

h. m. s. s. 



RA. 5 49 13 
Decl. N 7 23-0 



Prec. -f 3' 2 4 
N 0-93 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O rr 

HERSCHEL.W. 152.3 ,.. 161 ... 1780-78 
SMYTH 155 ... 160 .... 1832.75 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant comes, on Orion's left shoulder. 
A i, orange tinge; B 1 1, bluish, and the two point nearly upon a pale small 
star in the np quadrant, at A R.A, 15* 7 s . [Others nearer. JBurnham.] 

It is called Betelgeuze, from ibt-al-jauzd, the giant's axilla, or shoulder, 
whence it is also menJdb-al-jauzd ; and it has likewise been designated 
al-mirzam, the roarer. It is the northernmost of the 4 bright stars 
forming the corners of this constellation, and cannot be mistaken by the 
most casual observer: moreover, with Sirius and Procyon, it forms a 
conspicuous triangle, which is nearly equilateral ; while Procyon makes 
a right-angled one with Betelgeuze and Pollux. It is hardly necessary 
to diagram this well-known and splendid group. 

H. pointed out this fine star as being variable and periodic : on his 
star-list the maximum was stated as 
above /3 Orioiris, the minimum below 
a Tauri. [Fletcher in 1852 confirmed 
Herschel, but J. F. J. Schmidt pro- 
nounces strongly against the idea of 
variability. "A most beautiful and 
brilliant gem ! singularly beautiful in 
colour, a rich topaz ; in hue and bril- 
liancy different from any other star I 
have seen." Lassell. " Look at a and 
ft alternately; even a small telescope 
will show the beauty of the contrast." 
Webb.] 

Orion may be considered the most 
beautiful and brilliant of all the con- 
stellations without disparaging the 
Great Bear; and when just over our 
meridian is so well accompanied, as to 

present the finest view of the heavens 

; ., . , . , ,-, . . , , FIG. 10. ORION. 

in this hemisphere. 1 he principal stars 

of Orion, when joined by imaginary lines, form two inverted cones, and re- 
semble a clepsydra, or hour-glass. He is usually represented as a classic 
warrior; but PaulusVenetus,Z)e compositione Mundi, equips him in knightly 




R.A. 5 h * 49 m ' 165 

armour, with a huge club in one hand, a formidable human-faced shield in 
the other, and a long Toledo sword by his side : and this is also the style in 
which he figures among the illustrations to Julius Firmicus in 1497. As 
the ecliptic passes nearly through its middle, it is visible to all the world ; 
while its figure, belt, and pendant sword, so well described by Manilms, 
render it of easy recognition. 

No constellation was more noted among the ancients than Orion. As 
it occupies an extensive space in the heavens, this circumstance may have 
probably given Pindar hig notion that Orion was of a monstrously large 
size ; and hence the jugula of Plautus, the magni pars maxima cceli of 
Manilius, and the jebber of the Arabians. Hood tells us that " the reason 
why this fellow was placed in heaven," was to teach men not to be too 
confident in their own strength. A disciple of the unhappy Lieutenant 
Brothers proposed to designate the whole asterism Nelson : and in 1807, 
the University of Leipzig resolved that the stars belonging to the belt 
and sword of Orion, as well as the intermediate ones, " shall in future be 
called the constellation NAPOLEON." Was that learned body in possession 
of a copy of Thomas Hood's treatise 1 

The present appellation, however, is of too long a standing, and has 
too firm a hold on men's minds, to be easily shaken ; and, despite of his 
origin, it seems "this fellow" must stand. Both the Septuagint and 
the Vulgate call it Orion, according to the Greeks and Romans. It is 
mentioned in Job, Ezekiel, and Amos ; and the Mosaicists persist that it 
represented Nimrod, as mighty a hunter as Orion, and the author of the 
post-diluvian heresy a . From his terrible and threatening gesture, as 
much as from his time of rising, he was held to portend tempests and 
misfortune, and was therefore so much dreaded by the mariners of yore 
as to give rise to the ancient proverb " Fallit ssepissime nautas Orion." 
Polybius attributes the loss of the Roman fleet in the first Punic war to 
the obstinacy of the consuls, who, despite of the pilots, would sail between 
the risings of Orion and Sirius, always a squally time. The Latin 
writers are full of invective against pluviosus et tristis Orion ; while the 
nimbosus of Virgil, the nautis infestus of Horace, the aquosus of Pro- 
pertius, the horridus sideribus of Pliny, and the like sage allusions, fill 
the imagination with storms, hail, and deluges of rain. 

This constellation is a rich mine for the practical astronomer, as con- 
taining a wondrous universe of bright stars, double stars, clusters, and 

a Orion was designated Kliesll, or Kesil t called the grand Council of Trent the 

by the Hebrews, which the learned say Council of Chesil, to denote that it was a 

comes from chasel, to be inconstant, to stormy, fickle, and troublesome meeting, 

stir up, in allusion to the unsettled Has the Australian term of being chiselled 

weather supposed to attend this constel- any affinity with this 1 
lation. Hence Rabelais has pleasantly 



166 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

nebulae, within itself. The Capuchin De Eheita asserted that, with his 
hinocular instrument, he found more than 2000 stars in it ; and where 
he is not dwelling upon Teutonic crosses and seamless tunics, he will be 
found worthy of credit. The number of stars whose mean apparent places 
have been noted, are : 

Ptolemy. . . . 38 stars. Bullialdus . . . 6 1 stars. 

Ulugh Beigh . . 38 Hevelius .... 62 

Tycho Brah . > 62 Flamsteed . . . 78 

Bayer .... 49 Bode 304 

The reader of course will remember that the equinoctial circle cuts the 
middle of Orion ; which is also about 8 "W. of the solstitial colure, or 
aolis static. Nor will he forget the trimming which Halley gave Pere 
Souciet about the Dodecatemorion of Aries, Newton's chronology, and 
the equinoctial colure. 



380. /3 AURICLE. CCXXXII. 



B.A. 
Decl. 

SMYTH 
CHALLIS 
BUBNHAM 


ft AUE 

h. m. s. 

5 51 28 
N 44 56-0 

Position. 1 
o 
38-2 ... 

37-9 

38-7 .- 


LIGWE. 

Free, -f 


4-40 

n 

o-75 

Epoch. 

1837.70 
1841-96 
1880-05 


Distance. 

185-0 

183-4 
184-0 



A. bright star with a distant companion, on the Waggoner's left 
shoulder. A 2, lucid yellow; B io-|-, bluish. 

This fine star familiarly known as Menkalinan, from the Arabic 
Menkih-dhi-Vindn, the rein-holder's shoulder lost much of its importance 
on being rejected from the Nautical Almanac in 1830. It may be picked 
up by projecting an imaginary line from the Prsesepe, in Cancer, through 
a Geminorum, which is nearly half-way : or a ray from /3 Orionis through 
y Orionis, led rather more than three times as far to the N., bits it. Our 
friend the galley-rhymester submits a third alineation, thus : 

From the Pole-star direct a glance, with Betelgeuze to mix, 

Ahout mid-distance, near the Goat, Menkalinan you'll fix : 

And there behold how neat it forms with Capra bright a base, 

While delta as a vertex stands, the triangle to grace 

381, 6 AURIG^E. CCXXXIII. 

b. m, s. . 



B.A. 5 52 12 



o / 



Decl. N 37 12 '4 



Free, -f 4-08 
N 0-68 



E. A. 5 h - 49 m> 5 h< 55 m> 167 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HERSCHEL, W. AB 286*0 ... 35.3 ... 1782.68 

fAB 5.5 ... 2-15 ... 1871-41 

STRUVE, 0. ] A C 290.9 ... 43.2) lg 

(AD 350-3 ... 125.1 5 

DEM^OWSKI AC 292.4 ... 45-2 ... 1875-70 

BURNHAM J AB 5-4 ... *.o8 ... 1878-60 
(AC 292-7 ... 45-5 ... 1880-05 

A triple star. A 4, brilliant lilac; B 7|; C 10, pale yellow; and 
lower down in the same quadrant, near the vertical, is D, a yellowish 
star of the 9 th magnitude. 

[" There is some change from proper motion/' Burnham.] 

382. 59 OBI03STIS. CCXXXIV. 

h. m. s. 



K.A. 5 52 41 
Decl. N 1 49'5 



Free, -f 3*n 



N 0-62 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, W. 205-0 ... 37-2 ... 1782*76 
BURNHAM 205-8 ... 36-5 ... 1878-18 

A small star, with a very minute companion, between Orion's left side 
and the Galaxy. A 6, white ; B 13, blue. I$L remarked that the small 
individual is " a point requiring some attention to be seen." A is pre- 
ceded in the np quadrant by an 3 th magnitude star, whose angle is about 
290, with a distance of 178" : this is 282 P. V. 

59 Orionis may be picked up by a line shot from /3 through , the third 
star of the belt, and carried nearly 6 beyond. 

383. 26 TJJL. VIII. GEMINORTJM. (h. 372 ; H. 1325.) 



h. 



B.A. 5 54 24 
Decl. N 23 17 '9 



. 

Free. + 3-64 
N 0-50 



A cluster thus described in Sir J, Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"cl; pL; 40 or 50 st 8... 15;" which means: "a cluster; pretty 
large; it consists of 40 or 50 stars from the 8 th to the 15 th magnitude." 

384. 35 CAMELOPAKDI. CCXXXV. 





h. 


m. 


s. 




s. 




B.A. 


5 


55 


45 


Free. 


+ 


4 


75 


Decl. 


If 


o 

51 


34-6 





N 


// 
6- 


35 * 


Po ition. Distance, 


Epoch. 


MADLER 
DEMBOWSKI 



12 

13 


50 -. 39-9 
i .- 39'4 


... 




1843-3 
1867.0 



168 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



A small double star, which, though absurdly chronicled in the 
Cameleopard, is in the Waggoner's eye ; and it is nearly in the line between 
/3 and 8 Aurigae. A 7, white; B 10, lilac. H/s magnitudes are 6^ and 
ij, with Pos. 13*8 and distance 35-0". (Sweep 2292.) 



385. 161 (?) Dunlop DOBADUS. (h. 3006 ; H. 1350.) 

h. m. s. s. 

B. A. 5 68 23 Free. 0*45 
Decl. S 69 11-9 N 0-14 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ; v B ; S ; R ; vgvmb M ; rr ;" which means : " a globular cluster ; 
very bright; small; round; very gradually very much brighter in the 
middle ; partially resolved some stars visible," 



386. 



194 Dunlop DOBADUS. (h. 3011 ; H. 1366.) 

h. m. a. s. 

B.A. 5 59 30 



DecL S 68 31 '0 



Free. 0-32 

// 
N 0-06 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 :- 
" ; v B ; R ; m CM ; rr ;" which means : " globular cluster ; very 
bright ; round ; much condensed in the middle ; partially resolved some 
stars visible." 



387. 



2145 Lao. PIOTOEIS. 



h. m, 

K.A. 6 1 



57 
Decl. S 48 26*6 

Position. 

o 

HEESCHEL, J. 163*0 
A double star. A 8 ; B 8. 



Prec. + 1-56 

S 0-17 

Distance. Epoch. 

3-8 ... 1835-57 



388. 35 M. GEMI3STOBUM. (h. 377; H. 1360.) CCXXXVI. 

& 
Prec, + 3.67 



h. m. g. 

K.A. 624 



Bed. H 24 21 '2 



S O-2O 



A cluster, near Castor's right foot, in the Galaxy, discovered by 
Messier in 1764. It presents a gorgeous fidd of stars from the p th to 
the i6 t]l magnitudes, but with the centre of the mass less rich than the 



B.A. 5 h ' 



169 



rest. From the small stars being inclined to form curves of three or 
four, and often with a large one at the root of the curve, it somewhat 
reminds one of the bursting of a sky-rocket. 

Under favourable circumstances this cluster can be distinguished by 
the naked eye. It must be sought on the line between Castor and f on 
the tip of the Bull's southern horn, at exactly one-quarter of the distance 
from the latter : or a line led from a Leporis through a Orionis, and 
extended" 1 8 beyond, will strike upon it. 

This object being so handy to the point assumed by Hipparchus, as 
the N. extreme of the ecliptic, I swept for anything which might be on 
the actual spot, under the necessary corrections, in R. A. 6 11 , and Decl. 
N 23 2*1'. After some search, I found a star of the I2 ttl magnitude, too 
small for any permanent purpose of reference. 



389. 



41 AUBIGkffi. (2. 845.) 



CCXXXVII. 



h. m. s. 

RA. 6 3 10 



Decl. 



HERSCHEF,, W. 
STROVE, W. 
SMYTH 



48 44-0 

Position. 

350-0 
353-1 
352-8 
353-8 



Free. + 4-59 
// 

S O-2O 

Distance. 
// 

8-5 . 
8-0 

8-2 

7-7 



Epoch. 
1782-85 



J837-97 
1872-46 



A neat double star, in front of the Waggoner's chin ; where a line 
from /3 Tauri, on the top of the Bull's northern horn, led through /3 
Aurigae, and carried 4 beyond, strikes upon it. A [6], silvery white; 
and B 7, pale violet. There appears no appreciable relative motion. 

[" Relatively fixed, common proper motion : a remarkable though not 
infrequent phenomenon." Webb.] 



390. 



855 2. ORIONIS. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 63 13 
Decl. N 2 30'9 

Position. 

o 

STRUVE, W. 113.2 



Free. + 3-13 
S 0-28 

Distance. Epoch. 

// 

29.3 ,,, 1831-22 



A double star, A 6, white ; B 7, white. 



170 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

391. 24 $. VIII. ORIONIS. (h. 379; H. 1301; S. 848.) 

CCXXXVIII. 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 6 3 15 
Decl. N 13 58-5 



Prec. -f 3-40 
S 0-20 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SOUTH AC 109.5 ... 275 ... 1825.10 

STRUVE, W. AB 108-8 ... 2-35 ... 1833-19 

DUNEB 5 AB 110.4 .- 2.2 ... 1872.40 

(AC 296.5 ... 15.1 ... 1872-2 

BURNHAM AC 295-4 ... 15-5 ... 1878-0 

A close double star in a small cluster, on Orion's left hand. A 7-|, 
and B 8J, both lucid white; [C 12]. This elegant little group has 
many glimpse stars thronging about the two lower angles. Enrolled by 
2. as lucida acervi. 

These gatherings occurring indifferently upon the Via Lactea and 
off it, awaken still more our admiration of the stupendous richness of 
the Universe, in every department of which there appears such a pro- 
fusion of creation, if we may so express ourselves of the works of the 
ALMIGHTY, in which our utmost ken has yet never detected any redun- 
dancy, much less anything made in vain. 



392. 4 MONOCEROTIS. 

h. m. a. 



K.A. 6 3 15 
Decl. S 11 8'3 



Prec. + 2-7 
S 0-26 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

DEMBOWSKI JAB 1780 ... 3-1 - '875-9 
(AC 244-5 ... 8-9 ... 1876-8 

A triple star. A 6^; B icj, blue; C n. B was discovered by 
Burnham and C by Knott. A little up this object is 3 Monocerotis, 
found by Burnham to be double: Pos. 354-8; Dist. 1-62"; Epoch, 
1875-9; m &gs. 6-8 and 10-5. 



393. 859 2. ORIONIS. 

h. m. s. 



K.A. 63 43 



o 



Bed. 1ST 5 40*8 



Prec. + 3-20 
S 0-33 



B. A. 6 h - s m 



171 



Position. 



Distance. 



STKUVE, W. 
MADLER 

ENGELMANN 

BUKNHAM 

A double star. A 81 



249.0 ... 31.4 

248-6 ... 32.0 

248-4 ... 340 

246-7 ... 34-4 

yellowish ; B 9, white. 



Epoch. 

1829-70 
1845-19 
1863-17 
187900 

An increase in dis- 



tance seems implied by the above measures, if they can be depended 
upon. " The change is probably due to proper motion/' JBurnham. 



394. 



135 Birm. GEMHSTOBUM. 

s, 

Free, -h 3-72 



h. 

6 



B.A. 6 4 3 
Bed. W 26 2 3 



S o- 3S 



A red star of mag. 71. Schwerd, " rothlich," 6; Webb, 1872, " fine 
ruby colour;" Birmingham, 1873, " very red,'' 7^; I ^75? "fine deep 
red," 8. 



395. 



25 1$. VII. OBIOWTS. (h. 3804 ; H. 1376 ; .) 

CCXXXIX. 

h. m. s. , 

B.A. 6 6 15 



Decl. N 5 28-6 



Position. 



Prec. -f 3-20 

S J-55 

Distance. 



HEKSCHEL, J. 

SMYTH 



Epoch. 

358'5 -. 5 ... 1830 
355 ... 5 .- 1833-00 

A neat but minute double star, in a cluster, under Orion's left shoulder 
and in an outcropping of the Galaxy. A 9^ and Bio, both pale yellow. 
This is a tolerably rich and compressed mass of stars, from the p th to 
the 1 6 th magnitudes, with numerous stragglers. 

To fish up this object, pass a line from ft Orionis through the lower 
star of Orion's belt, and carry it a little more than as far again to the 
N.E., where it will strike the cluster at about 4 S.E. of a Orionis. 



396. 



872 2. AUBIGh. 



B.A. 6 8 15 
Decl. N 36 10 '5 

Position. 



STBUVE, W. 



217-3 
217-5 



Free. 


+ 4-05 
8 0-71 
Epoch. 

1828.94 
1868.49 


Distance. 
// 

II'O 



A double star, A 6, white ; B 7^, white. The fixity of the com- 
ponents is established beyond a doubt. 



172 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



397. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 69 30 



5 MONOCEBOTIS. 

Free. + 



Decl. 8 6 14*4 



2-93 



S 0-83 



"A fine orange star" of mag. 4^. *Webb is the authority for the 
colour, but the star appears in Birmingham's Catalogue (No. 1 40). 



398. 



1201 Brisb. DORADTJS. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 6 11 54 
Decl. S 65 30-3 

Position. 

o 

HBRSCHEL, J. 114.9 



A double star. A ^ ; B 



Prec. 4- 0-14 
// 

S i -04 

Distance. Epoch. 

H 

21-5 ... 1830-20 



399. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 6 12 17 



4 LYNCIS. (2. 881.) 

s. 

Prec. + 5-33 



CCXL. 



Decl. N 59 25 '1 



S no 



Position. 



STKUVE, W. 
SMYTH 
STRUVE, 0. 



90*2 
95-6 



Distance, 
// 

0-81 
i-o 

0-87 



Epoch. 

1830-28 
1837.89 
1847-52 



A close double star, in the animal's snout ; at about 30 from Polaris, 
on a line through Sirius, and closely N.E. of 2 Lyncis. A 6 and B 71, 
both white. This elegant but difficult object was discovered by 2., and 
is one of his vicince. 

The above measures imply a direct movement in angle ; but the pair 
is too impracticable to merit reliance on epochs of short periods. It is 
only from accurate and continued observations that an orbit worthy of 
confidence will emerge. 

The Lynx, sen Tigris, is one of the new asterisms formed by Heve- 
lius, from the stellce informes of the neighbourhood, and added to the 
old 48 constellations. It is pretty extensive, occupying a vast space 
between Auriga and the Greater Bear, above the Twins ; but though it 
contains many beauties for assisted vision, there are few remarkable 
objects to the naked eye. Hevelius started it with 19 stars, Flamsteed 
gave it 44, and Bode 149. 

Hevelius defends the location he has assigned to this animal, and in 



R A. 6 h - 9- 6 h - i6 m - . 173 

a set paragraph, De Loco Lyncia, tells us that he cast it between the 
Great Bear and Auriga, where an empty space was found on the globes, 
which was wont to be filled up with title and dedication. He acknow- 
ledges that the 1 9 components he assigned it are small and insignificant, 
but thinks that those who would examine the Lynx ought to be lynx- 
eyed. He formed a symbol for this, as well as for the other asterisms, 
giving permission to those carpers who dislike them to make new ones 
if they choose : " Si cuidam Momo forte displicent, liberum ipsi per me 
esto, alios characteres effingere," 

400. 58 P. VI. MONOCEROTIS. (2. 891.) CCXLL 

h. m. 8. s. 



R.A. 6 14 31 



o 



J>ecl. N 12 20-2 



Free. + 



S 1-28 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STRUVE.W. 292.4 ... 21.9 ... 1830.33 
GLEDHILL 295.0 ... 20.8 ... 1874.2 

A most delicate double star, close to Orion's left hand, and in the 
Galaxy. A 8 and B [n], both dull yellow: followed at about io s by a 
coarse pair, of the 9 th and 10^ magnitudes, which constitute the No. 
892, rejected from 2/s list. The object is only estimated. 

Here is another of those cases where illumination is out of the 
question; but the rock-crystal micrometer enabled me to catch up a 
tolerably fair angle. The instrument is easily managed after practice. 

This star, though placed on the Unicorn's horn by various map- 
makers, is filched from Orion, and in the S.D.U.K. Map is placed on 
that gentleman's club ; so that in any reform of the heavens, the matter 
must be gravely looked to. 

A line from /3 Orionis through e, in the middle of Orion's belt, passed 
under a on his left shoulder, and extended 7| beyond, will strike upon 
the little star in question. 

401. ft GEMmOBUM. CCXLIII. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 6 16 18 



o 



Ddcl. N 22 34*5 



Free, -f 3-62 

// 
S 1-42 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

H 

BUBNHAM 767 ... 72-3 ... 1880.03 

A Nautical Almanac star of 1830, with a distant comes, on Castor's 
right instep ; a glance from Orion's sword cluster through . the lowest 



174 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



of the belt, carried closely to the E. of a, and 1 6 beyond, will rest upon 
ju. A3, crocus yellow ; B 1 1 [or less Knott], bluish ; there are two 
other companions in the $f, and a group of small stars follow at A R. A. 
= 25 8 . This object is known as Tejat post, from Tahydh, a word used 
by the Arabs, as the name of a constellation formed by the two stars 
rf and /A, in the anterior feet of Gemini. 

[" Tint of A very fine. B very small, 5^, 1863." Webb.] 



402. 



5 LYNCIS. 




h. 


m. s. 




a. 


B.A. 


6 


17 12 


Free. + 


5-25 






O 1 




fl 


Bed. 


N 


58 28'7 


C 


1-40 








Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 






o 






HEBSCHEL, 


W. 


A C 272-0 


. 88.3 , 


1782-87 


SOUTH 




AC 272-1 


... 95-4 


1825.05 


BUBNHAM 




( AB 139.1 
(AC 272.5 


... 30-3} 
... 95.9$ 


1879-86 



CCXLII, 



A coarse triple star, on the animal's lower jaw ; it is a little to the 
N", of a line running from a Auriga towards a Ursae Majoris, and 
about 1 8 from the former star, where it precedes 6 Lyncis. A 6, 
orange tinge ; B [i i], blue; and C 9, pale garnet. BjL overlooked B. 

Sir J. Herschel, in his Notes, alludes to the difference in distance be- 
tween his father's measures and more recent ones, saying, " It may be 
remarked once for all, that there is great reason to suspect a considerable 
instrumental error in all the measures of that early period, exceeding 40", 
the result being constantly (or most commonly) in defect, and that not 
unfrequently to a very large amount. The cause probably lies in the 
construction of the micrometer used ; and its effect is to throw a great 
uncertainty on the earlier distances of all stars of the Fifth and Sixth 
Classes. Fortunately these are the least replete with interest." Here, 
however, my friend's opinion, and with the utmost deference be it said, 
is, like one of Homer's prayers, only to be in part received. 



403. 



/3 CAKTS MAJOBIS. CCXLVI. 

h. m. s. s. 

R.A. 6 17 52 



Deel, 8 17 54-2 



BUBNHAM 



Position. 
o 
339* 1 



Prec, 4- 2.64 

S 1-61 

Distance. Epoch, 

185.2 ... 1879.91 



-A bright star with a distant companion, on the Dog's fore-paw. 



B.A. 



i6 m - 6 h - 2i m - 



175 



A 2^, fine white ; B 9, dusky grey, and another of the same magnitude 
in the sp quadrant. 

/3 Canis Majoris is called Mirzani, the roarer, a term applied to the 
camel as well as the lion. Al-mirz&m is the name of this star, of /3 in 
Canis Minor, and of y and a in Orion; the two former being called 
al-mirzamdni, the two roarers, 

A line dropped from j3 Tauri, on the northern horn of the Bull, to a 
Orionis, and from thence nearly the same distance to the S., will fall 
upon the star under discussion. 

Where Sirius blazes in the south, and leaves the ship behind, 

Look west-south-west, just four degrees, and beta there you'll find. 



404. 



8 MONOCBHOTIS. (2. 000.) 



CCXLV. 







h. 


m. 


s. 






s. 




K. 


A. 


6 


17 


56 




Free. 


+ 


3 


18 








o 


/ 








n 




Decl. N 


4 


38' 


8 





S 


I 


59 


Position. Distance. 



HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 25-3 ... 14.3 

STROVE, W. 25-8 ... 13.8 

MAIN 24-3 ... 12-9 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 25.8 ... 13-9 



Epoch. 

1823-04 
1831-74 
1868-21 
1880.19 



A neat double star, in the Unicorn's nostril; where a glance from 
a Tauri, passed closely over the head and shoulders of Orion, will find it 
at about 7^ E. of a. A [4^], golden yellow; B [7], lilac. A fine 
object, 

[" Glorious low-power field." Webb.] 



405. 



15 GEMINOBUM. 



CCXLVII. 



B.A. 6 21 13 
Bed. N 20 51 6 



Position. 

o 

HEKSCHEL, W. 210-0 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 204-6 

SMYTH 2 5 4 

MAIN 205.5 



Free. + 3 


58 




S i 


95 




Distance, 




Epoch. 


32-6 
... 33-2 


I 


1782-08 
1822-10 
1832.04 
1863-07 



A fine double star, on Castor's right heel ; very nearly in mid-distance 
of an imaginary line between a Geminorum and y Orionis, where it is 
the northern member of a trapezium of small stars. A 6, flushed white ; 
B 8, bluish. This object was classed twice over by Sir William Herschel, 
being 52 and 56 Ijl. V. 



176 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

406. CANIS MAJOBIS. (*h. 3858.) 

h. m. 9. s. 

Prec. + 2-17 

// 
S 1-90 



R A 6 21 44 
Decl. S 34 57-9 



Position. Distance, Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J. 313-8 ... 5 est. ... 1836-02 

SANTIAGO OBS. 67.3 .., " 6-7 ... 1852-19 

A double star. A 7^ ; B 8. Sir J. Herschel calls this a " fine object," 
and remarks that a 6 th mag. star precedes it to the S. 

The Declination above is as corrected by the Santiago observers. The 
Cape Obs. put it at 33. 

407. 104 P. VI. M03STOCEBOTIS. (2. 010.) CCXLVIII. 



h. 



B.A. 6 22 4 



o 



Decl. N 81*0 



Prec. + 3-08 
S 1-98 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STBUVE,W. jf^ 'f'S - 66 ' r o - l8 ^' 68 
(BCi68-8 ... 0-78 ... 1825-12 

SMYTH i^? 151 ' 5 "' 67> \ .-, 1833-14 
(BC 170-0 ... 0.6$ dd * 

DEMBOWSKI BC 165-6 ... 0.7 ... 1869-1 
BUBNHAM BC 162-5 *93 1878-2 

A coarsely triple star, between the boundary line of Orion and the 
Unicorn's chest ; it is about 1 7 from Procyon, on a ray carried to the 
W.S.W. through Orion's sword cluster and /3 Orionis. A 7^, topaz 
yellow; B and C 8|, both of a plum tinge. B is most exquisitely 
double. 

["A low-power field includes 77, a fine 6^ mag. yellow star, with this 
pair np, and another sp : a noble spectacle." Webb.] 

408. 10 MONOCEROTIS. CCXLIX. 

8. 

2'96 
// 
2-05 

Epoch. 

BUBKHAM 1" "*"* - 6-9 I I879 .g 8 

(AC 331^5 ... 80-6 i Iy 

A wide double star in an elegant group [=25 1$. VIIT; H. 1415], on 
the Unicorn's right fore-knee : it is about 1 2^ in an occult line carried 
from Siriua a little to the W. of a Aurigse, and directly between /3 in 
the Lesser Dog and a Leporis, A 6, pale yellow ; B 9, orange, with a 





h. 


m. s. 




B.A. 


6 


22 31 


Free. 


+ 






t 






Decl. 


8 


4 41'9 





S 






Position. Distance. 





K.A. 6 h - 



6 h - 



177 



comes to the S. Though this object is a capital one for testing the per- 
formance of a telescope, it has not been classed among the clusters. 

Monoceros was* introduced into the firmament by Bartschius, among 
the delineations on his 4^ globe ^ it was, perhaps out of regard to 
the husband 'of Kepler's daughter, retained by Hevelius, being now con- 
sidered as one of his constellations. It is concocted of the stellce informes 
scattered about in the large space between Orion, Hydra, and the two 
Dogs, over a portion of the Milky Way. But though extensive it is not 
conspicuous, few of its gems rising to the 4^ magnitude. It has been 
pretty well ransacked since its first appearance in the Prodromus Astro- 
nornice, and many capital pairs, nebulae, and clusters have been reaped. 
The stars have been thus successively tabulated : 

Hevelius .... 19 stars. Piazzi .... 95 stars. 

Flameteed .... 31 Bode . . . .220 ,. 

409. 9 1$. VIII. GEMINOEUM. (h. 389 ; H. 1417; .) 



R.A. 6 22 57 
Decl. N 16 45-6 



Free. -f 3-4? 
// 

S 2-OO 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; e L ; p K i ; 1C; st L & 8 ; " which means : " a cluster ; exceed- 
ingly large ; pretty rich ; little condensed ; its stars are large and small 
various sizes." 



410. 



11 MONOCEBOTIS. (2. 919.) 

S, 

Free. + 2*91 
S 2-10 



h. m. S. 

R.A. 6 23 29 



Decl. S 6 57*7 



Pobijfcion. 



Distance. 



Epoch. 



CCL, 



r AB 130.3 ... 7.2 \ 

SMYTH )AC 121.6 ... 9*6 > ... 1834.02 

i B C 102.3 ... 2.8 ) 

DUNR A AB 132-3 ... 7-2 ... 1870.91 

IBC 105-0 ... 2-3 ... 1871-24 

BURNHAM AD 56-1 ... 258 ... 1878.00 

JEDRZE.TEWICZ BC 104.4 - 2< 7 1880.20 
A fine triple star, in the Unicorn's right fore-leg : a ray shot from 
the Bull's eye through y Orionis, and extended rather more than as far 
again into the S.E., will pick it up in the out-cropping of the Milky 
Way. A 6^, white ; B 7 ; C 8, both white; {D 13]. !$[., who discovered 
this in 1781, classed it as a "curious treble star/' and pronounced it to 
be "one of the most beautiful sights in the heavens ;" but the next ob- 
servers, his son and Sir J. South, registered it quadruple* The several 

H 



178 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



measures are so coincident, on comparison notwithstanding that the 
nearness of magnitudes creates an anomaly of quadrants as to prove the 
general fixity of the individuals. 

[" Notwithstanding the striking appearance of connection, motion has 
not been detected here." Webb.] 



411. 



921 S. GEMINOEITM. 



h. 

B.A. 6 


m. s. 

25 2 


Prec. -f 


s. 

3-34 


Decl. N 


o / 

11 10-9 


g 


// 

2-27 


STBUVE, W. 
DAWES 


Position, 
o 
3-8 ... 

4-3 


Distance. 
n 

16-2 

16-3 ... 


Epoch. 

1831-38 
1848-16 


star. A ( 


>i, yellowish 


white ; B 3 


, bluish white 



borders of Gemini and Monoceros. 



412. 2 $. VII. MONOCEBOTIS. (H. 1424; 



On the 



CCLI. 



R.A. 6 25 4 
Decl. N 5 1 3 



Prec. -f 3-19 
S 2-34 



A tolerably compressed cluster, between the Unicorn's fore legs. 
This is a brilliant gathering of large and small stars, from the 7 th to the 
1 4^ magnitudes ; the latter running in rays. It may be found nearly in 
mid-distance between /3 Geminorum and a Leporis, where it is crossed 
by a line led from Procyon to the "W., and passed between Orion's belt 
and his right shoulder, about 2 below y Orionis. 

[The yellow 7 th mag. star is 12 Monocerotis.] 

["Beautiful ; visible to the naked eye/' Webb.] 



413. 



220 B. AUBIG^E. (2. 918.) 

h. m. a. s. 

B.A. 6 25 10 
DecL W 52 33 '0 



STBUVE, W. 

MADLEB 

MADLEB 

ENGELMANN 
JEDKZEJEWICZ 



Position. 

o 

322.4 
325-1 

3*3-9 
3*5-3 



Prec. + 


4-81 




H 


g 


2-2O 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


4-4 


1829.26 


4-7 


1843-26 


4-4 


1852-28 


4-8 ... 


1865.46 


4-4 


1879.28 



A double star, A 7, white ; B 8 J, white. 



R A. 6 h - 2^ 6 h * 28 m - 



179 



414. 616 (?) Dunlop CANIS MAJOBIS. (h. 3053 ; H, 1423.) 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 6 25 22 
Bed. 8 31 12*5 



Prec. 4- 2*27 
// 

g 2-22 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"pB; cL; R; vlgbM; 4';" which means : "pretty bright; con- 
siderably large ; round ; very little brighter in the middle ; 4' in 
diameter." 



415. 



20 GEMINOBUM. (2, 924.) 



CCLII. 



R A. 6 25 52 
Bed. 3S* 17 61 '4 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 208-9 

STRUVE, W. 209-8 

SMYTH 209-2 

WILSON and SEABKOKE 210-1 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 209-7 



Prec. -f 3-50 

Distance. 
.. 19-4 

20-0 

20-1 
2O-O 



Epoch. 

1822-05 
1830-00 



1874-13 
1878-66 



A neat double star, on Castor's left heel, about 1 | to the N.N. W. of 
the bright star y Geininorum ; where a line carried from /3 Orionis over 
the middle component of Orion's belt will point it out at about 14 
beyond a Orionis. A 8, topaz yellow ; B 8^, cerulean blue. [In a fine 
field.] 

This is a very fine object. No appreciable change has occurred in 
56 years. 



416. 3 $. VIII. MONOCEBOTIS. (h. 395 ; H. 1429.) 



R.A. 6 28 46 



DecL 



8 26 '5 



Prec. + 3-27 
S 2-51 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; v L ; E ; Ri ; 1C;" which means : " a cluster ; very large ; ex- 
tended ; rich ; little condensed," 

N 2 



180 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

417, 14 MONOCEEOTIS. (2. 938.) CCLIII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 6 28 48 
Decl. N 7 39'5 



Free. + 3-25 
S 2-62 



Position. Distance, Epoch. 

. o // 

STRUVE, W. 206-7 ... 10.2 ... 1831-23 
BUKNHAM 209.9 ... 10-6 ... 1878-20 

A most delicate double star, in the Unicorn's eye. A 6, yellowish 
white; B [12], dusky. This is indeed a difficult object, B being the 
minimum visibile of my instrument, and only seen by such transient 
glimpses, that but for a distant pale io th magnitude star in the sp 
Quadrant, nearly in the same line of bearing, my estimations must have 
been much wider. There is also a dusky 1 2^ star in the sf, at about 
100" from A; so that the whole forms a wide quadruple object. It is 
nearly mid-way between Procyon and the three little stars which form 
Orion's head and also of a line passed from a Greminorum to a Leporis 
in the middle of the Milky Way. 



418. 50 $. VIII. MONOCEBOTIS. (h. 396 ; H. 1430.) 



h. 



B.A. 6 29 



o. 



Decl. S 5 28'5 



Prec. -f 3-20 

s ;'. 53 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 ; 

"Cl; vL; pRi; 1C; stS;" which means: "a cluster; very large; 
pretty rich; little condensed ; the stars are small." 



419. 2337 Lac. CA3STS MAJOKIS. (*h.3871.) 

h. m. a. s. 



B.A. 6 29 51 
Decl. 3 29 32*2 



Prec. + 2-32 
S 2-61 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEBSCHEL, J. 353.1 ... 10+ ... 1837.09 

JACOB 354.2 ... 7.4 ... 1848.1 

STONE, 0. 353.0 ... 7-6 ... 1877-1 



A double star. A 7^ ; B 8. 



E.A. 



6- 3I 



m. 



181 



420. 



941 2. AUBIG^B, 

h. m. . 



B.A. 6 


30 53 


Free. + 


4-25 




o t 




ff 


Decl. S 


41 40*6 


g 


2'7O 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 







f f 




SOUTH 


85-1 ... 


i-65 


1824-58 


STRUVE, W. 


77-6 ... 


i-95 


1830-29 


MADLER 


79-7 


1-67 ... 


1844.29 


GLEDHILL 


80-2 


2-2 


1876-09 



A double star. A 7~J, bluish white; B 8, purplish white. i S. of 
50 Aurigae, a star of the 5 tlj magnitude. There is a distant companion in 
Pos. 133; Dist. 28.0"; Epoch 1822-2 (= South 367). 



421. 



B.A. 
Decl. 

BUBNHAM 


y GEMI 

h. m. s. 

31 21 

N 16 29*5 

Position. 

JAB 335.5 .. 
( A C 294-7 


NOBUM. 

s. 

Free. + 3-46 

SO. HO 


Distance. 
141.7) 

133-0 5 



CCLIV. 



Epoch. 

1880-03 

A coarse triple star, on the right foot of Pollux, in a rich field. A 3, 
brilliant white; B 13, and C 12, both pale plum colour; followed nearly 
on the parallel, A E,. A. = 40*, by a 9 th mag. star. This object, with f 
on the other foot, is called Alhena, from al-lwriali, a ring or brand on a 
horse's neck, and the two form the VI th Mansion of the Moon, t] is 
called Uponovs by Ptolemy, as being in the fore-foot, but the name is best 
applied to H Geminorum, as the ante-foot, or star preceding the feet. 

The alignment of this star is easy. A ray from /3 Orionis through 
the middle star of Orion's belt will pass clear of a Orionis to Alhena. 
The same imaginary line continued, passes close under a Geminorum : 
it is also about two-thirds of the distance between /3 Geminorum and 
a Orionis. 

[Good low-power field,] 



422. 



v l CANIS MAJOBIS. 



CCLV. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 6 31 33 

Decl. S 18 34'1 

Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 259-8 

SMYTH 260-2 

MAIN 261-6 

STONE, 0. 262-4 



Free. + 2-62 

S 2-80 

Distance. Epoch. 

17-2 ... 1821-22 

,., 17-2 ... 1830-83 

17-3 ... 1842-82 

... 17-4 . 1877-1 



182 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

A neat double star, in the Greater Dog's left fore knee, and about 3 to 
the S.W. of Sirius. A 6, pale garnet ; B 8, grey. The pair is followed 
in the sf quadrant by i/ 2 . 

[3 sp a. Motion in angle seems probable.] 

423. 48 $ . VIII. MONOCEKOTIS. (h. 308 ; H. 1436.) 

h. m. s. 



B, A. 6 32 33 



o 



Dec! B 1 22*1 



Free, -f 3-04 
S 2-84 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; v L ; P ; vl C ; st L & S ;" which means : " a cluster ; very large ; 
poor ; very little condensed ; the stars are large and small, mixed-" 

424. 15 MONOCEROTIS. (S. 950.) CCLVIII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 6 34 55 
Decl. N 9 59-8 



Prec. -f 3'3 
S 3-02 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



STRUVE, W. 


( AB 208-6 ... 
(AC 12.9 


276 ) 
16-5 \ " 


. 1831-67 


SMYTH 


( AB 206.2 
(AC 15 


.,-* i 


1835.13 


DEMBOWSKI 


( AB 211.0 
(AC 13-9 ... 


3.02) 
16-2 $ " 


1868-74 



HALL A B 212-6 ... 3-05 ... 1876-10 

A delicate triple star, in a magnificent stellar field [=27 1$. V; 5 IjjL 
VIII ; h. 401 ; H. 1440], between the Unicorn's ears, at one-third of the 
distance from Procyon towards a Tauri. A 6, greenish ; B 9^, pale grey ; 
C [12], blue. The bright star is crowned by three pairs, of which the sfis 
the nearest. A companion in Pos. 139, Dist. 75", was found to be double 
by Dembowski: Pos. 47; Dist. 3-8"; Epoch 1865-9. 

425. 174 P. VI. LYNCIS. (S. 946.) CCLVI, 



h. 



B,A. 6 35 8 



Prec. + 5-33 



Bed N 


59 33'3 





S 2-92 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


n 




SOUTH 


136-8 


4-06 


1825.07 


STRUVE, W. 


133-5 


4-19 


1830.58 


SMYTH 


134-2 


4.0 


1835.11 


MAIN 


133-4 


3-9 


1862-31 



R.A. 6 h - 



36- 



183 



A neat double star, under the animal's eye, nearly in mid-distance 
between a Ureas Majoris and a Aurigee, where it is crossed by a line 
passing from Polaris a little to the westward of Procyon. A 7^, bright 
white; B 10, blue: the magnitude of the latter star was carefully 
estimated by my usual method of assuming Piazzi's brightness of A as 
the standard ; and also by referring directly to the companion of Polaris. 
S, from finding it 8-5 in 1827, TO in 1831, and 8-5 again two years 
afterwards, asks, Num minor variabilis ? 

The possibility of the comvs being variable, awakens considerations of 
peculiar interest ; it having been surmised, that certain small acolyte 
stars shine by reflected light, a point which has still to be ascertained. 
But sidereal science is yet. in its infancy, [and this is quite as true in 1880 
as it was in 1840]. 



426. 



V PUPPIS. 



B.A. 6 35 43 
Bed. S 48 7 '5 



Position, 
o 
317.0 



HERSCHEL, J. 
A double star. A 5^, yellow; B 7^, blue. 



Prec. + i -60 

S 3-n 

Distance. Epoch. 

13.4 ... 1836.12 



427. 



R.A, 
Decl. 


12 LYNCIS 

h. m. s. 

6 36 30 

N 59 33 1 

Position. 



(2. 948. 

Prec. + 

S 

Distance. 



CCLVII. 



5-32 



HERSCHEL, W. 



STRUVE, W. 



SMYTH 



GLEDHILL 



-511 
9-3 i 



9-3 

1.52 

8.6 

1.6 

8.9 

8-7 



Epoch. 
1780.68 
1831.10 
1839.27 
1874.13 



JAB 181-4 
( AC 302-5 
JAB 153-7 
(AC 304.2 

IAB 149*5 
AC 
, AB 
! A C 306.4 

A neat triple star, on the animal's cheek, so exactly following 174 P. 
VI., previously described, that the alineation there given will answer for 
both. A 6, white ; B 6^, ruddy; C 7^, bluish. By a comparison of the 
measures it will be seen that the two close stars have undergone great 
orbital change. C has remained relatively unaltered with the primary. 
From a rough-cast geometrical treatment of the above measures there 
results an annus magnus of nearly seven centuries. 



184 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

428. 12936 Lalande CANIS MAJOBIS. (/3 19.) 



h. m. 



RA. 6 37 3 
Becl. S 15 54-1 



Prec. + 2-7 
S 3-19 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O H 

KNOTT 169.4 - 4- - 1872.13 

DEMBOWSKI 165.0 ... 3.5 ... 1876-26 

A double star discovered by Burnham. A 7 ; B p-|. 

429. GEMINORTJM. CCLIX. 

h. ra. s. s. 

R.A. 6 37 10 Prec. 4- 3-69 

Decl. IT 26 14'3 S 3-23 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

SOUTH 93.7 ... 111-5 ... 1825-04 
SMYTH 94.1 ... uo-6 ... 1831-98 

A star with a distant companion, on Castor's right knee ; it is about 
26, or rather more than one-third of the distance, from Procyon towards 
a Aurigse, where a line led from /3 Orionis through a Orioiris also reaches 
it. A 3, brilliant white ; B 9^, cerulean blue. 

This star is called Mebsuta, from al-dhir(f al mebsdtah, the out- 
stretched arm ; i. e. Castor and Pollux. 

[" A, strongly yellow, 1849." Webb] 

430. 223 P. VI. PUPPIS. 

h. m. St s. 



RA. 6 38 34 
Bed. S 38 17 '2 



Free, -f 2*03 
S 3-36 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

HERSCHEL, J. 276*1 ... 8-4 ... 1835-38 
A double star. A 6 ; B 8. 

431. 56 AUEIG^I. CCLX. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 6 38 48 
Decl. N 43 41- 1 



Prec. -f 4'33 



3-33 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEKSOHEL,W. 17.4 ... 52.9 ... 1782-80 

. SMYTH 17*1 ... 56*8 ... 1831.92 

MAIN 187 ... 51-6 ... 1862-31 

HALL 21-1 ... 48-3 ... 1877.3 

A wide double star ; it is just to the N, of an imaginary line carried 



R. A. 6**- 37^- 6 h - 40- 185 

from a Aurigse eastward through ft, and extended as far again as the 
distance between those two stars. A 6, silvery white ; B 8|, lilac. This 
is an object which, though belonging to Auriga, is in Telescopium 
Herschelii, an asterisro proposed by the Abb6 Hell to commemorate the 
discovery of the planet Uranus, in this spot, 13^ March, 1781, It 
appears to have remained stationary for 50 years, 

432. 



958 2. LYFCIS. 


R.A. 


h. m. 

6 39 


s. 

1 


Free. 


s. 
+ 5'2 


Beel. 


N 55 


49-8 





ft 

S 3-40 


STROVE, W 
MAIN 


Position. 



2567 

257-7 


Distance. 

5'07 

5-7 


Epoch. 

1830-91 
1863-2:9 



A double star. A 6, white; B 6, white. 



433. a CANIS MAJOBIS. CCLXII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 40 18 
Deel. S 16 33 '7 



Free. 4- 2-64 
S 3-50 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HUNT 47-5 ... 1144-0 ... 1879-19 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a small companion, in the Greater 
Dog's mouth. A i, brilliant white; B 10, deep yellow; other distant 
Binall stars in the field ; and a line through the two here cited passes 
nearly upon that mentioned by Piazzi, " alia 8" e maguit. praecedit 3" 
temporis, 3' ad Boream." A, or Sirius, is subject to a large proper 
motion, namely, o53" in R. A. and 1-23" in Decl. (Argelander.) 

[Sirius has attracted a good deal of notice during the last few years in 
consequence of the discovery by Bessel that its proper motion was subject 
to systematic irregularities, such as to render its path really sinuous and 
not rectilinear. Bessel did more than this, for he suggested that an 
invisible companion was the perturbing agent. Peters in 1851 improved 
upon this idea by calculating a theoretical orbit to satisfy the observations. 
Finally, in 1862 Alvan Clark in America found a comes, hitherto un- 
detected. It is not however by any means clear yet that Clark's star is 
the companion which is required to satisfy Bessel's observations. There 
are discrepancies which at present cannot be disposed of. More observa- 
tions are needed, but few telescopes exist capable of furnishing them. 
Clark used an i8^ n refractor. As regards Clark's star Burnham gives : 
Pos. 48-3; Dist. 10-0", for the Epoch 1880.11. The angle is undoubtedly 
decreasing. Other companions to Sirius have been reported by Gold- 



186 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Bchmidt, (Pos. 158; Dist. 103"; Epoch 1878-21); by Marth, (Pos. 114; 
Pist. 69"; Epoch 1878-21); and by Secchi, (Pos. 170; Dist. 44"; 
Epoch 1865-06) ; but Burnham disbelieves in Secchi's star. At the Mel- 
bourne observatory in 1872 no fewer than 8 small stars were said to 
have been seen near Sirius by Ellery and others. Altogether we may say 
that Sirius needs continued and careful scrutiny with large telescopes for 
a term of years. Gledhill in his Handbook gives a very full account of 
the modern history of Sirius,] 

Sirius, the Dog-star, and one of Orion's hounds, is the brightest of 
all the stars in the firmament, and therefore regarded as their chief; for 
I have frequently compared it with Canopus, the next in brilliance, when 
both were nearly on the meridian together, and the latter yielded the 
palm to Kv(av. From this brilliance there is little probability of its 
being mistaken for any of its stellar neighbours ; but it may be noted, 
that a line from the Pleiades through Orion's belt passes, at about 20 
beyond the latter, through Sirius. The geometrical diagram here pre- 
sented to the gaze was not lost to the rhymester : 

Let Procyon join with Betelgeuze, and pass a liny < far, 

To reach the point where Sirius glows the most conspicuous star; 

Then will the eye delighted view a figure fine and vast, 

Its span is equilateral, triangular its cast. 



This star derived its Greek name from Sf/pio?, in allusion to the 
brightness, heat, and dryness assigned to it; though Dr. Hutton gravely 
informs us that the term is from Siris, which he says is the most ancient 
appellation of the Nile, for when this star rose heliacally, and became 
visible to the Egyptians and Ethiopians, their year commenced, and 
with it the inundation of their fecundating river. As that beneficial 
flood was attributed to the influence of the beautiful star, it was there- 
fore worshipped as Sothis, Osiris, and Latrator Anubis ; and was viewed 
as the abode of the soul of Isis. Jacob Bryant insists, that the word 
Sirius was borrowed by the Greeks from tlie Egyptian Cahen Sehor ; 
and others recognise in it the Mazzaroth of Job ; while Novidius, who 
gave a scriptural meaning to each constellation, says it alludes to Tobit's 
dog: "and so it may," ejaculates Moxon, "because he hath a tayle." 
It is first mentioned as a star by Hesiod, though Wyllyam Salysbury, 
1550, and Hesychius, contend that the name applies equally to the Sun 
and the clog-star ; and Homer, albeit he does not cite Sirius by name, 
compares the brightness of Achilles' armour to the pernicious blaze of the 
dog- star ; 

Whose burning breath 
Taints the red air with fevers, plagues, and death. 

Some of the ancients asserted that a star in the head of the Dog, 
perfectly distinguishable from Sirius, perhaps meaning y, was designated 



RA. 6 h - 40^- 187 

Isis, in former ages ; but they were assuredly in error, as may be inferred 
from Diodorus and Plutarch, and all the honours of the constellation 
were vested in the Dog-star. Lcelaps, one of Actseon's kennel, was, 
however, slipped in, and moreover the Latins called it Canis Candens, 
and Canicula ; which last should seem to apply to the Lesser Dog, but 
that, among the many opinions on this serious topic, the show of hands 
is for Sirius. Yet Horace, inviting Maecenas to quit the " Fumum et 
opes strepitumque" of Rome, (one would think London was meant,) for 
the country, during hot weather, thus describes ihe aspect of the 
heavens : 

Jam clartis occultum Andromedse pater (Cepheus) 
Ostendit igriem; jam PROCYON furit, 

Et stella vesani Leonis (Itegulus), 

Sole dies referente siccos. 

There is no end to the evil influences which the ancients attributed to 
this star, though Geminus considered the bulk of them as rather resulting 
from the Sun ; yet he was borne down by those who held Sirius to be an 
object equally terrible and splendid. While Virgil and others Considered 
the unhealthy and oppressive period, which followed the summer solstice 
in Italy, was owing to the presence of the Dog-star, Manilius thought it 
was a distant sun to illumine remote bodies. 

From its heliacal rising the ancients reckoned their dies canicular es, 
or dog-days, which, however, in our climate, often commenced a fortnight 
after the veritable dog-days were ended; they have been frequently 
shifted and adjusted, and now seem to be established among the 
Almanacks, from the 3 r( l of July to the n^ of August; i.e. before 
Sirius rises ! An extraordinary influence in engendering diseases among 
men, and madness among dogs, was assigned to the canicular days; 
hence their advent was of paramount importance, and Theon Alexan- 
drinus has left a full formula to find the exact time of the Dog-star's 
rising; twenty days before which, and twenty clays after, included the 
period of perspiration, hydrophobia, and other evils. 

Canis Major is situated in the Southern Hemisphere, below Orion's 
feet ; and the appellation of the principal star was frequently applied to 
the whole asterism, as an emblem of watchfulness and fidelity ; hence 
its name Alshira, from the Arabic Ash-stii'rd-l-Yemeniyah, the bright 
shining star of Yemen, or Arabia Felix. The Greater Dog is one of the 
old 48 constellations, and has been thus tabulated : 

Ptolemy ... 29 stars. Hevelius .... 22 stars. 
Tycho Brali<$ . . 13 Flamsteed ... 31 
Bayer .... 19 Bode 161 

Mr. Barker, of Lyndon, in Philosophical Transactions, vol. li., con- 
sidered that Sirius has changed colour, from red to white, in the lapse of 



188 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

ages; and quotes Aratus, Cicero, Virgil, Ovid, Seneca, Horace, and 
Ptolemy, in proof. The ancients, however, used the names of colours 
with the utmost latitude. Splendescere, furpurascere, signified to shine 
brightly ; noiKiXos of Aratus expresses a glittering object ; and the rubra 
Canicula of Horace may allude to heat. Mr. Barker's evidence for the 
mutation has therein more learning than point ; but Seneca has an 
admission that the redness of Sirius was so strong as to exceed that 
of Mars ; and Ptolemy says it was of the same colour as Cor Scorpii. 
These witnesses, both men of character and trust, are directly opposed to 
Hyginus, who asserts that the star was white, flammce candorum. This 
Barker gets over by considering that candor may be used for brightness, 
without regard to colour; and he might have called in Eratosthenes, 
a witness of high credit, to prove that Sirius at first signified bright, 
glittering, sparkling, and was afterwards given exclusively as the name of 
the most brilliant of the fixed stars. At all events, such a variation 
would be the more remarkable, since the other principal stars are un- 
changed in colour. Ptolemy calls Arcturus, Aldebaran, Pollux, Betclgeuze, 
and Antares, vnoKippos, or reddish, as they now actually are. 

The brilliance of Sirius has long attracted the attention of philosophers, 
and every practical astronomer must be conversant with its superiority 
over its compeers. Sir "William Herschel says, that when this star was 
about to enter his large telescope, the announcing light was equal to that 
on the approach of sunrise, and upon gaining the field of view, the star 
appeared in all the splendour of the rising sun, so that it was impossible 
to behold it without pain to the eye. By Sir J. Herschel's photometric 
experiments on the apparent brightness of stars, the light of Sirius was 
found to be about 324 times that of an average star of the 6^ magnitude. 
Consequently, if both bodies be assumed as of similar proportions, light 
diminishing as the square of the distance of the luminous body increases, 
their respective distances from us must be in the ratio of 57-3 to i 

Dr. Wollaston, from his ingenious researches in photometry, says, " we 
are not warranted by these experiments in supposing that the light of Sirius 
exceeds a 2O,ooo,ooo,ooo fch part of the Sun's light." (Phil. Trans.voL cxix.) 

434. 215 P. VI. LYNCIS. (2. 960.) CCLXI. 



B.A. 


6 


40 


47 


Prec. 


+ 4 


83 









/ 




n 




Decl. 


N 


53 


93 




S 3 


52 




Position. Distance. 


Epoch. 






o 








STRUVE, W 


. 


66.4 


21-9 




1829-21 


SMYTH 




69.1 


23.0 




1831-78 



A delicate double star, on the neck of the Lynx; it is about 11 on 



E.A, 6 h - 40 m - 6 h - 42' 189 

a line shot from (3 Aurigae towards a Ursae Majoris, or nearly one-third of 
that distance. A 8, bright yellow ; B n, dusky green. 



435. 71 $. VIII. AUBIG^S. (H, 1451.) 



h. 



B.A. 6 41 36 
Decl. W 41 10 '9 



Free, -f 4-22 
S 3-62 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Ci ; p Ri ; v 1 C ; st p L ; " which means : " a cluster ; pretty rich ; very 
little condensed ; stars pretty large." 

436. 31 y. VIII. MOKOCEBOTIS. (h. 408; H. 1443 ; K'.) 

CCLXIV. 



h. 



B.A, 6 42 12 



o 



Prec. 4- 3'oo 



Bed. S 3 3-1 | S 3-67 

A loose cluster in the Galaxy, on the Unicorn's breast ; 15 on a line 
from ft Canis Majoris towards ft Geminorum. It is a region of stars 
extending far beyond the field, with the principal members from 
the 8| to the II th magnitudes, curiously studded in pairs and triplets. 
Between these a certain glow indicates numbers of others still smaller. 

437, 41 M. CANIS MAJOBIS. (h. 411 ; H. 1454.) CCLXV. 

h. m. 3. s. 



R.A. 6 42 13 
Decl. S 20 37-8 



Prec, -f 2*57 
S 3-68 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH 85 ,., 45 ,. t 1836-17 

A double star, in a scattered cluster, on the Greater Dog's chest. 
A 9, lucid white; B 10, pale white. This was registered by Messier in 
1764 as a "mass of Email stars;" but it is divided into 5 groups, of 
which the central one is the richest, and marked by three bright stars 
forming a crescent. In the np is the open double star which is here 
estimated. As a beacon is rather acceptable in so low a declination, the 
tyro may hit his object by first directing his telescope charged with a 
low power upon Sirius, and then depressing it 4 5', when in about a 
minute a pair of 8 tl1 magnitudes will appear, constituting 233 and 
236 P. VI., and in about another minute, this cluster will follow. 
[" Larger stars in curves, with ruddy star near centre." Well.] 
["This nebula was also observed by Flamsteed." SirJ. HerscM.] 



190 
438. 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 
14 LYNCIS. (S. 063.) 



CCLXIII. 



E.A. 6 


43 


23 


Free. 


+ 


5-32 







/ 






n 


Decl. N 


59 


37 '6 





S 




Position. 


Distance. 




Epoch. 






o 


ff 






STRUVE, W. 






0.89 


... 


1830.88 


SMYTH 




50-0 


10 


... 


I833-3I 


SECCHI 




56-6 .. 


. 0-76 


... 


1857.20 


GLEDHILL 




64.1 .. 


. 0-7 


... 


1875-10 



A close double star, under the Lynx's eye; between Dubhe and 
Capella. A 5|, golden yellow; B 7, purple. This is one of 2/s 
pervicinoe, 

It is a very delicate and pretty object, and only seen with dark 
notches at intervals, being in contact in general, yet with the colours 
distinct. 

[A slight increase in angle and decrease in distance seems well 
established.] 



439. 678 Dunlop CANIS MAJOBIS. (h. 3065 ; H. 1463.) 

s. 

Free, -f- 2-12 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 6 46 5 



Decl. 3 35 52*9 



S 3-92 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"J B ; pL; i R ; g b M ; rr;" which means : " a globular cluster ; 
bright ; pretty large \ of an irregular round outline ; gradually brighter 
in the middle ; partially resolved some stars visible." 



440. 



59 AURIGA. (2. 974.) 



CCLXVI. 



K.A. 6 45 27 
Djjcl. N 39 O'l 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHBL,W. 216.9 

STRUVE, W. 222-6 
SMYTH 222.9 

FLAMMABION 224-1 



[ Free. + 

S 


4-13 

n 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


22 2 
22O 
22-2 


1782-85 
1831-11 
1833-10 

1877-8 



A delicate double star, between the Waggoner's left arm and the 
Lynx. A 6, pale yellow ; B n, livid. 



B, A. 6 h - 43**- 6*- 48- 191 

This star is certainly one of no easy measurement, but our results are 
Sufficiently strong to warrant the inference of a slow spnf, or direct 
angular motion. A glance from the Hyades through /3 Tauri, at the tip 
of the Bull's left horn, carried about 22 into the N.E., will strike upon 
3 small stars, of which the most northern is the one under discussion. 
This place will also be intersected by a line from Procyon through 
8 Geminorum; and by another from Orion's sword cluster, through 
the lowest star of the belt and a Orionis, and extended three times 
further towards the N.E. 

44L 27 IJJL VI. MONOCEBOTIS. (h. 413 ; H. 1465 ) CCLXVII. 



h. m. 



R.A. 6 46 7 
Decl. 3ST 35'3 



Free, -f 3-08 
S 4-01 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

... 1880.06 



A compressed cluster in the Via Lactea, on the Unicorn's neck. A 8|, 
pale straw-colour ; B pf , light grey. This object is broken into three 
several rich groups, occupying a very considerable space. Near the centre 
is the double star here observed, but, from having a small comes in the 
np quadrant, it ought rather to be registered triple. A trapezium of 
brighter stars follows ; and it is to be fished up about one-third of the 
distance between Procyon and /3 Orionis, where it is intersected by a 
transverse line from /3 Geminorum to about i "W. of /3 Canis Majoris. 

["Bright Galaxy cluster resembling 3 arms of a cross." 



442. 38 GEMINORUM. (2. 982 ) CCLXVIII. 



h. 



B.A. 6 48 26 
Decl. 1ST 13 19'1 



Free, + 3-38 
S 4-10 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



HERSCHEL,W. 179.9 ... 7-9 ... 1781-99 

STRUVE.W. 174.9 5'7 1829.24 

SMYTH 170-7 ... 5-8 ... 1839'! 7 

SECCHI 169.3 ... 6.1 ... 1856-11 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 163-6 ... 6-3 ... 1878-19 

A neat double star, on the left instep of Pollux. A 5 J, light yellow ; 
B 8, purple. This is a very fine object, and the colours so marked, that 
they cannot be entirely imputed to the illusory effect of contrast. A glance 
from /3 Orionis carried below the southern star of Orion's belt and 



192 



A Cycle of Celestial Oljects. 



prolonged rather more than twice as far again, till it meets a line cast 
between Procyon and {3 Tauri, will have just passed over it. 

[The angle is plainly diminishing and the distance increasing. 0. Struve 
suggests that I$.'s distance for 1781 is much too great. Smyth inferred a 
period of more than 2000 years.] 



443. 2 !$. VI. GEMINORTJM. (h. 415; H. 1467; 1?.) CCLXIX. 



h. m. 8. 

K.A. 6 48 51 
Bed. ET 18 7 2 



Prec, 



S 



3-50 

u 

4-12 



A compressed cluster, on the calf of Pollux's right leg, one third of 

the distance from J3 Geminorum to 
ft Orionis, on a line carried from the 
former star between the second and 
third " bullions " of Orion's belt to 
the latter. It is a faint angular- 
shaped group of extremely small 
stars say 12 th to 16^ magnitudes > 
which only under the most favour- 
able circumstances can I discern with 
satisfaction. The region around is 
immensely rich, and not at all want- 
ing in double stars. When best seen, it is something like the hasty 
sketch herewith given. 

[Engraved in Phil. Trans., 1833, PI. viii. Fig. 91 ; but that engraving 
is stated by the Parsonstown Observers to make the object look richer 
than it really is.] 




EIG. u. 2 $, VI. GEMINORUM. 



444. 



973 2. CAMELOPAEDI. 



h. Hi. S. 

K.A. 6 49 27 
Becl, N 75 28" 



STRUVE, W. 

MAIN 



Position. 

o 

26.7 



Prec. 4- 8-14 

S 4-30 

Distance. Eprcli 



1 1.9 
11.8 



1831.84 
1863-25 



A double star. A 7, white ; B 8, white. The annual displacement of 
this star in E,A. owing to precession is greater than that of any other 
object in this book. 



E. A. 6 h - 



193 



445. 



17 [7T 2 ] CAHIS MAJOEIS. 

fa. m. 8. 8 

B.A. 6 5O 18 



Decl. S 20 16-9 
Position. 



Free. + 2-59 
S 4-36 



Distance, 



Epoch. 



CCLXX. 



( AB 149.0 ... 45.0) 
SMYTH j A C 182-5 ... 52-5 | ... 1834-14 

(AD 185-0 ... 125.0 ] 

MAIN AB 146-5 ... 44-2 ... 1863.16 

A coarse quadruple star, on the chest of Canis Major ; where it is the 
middle one of three small stars, about 4| to the S.S.E. of Sirius. A 6, 
flushed white ; B 9^, ruddy; C [9^], ruddy; D [10], dusky. 
[Smyth's measures are nearly identical with South's in 1825.] 



446. 



fJL CANTS MAJOBIS. 

h. m. s. 

6 51 3 



B.A. 

Decl. S 13 54'2 



(2. 097.) 

9. 

Prec. -f 2-74 
4-53 



CCLXXI. 



S 



Position. Distance, Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE.W. 343-5 ... 3.22 ... 1831-20 

SMYTH 342-9 . . 3.5 ... 1834-15 

SEOCHI 338-9 ... -2-98 ... 1856-47 

DOBEBOK 342-2 ... 2-53 ... 1878-08 

A neat double star, on the Dog's right ear; where a line through 
Orion's belt will meet it, at nearly 4 N.E. of Sirius. A 5^, topaz yellow ; 



[There appears to be no change in the angle, but perhaps a slight 
decrease in the distance.] 



447. 



e CANIS MAJOEIS. 



B.A. 
Decl. 



h. 

6 



54 18 Prec. -f- 

S 28 49*3 S 

Position. Difference of B. A. 



SMYTH 



AC 84-5 
Position. 



MAOLEAB AB 160-4 
BURNHAM 160-2 



24.1 

Distance. 
H 

7-4 
7-4 



CCLXXIII. 



2-35 

n 
4-70 

Epoch. 

1834-83 
Epoch. 

1850-10 
1878-20 



A Nautical Almanac star with a distant companion, on the Greater 
Dog's body : it will be readily found by running a line from the middle 
of Orion's belt through /3, the bright star to the W. of Sirius, and 

o 



194 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

extending the same 14 further into the SE. quarter, A 2 j-, pale orange ; 

This star is called Adara, from al 'adhdra, the virgins ; o, ??, 8, and , 
on the shoulder, tail, and between the tail and legs. Adjacent to these 
Royer cut away a portion of Cam's Major, and constructed Colurnba 
Noachi therewith in 1679. The part thus usurped was called Muliphein, 
from al-muhlefein, the two stars sworn by, because they were often 
mistaken for Sohett, or Canopus, before which they rise : these two stars 
are now a and ft Columbse. The galley rhymes allude to Royer's 
robbery 

Where Cams Major, from the south, th' horizon moves above 
The stars that deck'd his hinder feet now form the Patriarch's Dove. 

448. 14 J$. VII. CASTES MAJORIS. (h. 422, 3070; H. 1479.) 

CCLXXII. 



h. m. 



R.A. 6 54 28 
Decl. S 13 33-0 



Free, -f 2-76 
S 4-13 



A tolerably compressed cluster at the back of the Greater Dog's head, 
principally composed of stars from the 8 th to the n til magnitudes, of 
which the four principal form the letter Y ; there are also some glimpse 
stars, but to no great extent. Yet to I$.'s powerful "ken" it appeared 
to be 20' in diameter in February, 1785. It may be fished up by first 
finding /*, the object above registered ; when it will appear in the n/ 
quadrant, well within a degree's distance. 

[" A region rich in stars." BrodieJ] 



449. 301 P. VI. LYNCIS. (2. 1009.) CCLXXIV. 

h. m. 8. a. 



R.A. 6 56 55 
Decl. N 52 55 '4 



Free, -f 4*79 
S 4-95 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HEBSCHEL,W, 167.4 ... 3-5 ... 1782.87 

STRWE, W. 159-2 ... 2-9 ... 1830.34 

SMYTH 159.4 ... 3.0 ... 1843.19 

SEOCHI 157.0 ... 3.4 ... 1858-27 

JEDEZEJEWICZ 156.4 ... 3-2 ... 1880-26 

A neat double star, on the animal's neck; where a ray conducted 
from Polaris to the W. of Castor passes over it at 35 from the pole, or 
rather more than half-way, on the line between ft Aurigse and ft Ursse 
Majoris, A 6, and B 6|- ? both white. The measures are more discordant 



K,A, 6 h - 54 m - 6 h - 57 m - 195 

than might have been expected, [but a slight decrease of angle seems 
probable]. 



450. , GEMINORUM. CCLXXV. 





h. 


m. 


S. 






S. 




B.A. 


6 


57 


35 


Prec. 


+ 


3 


56 






o 


/ 






// 




Decl. 


N 


20 


43*9 





S 


5 


-06 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 








c 


n 








HEBSCHEL, 


W. 


AB 


351-2 


91'8 


... 




1779.77 


BUENHAM 


j 


AB 


351-6 


... 93-6 


1 - 




1880-00 




( 


AC 


83-7 


... 87.2 


5 







A course triple star, on the right knee of Pollux. A 4, pale topaz ; B 8, 
violet j and C 13, grey. 

This star is called Mekbuda. It is easily seen on running a line between 
the cluster in Orion's sword and /3 Geminorum, for it passes over f at 9 
from the latter star ; and it is near the mid-distance between f Tauri, 
the tip of the 8. horn, and the Prsesepe in Cancer. 



451. 50 M. MONOCEEOTIS. (h. 425 ; H. 1483 ; ,) 

CCLXXVI. 



h. m. 



B.A. 6 57 41 
Decl. S 8 10 -7 



Prec. + 2-88 
S 5-06 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

SMYTH 170 ... 5 ... 1833-25 

A delicate and close double star in a cluster of the Via Lactea, on the 
Unicorn's right shoulder. A 8 and B 13, both pale white. This is an 
irregularly round and very rich mass, occupying with its numerous 
-outliers more than the field, and composed of stars from the 8 th to the ' 
i6 ttl magnitudes ; and there are certain spots of splendour which indicate 
minute masses beyond the power of my telescope. The most decided 
points are, a red star towards the southern verge, and a pretty little 
equilateral triangle of io th sizers, just below, or N. of it The double 
star here noted was estimated : this was made triple by H., whose 2357 of 
the Fifth Series it is. It is sufficiently conspicuous as a double star, and 
though I perceive an infinitesimal point exactly on the vertical of A, 
I cannot ascertain whether it is H.'s C. 

This superb cluster was discovered by Messier in 1771, and registered 
" a mass of small stars more or less brilliant." It is 9 N.N.E. of Sirius, 

2 



196 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

or rather more than one-third of the distance between that star and 
Procyon. 

452. 40 1$ . VIII. GEMINOBUM. (h. 432 ; H. 1490 ; ,) 



h. 



B.A. 7 39 
Decl. 3ST 27 21- 7 



Free, -f 3-74 
S 5-24 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; L ; v 1 C ; Scl inv; " which means : " a cluster ; large ; very little 
condensed ; there is a small cluster involved in the chief one." 

At Parsonstown on December 12, 1866, 50 stars large and small were 
counted in the finder. The small cluster is described as " neat and con- 
sisting of 6 or 7 stars close together and well isolated from the rest/' 
6 of them were of mags. 10-12, and there were one, or perhaps two, 
much smaller. 

453. 2640 Lao. CABINS. 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 71 33 
Decl. S 59 6'9 



Prec. + 0*92 

s 5-32 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEKSCHEL, J. 74-9 ... 2-40 ... 1836-22 

A double star, A 6^ ; B 7f . 

454. 33 $. VIII. MONOCEBOTIS. (H. 1498; 2. 1028.) 

CCLXXVII. 



h. 



B.A. 735 



o 



Decl. S 10 27-0 



Prec. -f 2-83 
S 5-46 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE,W. 302-3 ... 10-9 ... 1831-16 

SMYTH 300 ... 15 ... '1833.12 

A double star in a loose cluster, under the Unicorn's chest, and about 
8 N.E. of Sirius, in a direction pointed out by leading a line from 
a Tauri over y Orionis, and nearly twice as far again. A 9, yellow; B 12, 
dusky. This is a scattered group of stars, in an irregular lozenge form, 
and consists chiefly of three vertical rows, having four individuals in 
each; several are of the 9 th magnitude, and reddish. 

[" A region rich in stars, but hardly to be called a < cluster.' "Brodie.] 



B.A. 



yn. gfi 



197 



h. m. s. 

B,A. 7 3 55 
Decl. S 26 13-1 



BUENHAM 



Position. 

o 
224-1 



455. 8 CA3STIS MAJOBIS. CCLXXVIII. 

h. m. s. s. 

Prec. -f 2-44 

S 5-53 

Distance. Epoch. 

// 
265-9 ... 1880-00 

A star with a distant companion on the loins of Canis Major ; where 
a line from a Orionis to the S.S.E., through Sirius, intercepts it at 1 2 
below that star. A 3^, light yellow; B 7|, very pale; other small stars 
in the field, and np is the one mentioned by Piazzi, " Alia 9 ae magnitud. 
prsecedit 45-5" temporis, i' 48" ad boream." [Knott rates B at 9^, and 
suggests a misprint.] My observations are, of course, not sufficiently nice 
for an authority, but still they countenance the slight proper motion 
attributed to this star, both in R. A. and Declination. It is considered 
variable ; having been registered 2 nd magnitude by Hevelius, La Caille, 
and Brisbane ; i\ by Halley ; 3 by Ptolemy, Tycho, and Flamsteed ; and 
3^ by Piazzi and Johnson. 

b is called Wezen, al-wezn, weight, from appearing to rise with 
difficulty above the horizon, as if chained to the ground. The same 
sluggishness was applied to a and /3 Centauri, which 1000 years ago, 
under the 3O tb parallel of latitude, only obtained a meridian altitude of 
4. The mos general application, however, of the name will be found 
under Canis Majoris. 



456. 



CARING. (*h. 3941.) 



B.A. 



b. m. s. 

7 7 50 



Decl, S 60 12-5 

Position. 

o 
HEKSCHBL, J. 310-4 



Prec. 



Distance. 

tt 
0-81 



0-84 



Epoch. 
1836-92 



An exceedingly difficult double star. A 8 ; B 8J-. 



457. 



CANIS MAJOBIS. (*h. 3038.) 

s. 

Prec. + 2-53 



B.A. 7 9 10 



Decl. S 22 42*8 

Position. 

o 

HEKSCHEL, J. 252.6 
A double star. A 7! : B 84. 



Distance, 
1 8 erf. 



Epoch. 
1837-09 



198 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



458. 34 



. VIII. MONOCEEOTIS. (H. 1506 ; S. 1052.) 

CCLXXIX. 

h. m. s. s. 

7 9 20 Free. + 



B.A. 

Decl. 



S 10 5'7 

Position. 



STEUVE, W. 20-3 
SMYTH 22.0 
MAIN 21 -i 



Distance. 
* // 
19.9 

21-0* 

20-3 



6-07 

Epoch. 

1831-19 

I837-9 1 
1863-12 



A neat double star, on the following boundary of a loose cluster in the 
Galaxy, between the Unicorn and the Greater Dog's head. A 8, and 
B 8, both silvery white. This is a very rich field of stars, in the 
which is a brilliant oval mass, bounded by a sapphire-tinted 6 th 
magnitude star, in the sf quadrant, and the pair here measured a little 
N. of it. 

A line from /3 Geminorum, passed by /3 Canis Majoris to nearly as far 
again, will find this object posited 9 E.N.E. of Sirius. 



459. y Piscis VOLANTIS. 



B.A. 7 9 42 
Decl. S 70 19'2 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL, J. 301.3 

SANTIAGO OBS. 302.5 
A double star. A 5 ; B 7. 



Free. 


0-48 
6-0 

Epoch. 


Distance. 


12.8 
13-0 


1836.37 
1851*06 



460. 



A OEMUfOETTM. (S. 1061.) CCLXXX. 



h. m. s. 

K.A. 7 11 46 
Bed. N 16 44-3 

Position. 

o 
STEUVE, W. 30.9 

SMYTH 29.2 

BARCLAY 47-6 



Free, -f 

g 



Distance. 
// 

9-5 

10.3 

9-0 



3*45 

n 

6-18 
Epoch. 

1829.86 
1838.79 
1872-97 



A delicate double star on the left thigh of Pollux, about 12 on a line 
from Procyon towards /3 Aurigge, in the K.N.W., and rather less than a 
third of the distance between a Qeminorum and Sirius. A 4^, brilliant 
white; B n, yellowish. 

A Greminorum has been placfed on the variable class, but I could detect 



K. A. 7 h - 9 m - 7 h - 13 



ra. 



199 



no difference in its brightness as compared with 22 Monocerotis, v Orionis, 
and 2 Lyncis. 

[This star is not now considered to be variable.] 

461. 12 $. VII. CANIS MAJOBIS. (h. 440, 3078 ,* H. 1512.) 

CCLXXXIV. 

h. m. s. 8. 

7 12 51 



B.A. 

Decl. 8 15 26-5 



Free. 



g 



2-72 

// 

6-27 



A tolerably compressed but extensive cluster, on the boundary between 
the Unicorn and the Greater Dog. It consists of a singular group of very 
lucid specks, formed of stars nearly all of the io tb magnitude. The most 
compressed portion occupies a third of the field with power 66 ; and it 
is followed by a solitary yellowish star, of the 8 th magnitude. It can be 
fished up, under a moderately magnifying eye-piece, at 7^ W.N.W. of 
Sirius ; where an imaginary line from a Tauri passed over y Orionis will 
intersect it. 

[3/y Canis Majoris.] 



462. 



1061 2. CAMELOFABDI. 



B,A. 7 13 21 
Decl. 3ST 73 16'0 

Position. 



Free. + 7-37 

S 6-31 

Distance. Epoch. 



1.22 ) 
... 3I'I7 ) 

DEMBOWSKI AB 273.5 I '3 I 
A double star. A 7, white; B 9 ; 7. 



1831.86 
I878-25 



463. 



S GKEMINOBUM. (2. 1086.) COLXXXIII. 



B.A. 



h, m. s. 

7 13 33 



Free, -f- 3*59 



Decl. N" 22 11*3 


S 6-33 


Position. 


Distance. Epoch. 


o 


// 


SOUTH 195.4 


7.25 ... 1822-14 


STRUVE,W. 196.9 


7*15 ... 1829.72 


SMYTH 196.8 


7-2 ... 1838.92 


SECOHI 200*0 


7.16 ... 1856-11 


DOBEBCK 204.3 


7.37 ... 1878.09 



A Nautical Almanac star of the second rank, double, on the right hip 



200 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



of Pollux ; it is exactly half-way between the Praesepe and Tauri, on the 
tip of the Bull's S. horn, and nearly on the line from a Geminorum 
towards Sirius. A 3 J, pale white ; B 9, purple. This delicate object is 
rather troublesome to measure in distance, from disparity, but certainly 
with my instrument is not "one of the most difficult stars in the 
heavens." 

This star is known as "Wasat, from the Arabic al-wasat, the middle 
or centre. 

[A small increase in angle is certain, but the distance appears to be 
unchanged.] 



464. 



20 LY3STCIS. (S. 1065.) 



CCLXXXII. 



h. m. 8. 

RA. 7 13 51 
Bed. K" 50 19 '4 

Position. 

o 
STRUVE.W. 253-4 

SMYTH 253-3 

MAIN 253.1 

JEDEZEJEWICZ 253.9 



Free, -f 4*6 1 
S 6-32 



Distance. 

, 15-0 

15-2 
14.8 



Epoch. 



1835-39 
1862.31 
1878.29 



A neat double star, on the animal's chest ; and 16 E.N.E. of a Aurigse. 
A and B, both 7^, and silvery white. 

The relative fixity of these stars may be considered as established. 



465. 





19 LYNCIS. 


(2. 1062.) 




h. m. s. 




8. 


B.A. 


7 13 53 


Free. 


+ 4'93 




o / 




// 


TlArl 


TVT KK 9ft 'A 




Sx-. 


X/OV7JL. 


iH t/G aO U 

Position. 


Distance 


O jO 

E 




o 


ff 




HEBSCHEL,W. AB 316.9 


14-1 


... ij 


STBUVB, W. 


AB 313.8 


.. 14-7 


... 18 


SMYTH 


(AB 312.4 . 
(AC 358-2 . 


.. 1*6} 

215.2 ) 


... 18 


MAIN 


AB 312-5 . 


H-3 


... 18 



CCLXXXI. 



Epoch. 
782-86 



A coarse triple star, in the nape of the Lynx's neck, nearly in mid- 
distance of an imaginary line thrown from Polaris to Pollux. A 7, white ; 
B and C, both 8, and plum-coloured. 



RA. 



201 



466. 30 CANIS MAJOBJS. (17 $. VII; h. 441, 3077; H. 1513.) 

CCLXXXV. 

h. 

7 



K.A. 
Decl. 

SMYTH 
HEBSCHEL, < 



m. s. 

14 28 



8 24 45*2 

Position. 

A D 73.0 
JAB 85-8 
' (A< 



Free. + 

, g 

Distance. 
' 8.0 ) 



2-48 
6-38 



) 



Epoch. 

1834-83 
not stated. 



BUBNHAM 



7-8 
14-3 
84.4 



1880.20 



- C 73-3 
i AB 91*0 

]AC 80.3 

(AD 78-0 

A star with companions, in a rather large cluster, on the Greater Dog's 
back; where a line from y Orionis through Sirius, and 12 beyond, 
will find it. A 6^, white ; D 9. pale grey. The whole has a beautiful 
appearance, the bright white star A being surrounded by a rich gathering 
of minute companions, in a slightly elongated form, and nearly vertical 
position. 

[Sir J. Herschel's measures are taken from the Cape Obs., p. 191. He 
simply says : " Triple ; chief of a fine cluster." His mags, are 5|, 1 1, 
12. Its Cape number is 3948.] 



467. 



2779 Lac. CABI3SL9E. 



B.A. 7 17 42 
Decl. S 52 7'0 



HERSCHEL, J, 16-1 
SANTIAGO OBS. 28-3 



Free. + 1-45 
S 6-67 



Position. Distance. 



10-5 
8-2 



Epoch. 



1852-14 



A double star. A 6| ; By. This object points to a coarse double star 
7' or 8' distant. 



468. 35 13. VIII. PUPPIS. (h. 3080; H. 1621.) 



B.A. 7 18 54 
Decl. S 13 2*9 



Free. + 2-78 
S 6-77 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; v L ; p Bi ; 1C; st L ; " which means : " a cluster ; very krge ; 
pretty rich ; little condensed ; the stars are large." 

Engraved, Lassell, Mem. B. A. S., voL xxiii. PL ii. Fig. 9* 



202 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

469. 61 GEMINORUM, CCLXXXVI. 



B.A. 


h. m. 

7 19 


6 


Free. + 


s. 

3*54 




o 






n 


Bed. 


N 20 


287 


__ g 


6-87 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 






o 


^ 




BSCHEL, 


W. DC 


46.1 


6-2 .. 


1781-99 


iTTH 


JAB 
(DC 


no 
42.4 


... 60 ) 
... 6.5$ 


1835-83 


WES 


DC 


44.0 


... 6.5 .. 


1854.18 



A coarse double star pointing to a neat pair in the np quadrant, on 
the loins of Pollux, and about 2 to the S.E. of S Geminorum, the 
alignment of which has been given. A 7f , deep yellow ; B 9, yellowish ; 
C 8, blue ; D 9, bluish ; and besides these, the field is very rich in 
small stars. 

[Neither "Webb in 1855, nor Knott in 1861, could find a star answering 
to Smyth's B. Smyth's DC constitute 2. 1083.] 

470. T; CA3STIS MAJOEIS. CCLXXXVII. 



h. 



B.A. 7 19 44 
Decl. 8 29 5*3 



Prec. -f- 2-37 
S 6-83 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o " 

SMYTH 285 .,, 169 ... 1833-83 

BURNHAM 285 ... 178-6 ... 1880-03 

A star with a distant companion, at the root of .the Greater Dog's 
tail; where an imaginary line from the 3 small stars forming Orion's 
head, passed through Sirius, will strike it at 17 beyond. A 3, pale red ; 
B 7|>, dull grey ; two small stars following. A is called Aludra, from 
the Arabian al-adhrd, which is the singular of al-'adhdra. (See e Canis 
Majoris.) 

According to the Megale Syntaxis, Hipparchus found that the solstitial 
colure passed through the caudine star of the Greater Dog, which 
appears to have occasionally served, by its arrival at the meridian, 
to indicate the zero for reckoning the hours ; its EA,, which was then 
exactly 90, rendering it convenient for that purpose. If the longitude 
assigned by Hipparchus to this star be compared with its present place, 
the annual precession will be 50- 7"; and both the theory of gravitation 
and the deductions of modern operations coincide in indicating 50. i" as 
the mean annual value. This will very nearly agree with the Platonic 
year, or complete revolution of the equinoxes in 25,920 years, as given 
by Kicciolus and approved by Flamsteed, at the rate of a degree in about 



B.A. 



203 



72 years. Well may Hipparchus be dubbed the Presses of ancient 
astronomers ! (See a Leonis.) 



471. 



2801 Lac. PUPPIS. (*h. 3966.) 

S. 

Prec. -f 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 7 20 53 



Decl. S 37 3-9 

Position, 
o 

HERSCHEL, J. 140-9 
A double star. A 7|; B 7^, 



1 2 



S 6-93 

Distance. Epoch, 

, 7-o ... 1835.96 



472. 



640 Sou. GEMI3STOEUM. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 7 21 6 
Decl. 1ST 22 22 2 

Position. 

o 
SOUTH 275.9 



Free. + 3-59 
S 6.95 

Distance. Epoch. 

// 

35.6 ... 1825-09 



"Webb thus describes this object : " A fine pair, 7 J, 9 ; red, blue ; 
about 40' N. of 63, a 6^ mag. star with a minute attendant, which is 2 
f 6, a little S." 



473. 



/3 CA3STIS MINOBIS. 



h. m. s. 

K.A. 7 21 11 
Decl. N 8 30-6 



Position. 



BtJRNHAM 



( A C 310-1 



CCLXXXIX. 



Prec. + 


3-26 


g 


6'94 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


122.3) 
138.8 ( "' 


1880-00 



A wide triple star, on Procyon's neck ; rather better than 4 to the 
N.N.W. of its lucida, where its magnitude readily points it out. A 3, 
white ; B 12, orange ; C 10, flushed; the last is coarsely double with one 
of the same magnitude, and there are other stars in the field, of which 
the white one preceding is that alluded to by Piazzi, " Alia 8 ae mag- 
nitudin, prsecedit 43" temporis, 2^ circiter ad boream." The large 
individual is named Gomeisa, from al-ghomeisd, watery-eyed ; and it is 
Al'Mirzam, one of the "roarers," mentioned under /3 Canis Majoris. 



204 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



474. 



63 aEMINOBTJM. 



CCLXXXVIII. 



B,A. 7 21 13 
Decl. N 21 40 '4 



Free. 



S 



3-57 

6-90 



Position. 



Distance. 



SMYTH 
MAIN 



Epoch. 

O II 

325.0 ... 50 ... 1831-95 
324.3 ... 44.6 ... 1863.17 

A wide double star on the back of Pollux ; following b Geminorum, 
within 2, about E. by S. A 6, yellow; B [n], reddish, and with two 
telescopic stars in the sp quadrant they form a regular curve. The 
results lead to the inference that these stars are only optical neighbours. 



475. 44 $. VIII. CANIS MINOBIS. (H. 1533.) 



h. m. s, 

B.A. 7 22 39 
Decl. N 7 15-5 



Free. 



+ 
S 



3*23 

7-07 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; L; P; vlC; stL;" which means: '-a cluster; large; poor; 
very little condensed ; the stars are large," 



476. 45 $. IV. GEMINOBUM. (h.450; H.1532; M.) CCXC. 



K.A. 7 22 41 



Decl. 



21 8-1 



Free, -f 3-56 
S 7-09 



Position. 
o 
2-4 



Distance. 



Epoch. 

KNOTT 2-4 ... 100. ... 1864.96 

A star enveloped in an atmosphere, with a distant companion on the 
loins of Follux. A 7^, greyish white; B 8, dusky blue; ["a third star 
12\ mag. in np quadrant." Knotty] other stars following. This was 
observed by 1$. in 1787, as a "star of the 9 th magnitude, with a pretty 
bright nebulosity, equally dispersed all around. A very remarkable 
phenomenon." H. describes it as "a star of the 8^ magnitude, exactly in 
the centre of an exactly round bright hemisphere 25" in diameter." The 
beauty of this is, in great measure, lost to my instrument, for I could 
only bring it to bear as a burred star : it lies about 2 to the E.S.E. of b 
Geminorum, whose alignment is already treated of. ( See MTo. 463.) 

[Webb finds the nebulosity to be much easier than Smyth's account 
led him to expect. The Earl of Eosse saw the star surrounded by a small 
circular nebula in which, close to the star, was a little dark spot. This 



R. A. h ' 2i m h - 2 m - 205 



nebula was encompassed first by a dark and then by a luminous ring, 
bright and flickering. Brodie simply says : " Very curious in 8^ n re- 
fractor." Knott reverses the magnitudes of A and B. Fletcher asserted 
confidently that A is variable. In April, 1865, he saw it no brighter than 
a io th mag. star.] 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1850, PL xxxviii. Fig. 15; Lassell, Mem. 
R. A.., vol. xxiii., PL ii. Fig. 6.] 

477. 116 P. VII. MONOCEROTIS. (2. 1097.) CCXCI. 



h. 


m. 


a. 




S. 


R.A. 7 


22 


42 


Prec. + 


2-82 




o 


/ 




// 


Decl. S 


11 


20-0 


S 


7-09 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 






o 


// 




STRUVE, W. 


AC 


312-2 


2O-2 


1832-15 


MAIN 


AC 


311-2 


... 20.5 ... 


1863.14 


DEMBOWSKI 


AB 


166.3 


0-80 ... 


1875-52 


BURNHAM j 


AD 
AE 


157-3 
41.4 


- '3-4 * ... 

31-0 ) 


1878-14 



A delicate [quintuple] star, under the Unicorn, where a line from /3 Canis 
Majoris, led through Sirius about n to the E.N.E., will meet it. 
A 7, yellow; [B 8; C 9; D. 10; E. 13]. 

This object is close to the gap in the fanciful boundary which marks 
out Argo's northern limb on our maps ; which gap cuts a narrow slice of 
about 13 long by i broad, right through the body of Monoceros, in 
order to catch up a star pertaining to Canis Minor, which Flarasteed, by 
some mistake, registered as 13 Navis. A and C point upon a distant 
telescopic group in the np. [AB = ]3 332.] 

478. 11 $. VIII. GEMINORTTM. (H. 1534; &.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 7 22 53 
Decl. Of 13 59 '6 



Prec. 



S 7-10 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
** Cl ; p Ri ; C /' which means : " a cluster ; pretty rich ; compressed/' 
On Feb. 22, 1867, at Parsonstown there were counted 70 stars nearly 
contained in one field i6 r in diameter, about 10 of them being of the II th 
mag. and the rest smaller. 

479, 36 $. VIII. PUPPIS. (h. 451; H. 1535.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 7 23 2 



o 



Decl. S 11 31'1 



Prec. + 2-82 

n 

S 7-11 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 



206 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



"Cl; vL; vlC;" which means : " a cluster ; very large; very little 
compressed." 



480. 



1104 S. PUPPIS. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 7 24 22 Prec. -j- 

Dec! S 14 45*1 - S 

Position. Distance. 

O H 

STBUVE,W. 292-4 ... 2-35 . 

DEMBOWSKI 312-3 ... 2-21 . 

WILSON and SEABROKE 314-0 ... 2-55 . 

STONE, 0. 318-3 ... 2-29 . 

A double star. A 7, white ; B 9, white. 
An increase in the angle seems certain. 



2-74 
7-22 



Epoch. 

1834-88 
1864-50 
1874-17 
1878-44 



481. 



124 P. VII. PUPPIS. 



b. m. s. 

B.A. 7 24 38 


Prec. + 


2-30 


/ 




^ 


Decl. S 31 37'6 




7*25 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 





if 




HEKSCHEL, J. 51-8 


9-6 


1836.91 


STONE, 0. 51.9 


9-4 


1877.20 


A double star. A 6 ; B 7 J. 






482, 1108 2. GEMDSTOBUM. 


h. m. s. 




i. 


B.A. 7 26 15 


Prec. + 


3-61 


o / 




it 


Decl. T* 23 7 '8 


1 S 


7-38 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


O 


H 




STRUVE, W. 179-1 


. n-5 


1827.27 


BUENHAM 179-5 


. 11.5 


1879.23 



A double star. A 7, yellowish white; B 9, bluish. 



483. 



h. m. s. 

B.A, 7 26 45 



S. CANIS MINOBIS. 

Prec. + 



Deol. N 8 33*2 



S 



3-26 

// 

7-40 



A red and variable star discovered by Hind in 1856. The magnitude 
ranges from 7^ to below 12. As regards colour, Hind terms it "fiery;" 



RA. 



,207 



Winnecke "stark roth;" Vogel simply "roth." Schonfeld thinks that 
the period, which is usually set down at 332^, is diminishing. 



484. 



a (3-EMINOBUM. (2. 1110.) 



CCXCII. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 7 27 35 
Decl. N 32 7'8 



Free. + 3-85 
S 7-48 



Position, Distance. 



HERSCHEL, W. AB 302-8 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH AB 267-1 

SMYTH 

MADLER 

JOHNSON 

MAIN 

TALMAGE 

DOBERCK 

JEDRZEJEWTCZ 



5-16 

5-35 



JAB 258-8 


... 4-7 ) 


(AC 162-0 


... .72-9 J 


AB 252.8 


... 4-88 


AB 245-7 


... 5-07 


AB 240-8 


... 5-5 1 


AB 240.5 


... 5-65 


AB 235-1 


... 5'55 


I A B 234-6 


5-64 ) 


(AC 164-0 


... 73-*8) 



Epoch. 

1778-27 
1821-21 

1830-95 

1841-11 
1850.21 
1861-13 

'870-35 
1878-11 

1878-21 



A Nautical Almanac star, and well-known binary, in the head of 
Castor, and about half way between a Leonis and a Tauri. A 3, bright 
white ; B 3^, pale white ; C [9], dusky, and there is another very small 
acolyte at a distance, in the sp quadrant of the field, [which however 
appears to have no physical connection with the primary : at least the 
alteration in angle and distance are so small in -| a century as to seem 
accidental]. 

In order to arrive at some deductions, Sir J. Herschel gathered together 
all the observations he could rely upon, it being a question he was deeply 
interested in, because, he says, Castor is " the largest and finest of all 
the double stars in our hemisphere, and that whose unequivocal angular 
motion first impressed on my father's mind a full conviction of the reality 
of his long cherished views on the subject of the binary stars." By the 
alignments of Pound and Bradley, he was able to carry the angle back for 
upwards of 100 years; and by computations as careful as the then 
state of the subject would allow, he deduced a period of 253?. "This 
star," he added, " seems on the point of undergoing, within the ensuing 
twenty-four years [from about 1830], a remarkable change similar to 
that of which y Virginis has already furnished a striking instance during 
the last century, and passing from a distant double star of the second 
class to a close one of the first, and ultimately to one of extreme closeness 
and difficulty, such as only the very finest telescopes, with all the 
improvements we may expect in them, will be capable of showing 



208 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



otherwise than single." But there are some orbital anomalies still in 
the way. 

[The orbit of Castor has been subjected to the careful attention of a 
large number of experienced observers and computers since Admiral 
Smyth wrote the foregoing paragraph. A very full statement of the 
work done is given by Gleclhill in the Handbook of Double Stars. Suffice 
it to say here that Thiele's orbit in Ast. Nach., No. 1227, vol. li., appears 
to be the best yet arrived at. His period is 9p6y. Moreover it may 
be mentioned that all the more recent results ascribe to Castor a period 
much in excess of that assigned by the earlier investigators. For 
instance, "Wilson gives 982^, and Doberck iooiy. I give Thiele's and 
Doberck's orbits side by side for comparison : 



Thiele. 



Doberck. 



= 31 58 

= 294 o 
= 42 5 
= 0-34382 
= 21.66" 
= 7.53" (for 1850) 
= 1750.326 
= 996.85?" 


27 46 
267 13 

44 33 
0-3292 

7-43" (*>r 1 850), 
1 74975 
iooi-2iy rs 



ir Longitude of peri-astron . 

3 Longitude of Ascending Node 

X Peri-astron from Node on orbit 

y Inclination .... 

Eccentricity .... 

n Mean Annual Motion 

a Semi-axis major 

T Peri-astron passage 

Period ..... 

The distance of AB seems to have reached its maximum about 1872, 
and a diminution is probably now going on.] 

Using Herschers bow, albeit with hardly vigour to bend it, I attempted 
an orbit of this revolver, notwithstanding I soon found that the values 
of its annual changes are violently discordant. The projection brought 
out an ex-centricity of 0-7781, an inclination =70 36', and a period of 
240 years ; the last condition being obtained by H.'s novel and ingenious 
process of cutting out the graphic orbit from card-board, and weighing 
both it and its requisite sectors in a balance. These are the previous 
angles used : 



Bradley and Pound 
Bradley and Maskelyne 
Herschel, W. 
Herschel, W. 
Stnive 
Herschel, J. 
Herschel, J., and South 



Position, 
o f 
355 53 
323 
293 
284 



47 
3 



270 
264 



o 

59 



Epoch. 

1719-84 
1759-80 
178364 
1800-27 
1813.83 
1816-97 
1823.11 



Bradley appears to have made his estimations upon the parallelism 
of the line of direction of the pair, to that joining Castor and Pollux, in 
1759, "at all times of the year," evidently intending to notice whether 
any annual oscillation might be observed. This induced Eoger Long, 
Lowndes's Professor of Astronomy at Cambridge, to attack Castor with 



R. A. 7*. 27* 209 

telescopes of I4 ft and 17^ in length, with a view to carrying out 
Galileo's suggestion on parallax; but the prospect of success s6on 
became so hopeless, that he was " persuaded the stars would always be 
found to appear the same." This gentleman was more happy in the 
construction of an enormous astronomical machine the very A 1 of 
orreries at Pembroke College. It is a hollow sphere, about eighteen 
feet in diameter, with its polar axis parallel to the mundane axis, 
upon which it is readily turned by a winch and rack -work ; thus it can 
be made to revolve, while about 30 persons conveniently attend a 
scientific lecture in the interior, and contemplate the orderly march 
of the constellations painted on the moving concavity above them, 
the stars being pierced through the metal according to the several mag- 
nitudes, so that the light penetrates and each assumes a curious radiated, 
or rather stellated form. This sphere was completed, with considerable 
expense as well as ingenuity, in 1758; but although 6 per annum 
is allowed to a keeper, who is generally an undergraduate, it was suffered 
to fall so much out of order as to mar the projector's intention of 
popularising astronomy ; and many a good man and true has lived and 
learned in Cambridge, without even being aware of its existence. Of 
this I could tell a story or two, but shall only add, that it was lately 
brushed up a bit ; and I had the satisfaction of being on its floor with a 
party of Cambridge savants of the first magnitude, in whom the shade of 
Long must have delighted. 

Aidvpoi, -Gemini, Tindaridee, or Gemelli, is the third constellation 
of the zodiac, and one of the ancient 48 ; lying nearly mid-way between 
Orion and the Great Bear, in a region long viewed as the centre of the 
heavens. Among the Orientals it was represented as a pair of kidp, 
denoting that part of spring when these animals appear ; but the Greeks 
changed them to two children with their feet on the Galaxy ; and the 
Arabians, whose tenets prohibited the human form in delineations, 
afterwards altered them to a couple of peacocks. Paulus Venetus, and 
the early Venetian illustrators of Hyginus, represent them as two winged 
angels. Among the ancients every sign had its tutelary deity, and 
Phoebus had charge of Gemini, which gave rise to the astrological jargon 
about the connection between the sun and this asterism ; to the disparage- 
ment of the latter, for many inuendos are on record, and we are told, in 
the manuscript Almanac of 1386, that whoever happens to be born under 
the aerial triplicity of the Twins, shall be " ryght pore and wayke, and 
lyf in mykul tribulacion." 

Astronomers, however, view it in a different light; for though it is 
not splendidly conspicuous nor thickly studded, it is fine, and contains 
bright individuals, which, with its numerous double stars, clu&ters, and 
nebulae, render it interesting and important ; and, from its being the sign 



210 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

of St Paul's ship, we see that it was esteemed propitious by ancient 
mariners. It has been thus tabulated : 



Ptolemy . . 
Copernicus . 
Tycho Brah($ 
Kepler . . 


. 25 stars. 
25 
29 

. 30 


Bayer . . 
Hevelius 
Flamsteed . 
Bode. . . 


. . 33 stars. 

. . 38 
85 



To know this star by alignment is easy, as a ray from /3 Orionis, led 
through , the middle star of Orion's belt, and under a Orionis, will, at 
about twice that distance further on, rest upon Castor : or, if taking the 
poetaster's advice : 

From gamma on the Great Bear's flank let a long ray be cast, 

.Conduct it under Merak's blaze to south-west regions vast; 

Across the Lynx to Gemini this line will thus be led, 

And carried further on will reach bright Betelgeuze the red. 



485. 37 $. VIII. PUPPIS. (h. 455; H. 1545.) 



h. 



B.A, 7 28 10 



o 



Bed. 8 15 12-5 



Free. + 2-73 
S 7.52 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; P ; 1C; st 9 &c. ;". which means : " cluster ; poor ; little com- 
pressed ; consists of stars from mag. 9 downwards." 



486, 52 1$. VIII. MONOCEROTIS. (H. 1544; M.) CCXCIII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 7 28 12 



o 



Decl. 8 12 48*3. 



Prec. + 2-79 
S 7-54 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



STRUVE, W. BC 140-2 ... 12-4 ... 1830.71 

The principal star of a loose Galaxy cluster, under the Unicorn, 
and pointing to a double star in the np, on an angle 288 and A R. A. 
1 4- 5 s . A 7, faint yellow; B and C, both 10, and both dusky; the two 
latter point to a 9*^ magnitude star preceding them by about 6 s , and the 
field contains the cluster and its outliers, with several 8 th magnitudes 
grouped near the centre. It maybe fished up by dropping a line from 
/3 Geminorum close by the W. side of Procyon, and extending it 19 to 
the S., where it stands 1 2 E.N.E. of Sirius. [B C form 2. 1 1 1 5.] 



B. A. 7 11 * 27- 7 h ' 3i m - 211 

487. 149 P. VII. PUPPIS. CCXCIV. 



h. 

7 


m. s. 

29 40 


Free. + 


8. 

2-54 


S 


23 14-1 


o 


7-64 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


0. 


284.9 - 
108-8 
107.9 


. 9-0 ... 
8-7 ... 
. 9'0 ... 


1825-01 
1856.2 
1879-1 



K.A. 

Decl. 



SOUTH 
SEOCHI 
STONE, 0. 

A neat double star in the Galaxy, over the aplustre of the Argo's 
poop; where a line sent from /3 Geminorum through Procyon, and 28 
beyond, will hit it; as will a cross line from Orion's sword-cluster 
carried through Sirius, and 14 into the S.E. quarter. A and B, both 6, 
and both topaz- tin ted. 

[Webb notes the p star to be the larger of the two.] 

488. 38 1$. VIII. PUPPIS. (h. 459, 3088 ; H. 1551 ; 

Star =2. 1121.) CCXCVI. 



h. 



K.A. 7 31 33 






Decl. S 14 14-3 



Prec. -f 2-76 

S 7-80 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HERSCHEL,W. 300-2 ... 6-5+ ... 1782.78 

STRUVE, W. 304.7 ... 7.4 ... 1831.44 

SMYTH 303-8 ... 8-0 ... 1834*21 

STONE, O. 304.4 ... 7.3 ,. % 1878.65 

A double star in a loose cluster of the Milky "Way, over the Argo's 
stern ; and one of those seized by Bode to make his Officina Typogra- 
phica. A 7-|, and B 8, both bright bluish white. It inhabits a very 
splendid field of large and small stars, disposed somewhat in a lozenge- 
shape, and preceded by a J tn magnitude with a companion about 20" 
nf it. A is otherwise known as 34 Officinae Typographies. 

To fish this object up, run a line about 12 E. by N. from. Sirius, and 
intersect it by another from ft Geminorum through Procyon, and con- 
tinued 20 lower down. It is in a very rich vicinity. 



489. CABINS. (*h, 3984.) 

h. m. &. 8. 



B.A. 7 31 35 
Decl. S 54 55-8 



Prec. -f- 1-32 
S 7*80 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HERSCHEL,J. If* 3 '*' 3 "' I*** *" I 36 ' 16 
(AC 258-0 ... 64-5 ... 1847.54 

A triple star. A 7; B 14; C 8. 

P 2 . 



212 A Cycle of Celestial Objects, 

490. 1$.VI. GEMmORTTM. (h. 468; H. 1549; K.) CCXCV. 

h. m. s. . 



B.A. 7 31 55 
DecL W* 21 49-3 



Free. + 3'57 
S 7-90 



*'A compressed cluster under the left shoulder of Pollux; and rather 
more than one-third of the distance from /3 Geminorum to )3 Canis 
Minoris, following 6 Geminorum nearly on the parallel, at about 4. 
This was described by 1$. as a "beautiful cluster of many large and 
compressed small stars, about 1 2' in diameter/' My telescope only shows 
a faint mass of very small stars, inclining from sp to nf, but of indistinct 
figure, the objects being from the io ttl to the 16^ magnitude. 

[Sir "W. HerscheFs diameter would seem to have been exaggerated, for 
at Parsonstown it was only described as " perhaps 5' or 6' in diameter."] 

491. a CANIS MI3STOBIS. CCXCVIII. 

h. m. s, s. 



R.A. 7 33 33 
Becl. Ifl" 5 30 '5 



Prec. -f 3-19 
S 7-96 



A Nautical Almanac star with companions, on the loins of the Lesser 
Dog. A i^, yellowish white. A is a splendid star, though very con- 
siderably less bright than Sirius, which accounts for the latter being 
called the Greater Dog, quite as well as the assigned reason, as to rising 
time. Authorities have differed as to Procyon's magnitude ; Ptolemy and 
Hevelius designating it i, Tycho Brah6 2, and most of the others i|. 

[Astronomers have detected several companions to Procyon. The 
oldest is Flamsteed's, observed in 1692. Of the other companions the 
following particulars are on record : 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

LAMONT AB 262-3 ... 56.5 ... 1836-7 

KOMBEEO " 294-9 45' 8 1863-2 

NEWOOMB 311-8 ... 44.5 ... 1874-0 

BURNHAM 320-7 ... 44-7 ... 1879-7 

SMYTH AC 85-0 ... 145 ... 1838-8 

POWELL 83-8 ... 326-6 ... 1855$ 

SECCHI 83-6 ... 333-2 ... 1856-2 

DEMBOWSKI 81-2 ... 342-3 ... 1874-2 

FLAMMARION 80-5 ... 346-5 ... 1877-2 

POWELL A D 282-1 ... 384-3 ... X 855'9 

DEMBOWSKI 285-3 373- 2 1877-2 

FLAMSTEED AE 116 ... 588 ... 1692 

POWELL 99-7 ... 643 ... 1860 

DEMBOWSKI 98-5 ... 650 ... 1874 

FLAMMARION 96-8 ... 652 ... 1877 

The nearest star, B, was discovered at the Munich Observatory nearly 

half a century ago, and independently in later times by Davves and 




B. A. ; h - 31' 7 h - 33 m - 213 

others. The distance of the Smyth star, like many others of this 
the " Bedford Catalogue," is largely in error, and at one time 
thought to furnish an instance of the disappearance of a star, 
detection of many similar errors on the part of Smyth has renderecfipRs 
very improbable. This star was found by Bird of Birmingham in iS'J? 
to be a close double star, with a minute distant attendant, of mag, 13. 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o N 

DEHBOWSKI C a 182-6 ... 0-79 ... 1872.90 

BURNHAM 187-6 ... 0-86 ... 1879-10 

BuRNHAMCb 335-2 ... 36-53 ... 1880-18 

The distent star, E, is S. 1126 (No. 492). The change shown by tlu 
measures of all these distant stars is due to the proper motion of Procyon. 

Some American observers have suspected other companions to Procyon. 
The following are particulars of the stars noted at Washington : 
Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O It 

American A 10 ... 6 ... 1876-03 
American B 36 ... 8-8 ... 1876-03 

American C 50 ... 10 ... 1876-03 

Two more were suspected, one of them at Pos. 325+ with a distance 

of 10". 

I pass over 0. Struve's " star," found afterwards by its a discoverer" to 
be a " ghost." 

Gledhill, who has gone very fully into the history of Procyon in the 
Handbook of Double Stars, gives a good deal of information which will 
not be found to square very well with what is stated here, but I have 
Burnham's authority for all that I have &aid.] 

Hunters after parallax will recollect tbat this is one of those stars 
upon which Piazzi bestowed such labour to detect the angle which the 
mean diameter of the Earth's orbit subtends from them, as related in the 
xiith volume of the Italian Society's Memoirs ; and that an infinity of 
observations induced him to assign 3"+ as the value of Procyon. It has 
also a large proper motion in space; which Argelander values at 0-69" 
in B, A., and - 105" in Decl. 

Canis Minor, though a small asterism, is one of the old 48, and, as 
well as its lurida, was called UpoKvw, Ihe precursor-dog, because it 
appeared in the morning dawn before Sirius : though Jacob Bryant 
persists that the Greek filched the word from the Egyptian Pur Cohen. 
Hence also its name of Ante-Canis ; and it was popularly considered as 
Orion's second hand, or Canicula. The Arabians recognised its quality of 
forerunner to the Dog-star in al-kelb-al-mwtekaddem, the antecedent dog. 
The constellation was one of much interest, and the regard of the ancients 
descended to the astrologers of later ages. "What meteoroscoper," 



214 A Cycle of Celestial* Objects. 

demands old Leonard Digges, "yea, who learned in matters astronomical, 
noteth not the great effects at the rising of the starre called the Litel Dogge f 
This constellation stands to the N.E. of the Greater Dog, so that the 
Milky "Way passes between them ; and under Gemini. They were 
anciently in closer connection, but the intrusion of Monoceros between 
them, by Hevelius, has parted them. The number of stars given to this 
asterism, in successive Catalogues, has been as follows : 

Ptolemy .... 2 stars. Bayer .... 8 stars. 
Hyginus . . . . 3 Hevelius .... 13 
Tycho Brah . . . 5 Flamsteed ... 14 
Kepler 5 Bode 55 

Procyon is a member of the magnificent equilateral triangle formed 
in conjunction with Sirius and a Orionis, as well as a right-angled one 
with a Orionis and /3 Geminorum. A perpendicular raised at Sirius to a 
line drawn from that star to Orion's belt will also pass through Procyon 
to the northward ; or, as the alignment is expressed : 

Orion's belt from Taurus' eye, leads down to Sirius bright, 

His spreading shoulders guide you East, 'bove Procyon's pleasing light. 

492. 170 P, VII. CANIS MIDORIS. (2. 1126.) CCXCIX. 

h. m. s. g. 



B.A. 7 34 17 
Decl. 1ST 5 29'1 



Prec. 4- 3 IJ 9 
S 8-14 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o tt 

HERSCHEL, J. l Z Qi l I> 4 1826-18 

SMYTH 132.9 ... 1-4 ... 1833-22 

STRUVE, 0. 138-2 ... 1-13 ... 1850-26 

WILSON and SEABKOKE 139-9 I *59 1876*22 

A close double star, in a fine vicinity on the loins of the Lesser Dog, 
closely sf Procyon. A 7, white ; B 8, ash-coloured, with a minute blue 
star preceding it about 2', and another of the n tn magnitude in the 
8%) quadrant. This very pretty star resembles rj Coronse, but is smaller ; 
and to see it well, we are directed by Ijl. to observe it when Procyon is 
near its meridian altitude. The components of this object are both close 
and oblique, which may account for the results of the several astrometers 
being rather discordant. Though a direct and increasing angular motion 
must be inferred, [the distance seems unchanged in 50 years]. 

493. 46 #. VIII. PUPPIS. (H. 1557.) CCC. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 7 34 25 
Bed. S 16 7*0 



Prec. -f 2-72 
S 8-16 



A loose cluster outlying the Galaxy, over the Argo's stern, where a 



E. A. ;h- 33 m. _ 7 h. 35 m. 2,15 

ray led from a-Leporis between /3 Canis Majoris and Sinus, and as far 
again beyond, will strike upon it j and a line from a Geminorura parsed 
| to the W. of Procyon, and extended 22 beyond, also picks it up. It 
comprises a rich field of scattered stars, with occasional glows of stai- 
dust, so that the magnitudes may range from 9 to 16, and smaller still; 
and the stragglers run into the S.S.E, quarter, where is the crowded 
group 47 1$. VIII. [ = H. 1556]. It was discovered by 1$, on the last 
evening of the year 1785. 

About a minute preceding this object, and i| to the N"., is a small faint 
cluster, which is probably 87 1$. VIII. [H. 1553], described by Sir 
William as consisting of small stars, and not rich, 

[A locality abounding in stars, but I cannot see any "cluster" properly 
so called." Brodie.] 

494. 175 P. VII. PUPPIS. COOL 



h. 



R.A. 7 34 30 







Deel. S 26 33' 



Free. + 2-46 



8.17 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

DUNLOP 315-8 ... 8-7 ... 1826.5 
JACOB 318-9 ... IO.O ... 1846.2 

STONE, O. 318-1 ... 9.9 ... 1878-2 

A neat double star, in the corymbus of the Argo's oupa, or poop ; 
where it may be picked up by a line from the lowest star in Orion's belt, 
through Sirius, and 19, or nearly as far again, beyond. A and B, both 
6^, and both topaz-yellow ; but the tinge which it exhibited under 
observation may be owing to its low altitude. 

[Webb suggests that these 2 stars are brighter than the components of 
170 P. VII. Argo Navis, as if the mags, had been accidentally trans- 
posed.] 

495. 159 P. VII. CAMBLOPABDI. (S. 1122.) CCXCVII. 



B.A. 7 35 26 
Decl. N 65 24 '9 



Free, + 5-78 
S 8-18 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

o u 

STBUVE,W. 4-8 ... 15-4 ... 1830-59 
SMYTH 47 ... 15-6 ... 1839.27 

A neat double star, in front of the Greater Bear's head; where a 
line run from a Aurigse through 8 in Auriga's head, and extended 15 to 
the N.E., will meet it. A and B, both 8, and both white. In a rich 
neighbourhood This is a fine object, and its fixity is established. 



216 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



496. 40 M. PUPPIS. (h. 463 ; H. 1564.) CCCII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 7 36 47 
Decl. S 14 27-3 



Free. + 2.75 
S 8-21 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH 90 ... 15 ... 1836-24 

A very delicate double star in a fine cluster, outlying the Galaxy, 
over the Argo's poop. A 8-J-, and B n, both pale white. A noble 
though rather loose assemblage of stars from the 8 tlj to the 1 3 tn magni- 
tudes, more than Ming the field, especially in length, with power 93 ; 
the most compressed part trending sf and np. This was discovered by 
Messier in 1769, who considered it as being "rather enveloped in nebu- 
lous matter ;" this opinion, however, must have arisen from the splendid 
glow of the mass, for judging from his own remark, it is not likely that 
he perceived the extremely faint planetary nebula on the N. (39 I}jL IV. 
h. 464, 3093 ; H. 1565). 1$., who observed it in 1786, expressly says, 
" no connection with the cluster, which is free from nebulosity." Such is 
my own view on attentively gazing ; but the impression left on the senses, 
is that of awful vastness and bewildering distance, yet inducing the 
opinion, that those bodies bespangling the vastness of space may differ 
in magnitude arid other attributes. 

In the following field there is a coarse pair of 7 tn magnitude stars, 
lying sf and np of each other. 

[The planetary nebula mentioned above is " annular" according to the 
Earl of Hosse and Lassell. Engraved, Phil. Trans. , 1850, PL xxxviii. 
Fig. 15 ; Lassell, Mem. R.A. S. 9 vol. xxiii. PL ii. Fig. 5.] 



497. 1127 2. CAMELOPABDI. 



K.A. 

Decl. 


h. 

7 
K" 


m. 

36 

o 

64 


49 
190 

Position. 


Prec. 


+ 

8 

ice. 


s. 

5 

n 

8 


65 

22 
I 


Distar 



Epoch. 



340.3 



A triple star. A 6, very white ; B 8, ashy ; C 10. 



R. A. 7 ]l - 36 m 7 



h. 



217 



h. m. a. 

B.A. 7 36 59 
Decl. S 17 56-6 



498. 64 IjL IV. PUPPIS. (h. 3095; H. 1567; &.) 

CCCIII. 

8. 

Prec. -f 2-67 
S 8.24 

A bright planetary nebula, pale bluish-white, over the poop, and on an 
outlying wave of the Milky 
Way. This fine object exactly 
precedes a 7 tn magnitude, and 
is followed by some small 
stars, as in the annexed dia- 
gram ; by which it is very 
readily identified when fished 
up. 

This was registered by 1$. 
in March, 1790, and was only 
estimated at about 12" or 15" 
in diameter. But the inference from such a supposition is vast ! 
"Granting," says H., "these objects to be equally distant from us with 
the stars, their real dimensions must be such as would fill, on the lowest 
computation, the whole orbit of Uranus." 

[" With power 64, like a dull 8 mag. star : with more power, small, 
brilliant, undefined, surrounded with a little faint haziness." WebbJ] 

[" Though small this is a bright object." BrodieJ] 

[Engraved, Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., vol. xxiii. PL ii. Fig. 7.] 




FIG. 12. 64 $. IV. PUPPIS. 



499, 



K GEMINOKUM. 



CCCIV. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 7 37 48 
Decl. K 24 39 '7 



STKUVE, W. 
SMYTH 
SMYTH 
DUNEH 



Position. 

o 
2 96 

231-9 
23 2 -3 
2357 



Prec. + 


3' 6 3 


S 


8-31 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


6-19 
. 6-0 

5-8 - 

6-39 ... 


1828-27 
1838.98 
1851-21 
1874.06 



A very delicate double star, on the left shoulder of Pollux, and about 
3 1- to the S. of /3. A 4, orange ; B 10, pale blue. H. expressly calls the 
attention of astronomers to this object, on the ground that possibly the 
comes is shining by reflected light 

[Possibly in motion. Dembowski thinks B is variable.] 



218 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



500. 



ft GEMINOEUM. 



cccv, 



h. 


m. s. 




R.A. 7 


38 35 


Free. + 




O f 




Decl. N 


28 17'5 


CJ 






Position. 


Distance. 




o 


f f 


HERSCHEL, W, 


AC 65.9 


116-7 


SOUTH 


( AC 64.4 


... 132-3} 




<AE 72-7 


198-0 ) 


STUUVE, 0. 


AE 74.4 


... 213.5 




SAC 72.1 


... 175-0) 


FLAMMAEION 


AD 90.4 


... 205.5 V 




AE 75-2 


228.9 5 




, AB 274.9 


43-o 




\ A C 70.9 


... 174-6 


BURNHAM 


< A D 90-0 
AE 75.3 


206.3 
229-2 




^C c 128-0 


1-4 



3*73 

8-36 

Epoch. 
1781-90 
1825.10 
... 1850-71 

,,. 1877-08 

... I877-95 
... 1879.73 
... 1879-24 
... 1879.24 
1878-15 

A Nautical Almanac star, in the eye of Pollux. A 2, orange tinge ; 
[for the magnitudes of the other stars Burnham gives: B 13^; C 1 ?; 
D 9-5 ; E 9 ; 013. The pair forming Co (=/3 580) were first seen with 
an i8|i n refractor, and are very difficult, even with that aperture. The 
changes in the position of the old companions are due to proper motion.] 

This star has been suspected of varying in lustre, since it is recorded 
as having at times been brighter than Castor, whence Bradley rated it of 
the I st magnitude ; others have classed it in the 3 rd rank ; but Ptolemy, 
Tycho, La Caille, Zacli, and all the best authorities, classify it 2. Nor is 
this the only anomaly of Pollux, for the ancients represented it in colour 
vnoKippos, subrufa, reddish ; Lichtenstein says, Quce trahit ad ceram, et est 
cerea ; and certainly, in 1832, its tint was as I have mentioned. 

This star is well known as Pollux, the brother of Castor ; but in 
the Alphonsirie Tables and in other old astronomical works it is called 
Ras-al-yeuze, the twin's head, from the doubtful word jauzd or juzd. 
Pollux may generally be known by his connection with Castor ; but for 
further identity, a line drawn from the Pleiades through /3 Tauri on the 
Bull's horn passes to it. 

If Betelgeuze and Procyon with Pollux bright be cast, 

Amid the glories of the sky, shines a triangle vast ; 

To guage with practised studious eye the form that shines afar 
The angle of twice forty-five, shows 'tis rectangular. 



501. 



B.A. 



h. m. s. 

7 30 51 



93 M. PUPPIS. 

Free. 4- 



CCCVII. 



Bed. 8 23 36*1 



S 



2-54 



8-48 



A small Galaxy cluster, in the aplustre of the Argo's poop; a line 



E. A. 7 h ' 38 m 7 h - 40 m - 219 

from Orion's sword-cluster, led through Sirius, strikes upon it 1 6 beyond, 
where it will be intersected by a ray from a Geminorum through 
Procyon. This neat group is of a star-fish shape, the sp portion being 
the brightest, with individuals of the 7 th to the 12 th magnitudes : it was 
first registered by Messier, in 1781, as a mass of small stars. 

The unlucky Chevalier d'Angos, of the Grand-Master's observatory at 
the summit of the palace at Malta, mistook this cluster for a comet : from 
which, and some still more suspicious assertions, my excellent friend, 
Baron de Zach, was induced to term any egregious astronomical blunders 
Angosiades. 

502. 3010 Lac. PISCIS VOLA3STTIS. (*h. 3997.) 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 7 39 55 
Decl. S 74 1-7 



Prec. 4- 1*14 
S 8-47 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J. 100.8 ... 1-75 ... 1836-70 

A very close double star. A 8 ; B 8. 
503. TT GEMINORUM. (E. 1135.) CCCVI. 



TT GEMINOR1 

h. m. s. 

K.A. 7 40 25 

Decl. N 33 41' 2 

Position, 
o 
STRUVE, W. AB 211-7 

SMYTH jf* 2I2 ' s 

r A I ; -> AI-\./^ 


CJM. (2. 1135.) 

s. 

Prec. + 3-88 
Q fi-r6 




Distance. Epoch. 

22-6 ... 18,31-25 
" ^ { - I839-I2 



A most delicate triple star, just above tbe beads of Gemini ; where it is 
readied by a line from Procyon through /3 Geminorum, and extended 
5^ to the N. A 5-|, topaz yellow ; B 13, bluish ; C 12, dusky. 

504. 2 PUPPIS. (S. 1138.) CCCVIII. 



h. m. 



R.A. 7 40 26 
Decl. S 14 25-4 



Prec. -f- 2-76 

S 8-52 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 



HERSCHEL, W. 339.2 ... 17.3 ... 1782^78 

SMYTH 338-8 ... 16-8 ... 1836-20 

STONE, 0. 338-9 ... 16-8 ... 1838-18 

A neat double star over the Argo's stern, where a line from a Leporis 



220 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



through Sirius, and as far again to the E., will meet it intersected by a 
ray from a Geminorum over Procyon. A 7, silvery white ; B 7^, pale 
white; and another star in the nf quadrant. 

Its fixity seems to be established. 

[Almost in the field with this is 4 Argo Navis, a yellow star of 
mag. 5,] 



505. 



201 B. GEMINOBUM. (2. 1140.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 7 42 



Free. + 3-48 



S 



Decl. N 18 36'5 

Position. Distance. 

// 

STRUVE,W. 273-8 ... 6-1 
A double star. A 7^, yellow ; B 9, very blue. 



8-64 

Epoch. 
1829.23 



506. 



15219 Lalande PTJPPIS. 

S. 

Prec. -f 27 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 7 42 45 



Decl. S 15 44' 5 

Position. 

o 
KNOTT 311-0 



s 



Distance. 

127.8 
Described by Knott as "a fine deep orange coloured pair." A 6| ; 



8-64 
Epoch. 
1864-21 



B 6^. Situated about i 20' S. of 2 Argus. 



507. 5 PITPPIS. (2. 1146). CCCIX. 

h, m. s. s. 

K.A. 7 42 48 
Decl. S 11 55-4 

Position. 

o 
SMYTH 19-0 

SBABBOKE 15-8 
STONE, O. 14-4 

A close double star, over the Argo's stern, rather more than 2 ST. 
by E. of No. 504. A 7|, pale yellow ; B 9, light blue. [Colour 
of B uncertain or changeable according to Knott.] This fine object is 
55 Officinse Typographic^, an asterism which Bode proposed to make 
by gathering 100 of the informes between Sirius and the hind legs 
of Monoceros, in commemoration of the art of printing. 



Prec. + 


2-82 


S 


8-69 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


3-5 
37 
3-3 


183411 
1874.18 
1878.10 



E. A. 



221 



508. 



^PISCIS VOLANTIS. 



h. m. a. 

B.A. 7 44 32 

o / 

Decl. S 72 20-6 

Position. 

o 

HEKSCHEL, J. 115-0 
SANTIAGO OBS. 110-9 


Prec. 


8. 
0-67 
// 
8-84 

Epoch. 

1836-18 

1850-21 


Distance. 
// 
19 est. ... 

. 17-9 



A double star. A 5, yellow; B 10, blue. 



509. 



535 Dunlop PUPPIS. (h. 3103 ; H. 1593.) 

8. 

Prec. 4- 2-13 



h. m. H. 

B.A. 7 48 23 



Decl. S 38 15-7 



S 9-14 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ! ; Cl ; B ; Bi ; L ; 1 C ; st 1 2 ; " which means : " remarkable ; a 
cluster ; bright ; rich ; large ; little compressed ; stars chiefly of mag. 

12." 



510. 



U GEMI3STORUM, 

h. m. a. 



R.A. 7 48 33 
Decl. N 22 11' 4 



Prec. 4- 3-52 
S 9-15 



A well-known variable star discovered by Hind in 1855. The range of 
magnitude is from 9 to below 13. The period appears to be subject to 
variations; Schonfeld thinks that it ranges between 70^ and I5o d . 
Baxendell has found the star hazy towards its minimum. 



511. 23 1$. VII. PUPPIS. (h. 479, 3107; H. 1601.) 



B.A. 7 51 48 
Decl. 8 20 46-6 



Prec. + 2-39 
S 9.40 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; p L ; c Bi ; p C ; st 1 1 ' 1 3 ; " which means ; " a cluster ; 
pretty large ; considerably rich ; pretty compressed ; it consists of stars 
from mags, n to 13. 



222 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



512. 



B.A. 
Decl. 

HERSCHBL, W. 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH j 

\ A. \^ 1 



14 CANIS 

h. m. s. 

7 52 30 
JST 2 31-0 

Pos 
AB 6 



cccx. 



SMYTH 



( A B 
(AC 



Prec. + 3-12 
Q n.jfi 


Epoch. 


ition. Distance. 


o // 
3-6 ... 65-4 


1782-11 


>57 - 76.ol 

2-8 ... II2 I ) 


1822-15 


>4-9 ... 75-o) 
3-4 "5-0 i "' 


1831.14 



A wide triple star on the boundary of the Lesser Dog, and 6 to the 
S.E. of Procyon, near where the before-mentioned section or slice of Argo 
penetrates through the Unicorn. A 6, pale white; B 8, bluish ; 
C 9, blue. 

The 3 rd star was stated to form an angle with the other two, in the sf 9 
a little longer than a rectangle. 



513. 37 1$. VI. PUPPIS. (h.480; H. 1611; .) CCCXI. 



Prec. + 2-85 
S 9-72 



B.A. 7 54 45 
Decl. S 10 19 '1 

A compressed cluster of stars, from the io tb to the i6 th magnitudes, 
or even smaller, over the Argo's poop, in a rich vicinity of two or three 
fields; a line drawn from 8 Geminorum over Procyon, and carried 
exactly as far again into the S.E., will -strike upon it- It was described 
by I3 as having some of the stars " next to invisible ; " and H. considers 
the most compressed part to be 4' or 5' in diameter. In the preceding 
portion is a very minute double star. [Best with a low power.] 

This cluster is more influenced by optical power than many of its class, 
and is apparently congregated by peculiar principles of attraction, inde- 
pendently of the innumerable outliers scattered around. It therefore 
offers a province for meditation as well as calculation, and suggests a most 
sublime conception of the boundless extent of the material universe, in 
the mysterious vastness which those suns beyond suns, and glorious 
systems of suns, probably with attendant planetary bodies, unfold ! 
Hervey, meditating upon the immensity of the universe, has eloquently 
observed, "Could we wing our way to the highest apparent star, 
we should then see other skies expanded, other suns that distribute their 
inexhaustible beams of day, other stars that gild the alternate night, and 
other, perhaps nobler, systems established ; established in unknown pro- 
fusion through the boundless regions of space. Nor do the dominions of 



R A. 



7 h - 



58 



' 



223 



the GREAT SOVEKEIGN end there ; even at the end of this vast tour, we 
find ourselves advanced.no farther than the frontiers of Creation, arrived 
only at the suburbs of the GBEAT JEHOVAH'S kingdom." This is inserted 
rather for the intended than the expressed sentiment ; for the alternate 
nights, and frontiers, and suburbs, can only be viewed as the worthy 
rector's maniera di parlare. 

[" I cannot call this anything more than a faint mass of star dust or a 
glow/' Brodie. At Parsonstown indications of a spiral tendency have 
been noticed.] 



514. CABINS. (*h. 4032.) 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 7 56 24 



Decl. S 46 59-7 

Position. 

o 

HERSOHEL, J. 351-4 

A double star. Ay; B p. About 2^- preceding y Argus, a star 
cf mag. 2. 



Free. + 1-82 

S 9-76 

Distance. Epoch. 

30-4 ... 1836-80 



515, CABI3OB. 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 7 56 57 
Bed. S 41 0-3 

Position, 
o 



(*h. 4030.) 

S. 

Prec. -f 2-06 
S 9-80 

Distance. Epoch. 

it 

40 8t. ... 1837.12 



HERSCHEL, J. 344-9 

A double star. A 7 j B 9. Sir J. HerscheFs note is as follows : 
" Large star white, small rich ruby-coloured approaching to sanguine. 
Very remarkable.' 7 



516. 



17 B. CANCBI. (2. 1177.) 

8. 

Free. +- 3-69 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 7 58 62 



Decl. BT 27 50 '2 



STRUVE,W. 
DUNEK 



Position. 

o 

3547 
353-2 



8 9'94 

Distance. Epoch. 



3-5 
3-5 



1828-27 
1871.67 



A double star. A 7, very white ; B 8, ashy white. Evidently 



224 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



stars are fixed. The above places are derived from Sir J. Herschel's 
General Catalogue,, but the Declination given in Lord Lindsay's edition of 
Struve (corrected for epoch) is greater than the above by 2-3', 



517. 



CABINS. (*h. 4038.) 

h. m. s. s. 



E.A. 7 58 58 

Decl. S 40 59-0 

Position. 

o 

HEKSCHEL, J. 345-4 
SANTIAGO OBS. 347.3 


Prec. -f 


2-06 

9.94 

Epoch. 

1837-04 
1852-22 


Distance. 

.. 29-1 ... 
29-8 



A double star. A 7 ; B 8^. The Santiago Observers rated the mag- 
nitudes at 7^- and it, and say, "Assuredly there is a greater difference" 
than Sir J. Herschel states. 



518. 30 Ijjjr. VIII. CABINS. 

h. m. s. 

R.A. 8 O 42 
Decl. S 37 51-4 



(h. 488; H. 1624.) 

s. 

Prec. + 2-46 
S 10-08 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; v L ; p Bi ; 1C; st 10 . . . 15 ; " which means ; " a cluster ; very 
large; pretty rich ; little compressed ; its stars range from mag. 10 to 
mag. 15." 



519. 



R.A. 

Decl. 



1183 2. MONOCEROTIS. 

s. 

Prec. -f 2-89 



h. 

8 



1 9 

S 8 56-0 

Position, 
o 

STRUVE, W. 326-2 



Distance. 



S lo-ii 

Epoch. 
... 1831-25 



A double star. A 6, yellowish white ; B 8^, white. 



520. 



R.A. 
Decl. 



ABGUS. 



h. m. 

8 1 



52 



S 23 50*3 



Prec. + 2-56 
S 10-28 



CCCXIV. 



Position. Difference of K.A. Epoch. 

O 8. 

SMYTH 191-0 ... 3.8 ... 1833-82 
A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, in the aplustre 



B.A. 7 h - 58- 8 h - 2 m - 225 

of the ship's poop ; where an imaginary line from /3 Orionis, passed 
close under Sirius, will reach it in the S.E. region, by doubling the 
distance between those stars. A 31, pale yellow; B 10, greyish ; other 
small stars in the field. This star is called Tureis, the scutulum or little 
shield, corresponding to the do-mSio-tr) of Ptolemy. 

Argo is one of the old 48 constellations, occupying a very large space 
in the Southern Hemisphere, but its lucida, Canopus, as well as most of 
its more important stars, is always hidden from us. There are sound 
reasons for assigning the highest antiquity to this grand asterism, though 
the etymologists are crowding on when they derive the English word 
canopy, or covering, from Canopus, as hath lately been imprinted : such 
sages would readily see our " ton of a gun " in the Greek rrals Tvv^ 
(Dor.) "This constellation," says Sherburne, "-sails by our meridian at 
midnight, in January, she being deified for paving deities j " but 
he takes no notice of a strange peculiarity in the good ship's sailing 
properties. In the apparent motion of the sidereal system this constella- 
tion actually dips stern foremost, as Aratus remarked, but which the 
old scholiast, whoever he is, assures us does -not really set before 
the prow. 

Owing to the great extent of this constellation, it is subdivided into 
four departments, the hull, the keel, the stern, and the sail, Argo 
navis, carind, puppi, veils. Ptolemy assigned 45 stars to 'A/>yo> ; but 
as a large portion could never be observed in our hemisphere, the number 
continued small till Bode made it amount to 540, by gathering all those 
observed by Halley, La Caille, and other southern observers. My friend 
Sir T. Brisbane, however, registered no fewer than 1330 stars in Argo ; 
and as the Via Lactea sweeps directly across it, there is yet a rich harvest 
for astronomers. 



521. 11 CANCEL (2. 1186.) CCCXII. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 8 2 6 



o 



Bed. 3ST 27 48 '0 



Free. + 3- 68 

tr 

S 10-19 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STRUVE, W. 218.9 ... 3.18 ... 1828-26 
SMYTH 213.5 3-2 ... 1839-70 

TALMAGB 219-1 ... 3*05 ... 1874.23 

A close double star, between the head of Pollux and the preceding 
claw of Cancer ; following the former nearly on the parallel, at about 
5$- distance. A 7, pale yellow ; B 1 2, lilac. This delicate object is not 
ii ][. L, as supposed by H. and S., who mistook for H a very neat double 



22-6 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

star about 3' preceding,, and a little N. of the parallel. On the arrival of 
the Dorpat Catalogue, it was found that S, had observed both ; n I$L. I. 
being 2,'s 1177 ; and the one before us, his No. 1186* 



522. 20 MOWOCEEOTIS. (2. 1190.) CCCXTII. 





h. 


m. s. 




s. 


K.A. 


8 


3 4 


Prec. -f 


3-02 


Decl. 


8 


o / 

2 30'7 

Position. 


Q 


10-26 

Epoch. 


Distance. 


HEBSCHEL, 


W. 


o 
AB 105-2 


n 
... 29.9 


1782-80 


SMYTH 




(AC 243-8 


30-0 ) 
66-9 ) 


1832-14 



JEDRZEJEWICZ I0 4' - 3i- 

(AC 244.8 ... 67-0$ 

A delicate triple star, on the Unicorn's flank ; it is about 1 1 S.E. of 
Procyon, which is the last of the splendid host that adorns the three pre- 
ceding hours. A 5^, light yellow ; B [10], grey; C 9, pale blue, apparently 
the comes mentioned by Piazzi, Nota 316, Hora VII., " 5 s temporis 
prsecedit ad austrum." A and G point to a distant star of the 8*k magni- 
tude ; and there are several companions in the field, of which one in the 
nf it coarsely double. 

The small star B escaped detection with the instruments of H. and 8. ; 
but their measure of C> together with the observations of 2. on the three, 
compared with my own 7 indicate that no appreciable motion occurred in 
half a century. 

[Webb remarks of B, " can it be variable ? "] 



523. 11 I?. VII. PUPPIS. (h. 3114; H. 1630.) CCCXVI. 



h. m. 



B.A. 85 31 
Decl. S 12 32-0 



Prec. -f 2-82 

// 
S 10-44 



A compressed cluster, in the space under the haunches of Monoceros, 
where a line from Arneb drawn through Sirius, and extended rather 
more than as far again to the E. y will find it as the Eastern point of a 
triangle, equilateral with Sirius and Procyon. It consists of a large and 
loose, but rich, group of small stars pretty equally strewed over the field, 
with a close double star in the middle, and a bright yellow one of the 6 th 
jnagnitude to the sf, 



R. A* 



227 



524, 



f CAHCBI. (S. 1196.) 

h. m. s, 

B.A. 8 5 54 
Bed. 3S" 18 6'9 



cccxv. 





Position. 







HERSCHEL, J. 


JAB 35-6 

(AC 155.9 


SMYTH 


JAB 355-x 




(AC 147-2 


DEMBOWSKI 


JAB 306.4 




( A C 140-0 


STRUVE, 0. 


JAB 267.5 




(AC 144-2 


SCHIAPARELLI 


JAB 108.1 




(AC 130.6 


JEDRZEJEWICZ 


( A B 89.8 
(AC 131-8 



Free. + 


3'44 


Q 


10-47 




Distance. 


Epoch. 


tt 




I-OI ) 

5-35 $ 


1830-44 


Jo 


1843-11 


5- J 




1.0 ) 
5-63 i 


1855.87 


0-74) 
4'95 ) 


1862-31 


0.81 ) 
5-26$ 


1877.18 


0-8 ) 


1880-22 


5-29 J 





A line triple star, just below the after-claws of the Crab, where a shot 
from a Geminorum through /3, carried twice that distance to the S.S.E., 
will strike it ; or it may be found by a ray from Sirius through Procyon 
extended to half their distance beyond. But there is much shade on the 
authority which designates it Tegmine. A 6, yellow ; B 7, orange tinge ; 
C 7 1-, yellowish. This is a very interesting physical object : an extra- 
ordinary retrograde motion is exhibited by it. 

This curious and very interesting object has occasioned no little dis- 
cussion, since 1$. pronounced it to be a " most minute treble star," and 
more than forty years afterwards H. and S. had declared A and B to be 
one " beautifully defined and round." But Sir J. South on a second 
trial saw A " unquestionably elongated/' whence a supposition arose that 
the star B had come from behind A. Up to 1830, a direct motion of 
+ 1.25 per annum was assigned to the star B; whereas from the 
accurate measures of Sir John Herschel and Mr. Dawes, it was afterwards 
considered to have a retrograde one to the surprising mean amount of 
6 51'. I devoted my best powers to ifc, and though the near object is 
difficult from convergence, I was able to assign considerable weights to 
the results : and from them I drew a scheme of the interpolated positions, 
angular velocities, and projected distances. Hence it follows, that the two 
close stars perform a binary revolution in about 60 years, while the 
outer one accomplishes a grand orbital ellipse in 500 or 600 years. Sir 
J. Herschel thought, that an entire revolution would have occurred from 
the epoch of his father's observation to the end of March, 1837, in a 
periodic time of 55^34 years; which, though not precisely confirmed by 
me, will be seen to meet the remarkable phenomenon as nearly as the 

2 



228 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



present sidereal knowledge has advanced. " If this be really a TERNARY 
system/' said Sir John, " connected by the mutual attraction of its parts, 
its perturbations will present one of the most intricate problems in 
physical astronomy." 

[During the past 40 years f Cancri has been assiduously observed by a 
great number of astronomers, and much effort has been made to enlarge 
our knowledge of its motions. These have been found anomalous and 
complicated ^beyond precedent. It seems quite clear however that B 
revolves round A with a retrograde motion in about 58 years, whilst C 
revolves round A and B jointly with a direct motion in probably 600 or 
700 years. As regards the period of AB, Madler, Winnecke, and W. E. 
Plummer all concur in making it 58 years, but 0. Struve enlarges it 
to 62. 

Plummer's elements based on Winnecke's are : 



Peri'-astron passage . 
Longitude of Peri-astron . 
Longitude of Ascending Node . 
Inclination .... 


. T 

. IT 

y 


= 1872-44 
= 171 46' 
- 150 if 
36 14' 


Eccentricity . 
Mean annual motion 
Semi-axis major . . 
Period 


. c 

. n 
. a 


O Tr 
= 0.30230 
= 2.56' 
= 0-90" 



525. 



K PUPPIS. 



h. 

8 



R.A. 8 6 4 
Decl. S 42 18*4 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J. 80-5 

A double star. A 7; B 8|. 



Prec. + 2*03 

S 10-49 

Distance. Epoch. 

5.9 ... 1836-03 



526, 



B.A. 
Decl. 

EL, J. 


h. m. s. 

868 
S 47 6'4 

Position. 



t AB 2202 

] AC i5f-6 


Prec. + 

L q 


i-8g 

// 

10-49 


Epoch. 
1835.10 


Distance. 

... 41-1 ) 
... 62.4 f 



(BC iJi-8 ... not stated 

rAB 220-4 ... 41-8 

SANTIAGO OBS. ^147.5 ... 62.9 

(AD 140.5 ... 94.2 



... 1851-15 



A multiple star. A 2 ; B 6 ; C 8 ; and besides these there are 3 other 



B. A. 8 h - 5* 1 - 8 h - 7*- 229 

stars of mags, n, n, and 13. "Arranged in an exact right line/' 
(tiir J. Herschel.) 

The Santiago D is rated at mag. 10. The Santiago observers say : 
44 The cluster deserves special attention for its evident changes since H/s 
observations." 



527. 411 Dunlop PUPFIS. (h. 3117; H. 1636.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 8 7 25 
Decl, S 48 56-3 



Prec. -f 1-77 
S 10-58 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; B; L; 1C; st 7 . . . 16;" which means : " a cluster; bright; 
large; little compressed; its stars vary from the J^ 1 to the i6 tljL 
magnitudes." 



528. 13 P. VIII. CAHCRL (S. 1202.) CCCXVII. 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 87 32 
Decl. MT 11 11 



Prec. -f 3-30 
S 10-56 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STRUVE, W. 335*9 ... 2-35 ... 1829.55 

MADLEB 333-6 ... 2-57 ... 1844-21 

SECCHI 325.5 ... 2-07 ... 1856-17 

GLEDHTLL 325*5 .., 2*1 ... 1874*10 

A close double star, over the Crab's southern leg ; where a line from 
the upper star in Orion's belt passed under ft Canis Minoris, and ex- 
tended 12 beyond, will find it. A 7^, lucid white; B 12, pale grey, 
and there are several distant stars in the sf quadrant, with one in the np 
nearly pointed upon by a line through A and B. 

[On the whole there seem some slight indications of retrograde motion, 
but the measures are very conflicting.] 



529. 563 Dunlop PUPPIS. (h. 3116 ; H. 1635.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 8 7 32 



o 



Decl. S 37 3'7 



Prec. -f 2-2i 
8 10-59 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"01; B; L; 1C; iE; st 9 . . . 12;'' which means ;- " a cluster; 
bright ; large ; little compressed ; irregularly extended ; consists of stars 
from mag. 9 to mag. 12." 



230 
530. 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 
6 PISCIS VOLANTIS. 



h. m. s. 

B. A. 8 7 35 
Becl. S 68 18*2 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL, J. 23-2 

SANTIAGO OBS. 33-0 



Prec. -f 0*24 
S 10-60 

Distance. Epoch. 
// 

6-7 ... 1835-01 

5-o ... 1850-25 



A double star. A 5 J ; B 



531. 22 1$. VI. MONOCEBOTIS. (h. 496; H. 1637; JR.) 

CCCXVIIL 

. . 

8 Prec. -f 2-96 

S 10-70 



h. m. 

B.A. 8 8 



Decl. S 5 28-0 

Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

BURNHAM 206-3 * 6*9 ... 1880*03 

A neat but minute double star, in a tolerably compressed cluster on the 
Unicorn's flank, and lying 14 S.E. of Procyon. A 9^, and B 10, both 
white. This object is in the midst of a splendid group, in a rich splashy 
region of stragglers, which fills the field of view, and has several small 
pairs, chiefly of the 9 th magnitude. 



532. 



r PUPPIS. (*h. 4058.) 



h. m. s. 

R. A. 8 9 21 



Bed. S 35 33-9 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL, J. 190 est. 

A double star. A 6 ; By. 



Prec. + 2-26 
S 10-74 

Distance. Epoch. 

// 
4 est. ... 1838-07 



533. 



67 P. VIII. GA1TGRI. 





h. m. s. 


B.A. 


8 20 1 


Prec. 




o / 




Decl. 


N 7 55-4 







Position. Distance. 




o // 


BSCHEL, 


w - 325-0 ... 35-4 



SMYTH 328-0 

BUBNHAM 342.2 



g 



COCXXII. 



3' 2 3 



Epoch. 

1782-85 
1837-92 
1880-03 



A white double star, on the Crab's hindmost right leg; it may be 



K.A. gJ>- ym- 8 h - 



231 



found by running a line from the centre of Orion's belt through Procyon 
and 14, or half as far again, beyond. A 6, pearl white; B 13, violet, 
with a glimpse star preceding it. 



534. 



v l CAHrCBI. 

h. m. 8. 

K.A. 8 20 7 


(2. 1224.) C 

8. 

Prec. + 3-58 




o / 


// 


Decl. N 24 53 '8 


8 11-52 


Position. Distance, Epoch. 




o 


n 


HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 37-? 


3 ... 6-04 ... 1822-12 


SMYTH 


40-1 ... 5-8 ... 1843-18 


MADLER 


40-7 - 5-59 .- 1856-27 


WILSON 


and SEABROKE 41.6 ... 5.9 .., 1874-18 


JEDBZEJEWICZ 42-2 ... 5-8 .., 1880-25 



CCCXXL 



A neat double star, on the Crab's northern middle leg ; where a line 
carried from Sirius through Procyon, and extended rather more than as 
far again into the N.E., will reach it. A 7, pale white; B yf-, greyish* 
From a comparison with the measures of Ij[. it was inferred that a retro- 
grade annual angailar motion of 0-51 had taken place. The subsequent 
observations, however, of Struve, Sir J. Herschel, and myself, afford no 
support to this supposed rotation ; consequently some error must exist in 
Ijl.'s register. 

[If there is any change at all it would seem to be one of increase in the 
angle. W. Struve, Dembowski, and Webb all note a much greater dis- 
parity in the magnitudes than Smyth's statement implies. Knott, on the 
other hand, makes them less unequal.] 



535. 



2 CANCBI 


. (2. 1223.) 




h. m, 


s. 




s. 


R.A. 


8 20 


8 


Prec. 


+ 3-64 




o 


</ 




ft 


Decl. 


N 27 


17-7 




S 11-52 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 




n 




]RSOHEL, 1 


W. 213. 


3 


5-50 


1782-09 


RUVE, W. 


2I2-O 


4.56 


1829.45 


IDLER 214.4 


4-99 


1853.59 


RUVE, 0. 


215-0 


5.01 


1874-27 


DRZEJEWI 


oz 215. 


3 


4.84 


1880.20 



cccxx. 



A close double star, above the Crab's northern legs. A 6, and B 6^ 
both silvery white. [Knott and Dembowski make them both equal and 
of mag. 6.] The substantial agreement of all the measures indicates 
its fixity. 



232 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



536. 



72 P. VIII. PUPPIS. 



CCCXXIII. 



h. m. . 

K,A. 8 20 18 
Decl. & 23 41-3 



Prec. + 2-59 
S i'i-52 



SOUTH 
SMYTH 
MAIN 


Position. 



85.0 
85-4 . 

86*5 


Distance. 

40-6 

45' 
41-9 


Epoch. 

1825-16 
1830-83 
1863.2 



A coarse double star, close upon the compass with wliich the moderns 
have furnished the Argo. A 6, red ; B 9.}, green. A ray from /3 Orioriis 
passed below Sirius, and extended 25 to the E.S.E. (rather more than 
as far again), will pick it up. The observations yield evidence of 
fixity, 



537. 



1228 2. CANCEL 



h. m. s, 

B.A. 8 20 58 
Decl. 3ST #7 55-6 



Prec. + 3-66 

// 
S 11-57 



Position. 

o 

STBUVE, W. 352.0 



Distance. 
// 
8.9 .. 

A double star. A &|, very white ; B 9, very white. 



Epoch. 

1828-28 



538. 81 P. VIII. MONOCEBOTIS. (2. 1233.) CCCXXIV. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 8 22 6 

o / 

Decl. 8 2 9*2 



Prec. + 2-02 
S 11-66 



StTBUVE, W. 

BUB.NHAM 



Position,*. 
331-5 



Distance. 
18.2 



Epoch. 

1828-71 
1880.03 



A very delicate double star, at the root of the Unicorn's tail ; lying 
about 15 to the S.E. of Procyon, on the line formed by that star and 
Tauri, at the tip of the Bull's southern hprn. A 7, pale topaz tint ; 
B n, violet ; other stars in the field, of which the brightest and nearest 
is in the sp quadrant, near the vertical. 



E.A. 8 h - 



8 h - 25 



m. 



233 



539. 



CANCBI. 



CCCXXV. 



R.A. 8 25 20 
Decl, N 18 28'1 


Free. + 

S 


3'43 
11-89 






Position. Distance. 


E^och. 




H 




HERSCHEL, J. 


61.3 ... 60 


1830 


KNOTT 


59-3 -. 58-4 - 


1863-31 


BURNHAM 


59-5 ... 6o ^7 - 


1880-05 



A star with a distant companion, in the middle of the Crab's body. 
A 5^, yellow ; B 9, grey, and there are 4 other stars in the preceding 
part of the field, the nearest of which is of the 8 tni magnitude, and about 
75" distant. [Knott found B much smaller than Smyth states; say 12. 
But Sir J. Herschel agreed with Smyth, nearly. Knott suggests there- 
fore that B should be watched.] An imagined line from Sirius passed 
3 E. of Procyon, and extended nearly as far again to the N.E.,. will readily 
fish the object up. 



540. 



A VELOBTTM. (*h. 4104.) 



h. m. . 

K.A. 8 25 35 
DeeL S 47 33 '6 



Free, -f 1-89 

/; 

S 11*90 



Position. Distance. 



HEBSCHEL, J. ] 

( A C 



39.9 



4-4 
20.0 



Epoch. 
1836.51 

183576 



A triple star. A 6, white; B 9 ; C 10, blue. 



541. 



3366 Lac. VELOBITM. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 8 25 45 
Decl. S 44 21-8 

Position. 

o 
HEKSCHEL, J. 350.3 

A double star. A 6 ; 69. 



Free. + 2 -02 

// 
, g 11-91 

Distance. Epoch. 

5.6 ... 1836-11 



234 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

542. 3375 Lac. PUPPIS. (*h. 4107.) 



h. m. 8. 



K.A. 8 27 22 



o 



Bed. S 38 42 '1 



Prec. -f- 2-21 

// 
S 12-03 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

1 A /s o "' ^ eS ' t I 835-OQ 
(AC 9&7 ... 30 est.} ^^ 

A triple star. A 7, white ; Bio; C 9, plum- coloured. 
543. 108 P. VIII. HYDE^J. (S. 1245.) CCCXXVI. 

h. m. s. . 



H.A. 8 30 1 

Decl. "H 7 0-5 



Free. + 3-20 
// 

S 12-21 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HE RSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 24-0 ... 108 ... 1822-64 

STBUVE, W. 25^7 ... 10-3 ... 1832-95 

SMYTH 25.7 ... 10.4 ... 1849-13 

MAIN 24-9 ... io6 ... 1862-14 

A neat double star, between Hydra's head and Cancer, i np b Hydrse, 
which is the preceding of three nearly equidistant stars in that monster's 
head, and following Proeyon by 16. A 6, pale yellow; B 7, rose-tint; 
and there are several glimpse stars in the field, preceded by a p* n magni- 
tude at some distance in the sp. 

[Called 1 8 Hydrse by some observers.] 

544. 63 $. VII. PYXIS NAUTICA. (h. 516, 3132 ; H. 1678.) 

CCCXXIX. 



h. 



K.A. 8 32 34= 



o 



Bed. S 29 33*6 



Prec. -f 2-47 

n 

S 12-39 



A compressed cluster, on the Argo's compass-card. The most gathering 
portion consists of stars from the io th to the 1 5 tn magnitudes, with a glow 
of star-dust. The shape is aptly likened by H. to a flattened X. This 
object lying in a region devoid of large stars, is only to be fished up by 
running a line from the cluster in Orion's sword over Sirius, and ex- 
tending it twice as far again into the S.E. region. 

The Mariner's Compass is an introduction of La Cattle's ; and as if the 
needle and card were not a sufficient anachronism, the classic old Argo 
was supplied by Bode with a log and line : BO 68 stars were con- 
stellated from the informes, and assigned to Pyxis Nautica and Lochium 
Funis, 



RA. & 27^- 8 h - 33** 235 

545. 118 P. VIII. CANCEL (S. 1249 rej.) CCCXXVIII. 



h. 



B.A. 8 32 48 



o 



Decl. K" 20 4'0 



Free. -f~ 3-46 

// 
S 12-40 



Position* Distance. Epoch. 

SOUTH 83.5 ... 57.5 ... 1825.15 

MAIN 84.5 ... 57.2 ... 1863-20 

A wide double star, on the Crab's body. A 8, and B 8J, both pale 
white ; a third star in the np quadrant, at about 3' distance. In general 
alignment, it will be seen about one-third of the distance from Pollux 
towards Eegulus. 

546. 124 P. VIII. CANCRI. CCCXXX. 

h. an. s. 8. 



R.A. 8 33 32 
Decl. K" 19 56 '0 



Prec. 



S 12-45 



Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


o 


f f 




AB 157-0 
A C 241.0 


92-2 \ 


1825.13 


AB 156-6 
AC 241.7 


45-8? 
93-1 f 


1863.19 



SOUTH 

MAIN 

A coarse triple star, on the Crab's body ; with an alignment similar to 
that of 118 P. VIII., before described. A 7, pale yellow; B 7^, dusky; 
C 6-g-, lucid white. This, though a wide object, forms a very fair scalene 
triangle. 

547. 44 M. CANCRI. (h. 517 ; H. 1681.) CCCXXXI. 



h. m. 



R.A. 8 33 55 



Prec. + 3-46 



J.H ft\J JLC7 *ac 

Position. 



331 


Distance. 
ft 
150 


KJ 14 ^-<- 

Epoch, 
1831-19 



SMYTH 

A very wide double star in the well-known cluster called Prsesepe, on 
the Crab's body, enrolled by Messier on his celebrated List in 1769. A 6|> 
and B 7^, both white, being the sf extreme of a wavy line represented by 
nine small stars. 

The Praesepe, metaphorically rendered Bee-hive, is an aggregation of 
small stars which has long borne the name of a nebula, its components 
not being separately distinguishable by the naked eye; indeed, before 



236 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

the invention of the telescope, it was the only recognised one, for though 
that in Andromeda must have been seen, it attracted but little notice till 
the days of Simon Marius, in 1612. Whereas the Praesepe in Cancer 
engaged very early speculation ; insomuch that both Aratus and Theo- 
phrastus tell us, that its dimness and disappearance during the progressive 
condensation of the atmosphere were regarded as the first sign of 
approaching rain. The group is rather scanty in numbers, but splendid 
from the comparative magnitude of its constituents, which renders it a 
capital object for trying the light of a telescope. Yet Galileo discovered 
this cluster to consist of 36 small stars, when it was supposed that there 
were only 3 'nebulous stars, which emitted the peculiar light. 

A line projected from a Virginis under a Leonis, and about 22 beyond 
the latter, runs through the Prsesepe ; or it may be found by a ray from 
the Pleiades being brought midway between Procyon and a Geminoruin, 
which will pass over , on Castor's knee. A line from a Geminorum 
through /3, and continued about three times the distance between them, 
also reaches this cluster. 



548. 129 P. VIII. CANCRI. (2. 1254.) CCCXXXII. 

h. m. s. . 



R.A. 8 34 6 
Bed. 3ST 20 3' 5 



Prec. -f 3-46 

n 
S 12-49 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

STRUVE, W. 53-8 ... 20-5 ... 1831-31 
SMYTH 53.4 ... 20.5 ... 1839*16 

KNOTT 54-2 ... not given ... 1862-16 

A neat double star close to the Prsesepe on the Crab's body ; and the 
" cloudy Prsesepe" group is visible to the inquiring eye, at one-third of 
the distance between fi Geminorum and a Leonis. A 7, golden yellow ; 
B 10, blue. This object is the southern member of a triangle, and 
is preceded by 3 pairs of stars, all of which were measured by South. 



549. 131 P. VIII. ItYNCIS. (2. 1258.) CCCXXXIV. 

h. m. B. ft. 



R.A. 8 35 39 
DecL H 49 15 '6 



Prec. + 4-30 
S 12-60 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O I* 

STEUVE,W. 331-4 ... 9-6 ... 1830-75 
MAIN 329.5 ... 9-6 ... 1862-37 

A neat double star, close to the fore-paw of Ursa Major ; being about 



K.A. 



237 



2 "W^N.W, of i, a bright star in that paw. A and B 8|, and both 
white. 



550. 



2153 Brisb. CABINS. (*h. 4128.) 



h, m. s, 

R.A. 8 36 51 



Decl. 8 59 55*6 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J. 221-9 

A double star, A 7|~ ; B 8. 



Prec. -f 1-28 
S 12-68 

Distance. Epoch, 

// 
2-51 ... 1836-66 



551. 



8 CANCBI. 



cccxxxv. 



h. m. . 

K.A. 8 39 26 



Decl. 



18 33-8 



Prec. + 3-42 
8 12-85 



Position. 

o 
LAMONT 123-8 

BURNHAM 113-9 



Distance. 

it 

27.9 

40.9 



Epoch. 

1836-2 

1878-2 



A very delicate double star, under the Crab's mouth. A 4^, straw 
colour; B [12], blue, only seen by glimpses. Situated nearly equatorially 
between 2 distant stars: I assumed it, from Piazzi, as 4.5 in brightness; 
but H., in his table of the comparative lustre of the individuals of 
Cancer, in the Philosophical Transactions, classes both it and y as of 
the 4 th magnitude, a degree in which I should rate them myself. A 
ray from /3 Qrionis glanced to the N.E. through /3 Canis Mmoris, 
and carried nearly as far again, will find it at about 2-^ S.S.E. of the 
Prsesepe. 

6 Cancri is the southernmost of the stars called Aselli by the Romans, 
and 8voi by the Greeks ; y Cancri being the northern one ; and they 
may very readily be found by their connexion with the Prsesepe, which 
they closely follow in a line, one to the N. and the other to the S. 
See 44 M, above. (No. 547.) 

Cancer is one of the ancient 48 constellations ; but as its lucida is only 
of the 4 tla magnitude, it is neither conspicuous nor brilliant, whence it 
was of old represented of a black colour and without eyes ; but Bartschius, 
in his Planisphcerium Stellarum, 1661, and some others of still later date, 
converted it to a lobster. Indeed, mythology even seems to apologise for 
placing so poor an asterism OB the solar railroad, by stating that ox-eyed 



238 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Juno exalted the creature, for the inconsiderable service of pinching the 
toes of Hercules in the Lernaean marsh : whence Columella designates it 
Lernceus. Yet, on the whole, there is scarcely one of the signs of the 
zodiac that has been the subject of more attention than Cancer, nor 
scarcely any one better determined. For the reason given under Leo, 
the Lion and the Crab were assigned as mansions of the sun and moon ; 
and Cancer being also famous, according to Chaldaic and Platonic philo- 
sophy, as the supposed gate by which souls descended from heaven into 
human bodies, it, of course, obtained favour among mythologist/B. But 
the astrologers saw nothing but its " watery triplicity," and pronounced 
that all men born under it shall be short, effeminate, and sickly. The 
successive enumerations of its component members, as optical means have 
progressed, are : 

Ptolemy . . . 13 stars. Kepler 17 stars. 

Copernicus . . 13 Hevelius .... 29 

TychoBrahe" . 15 Flamsteed ... 83 

Chr. Clavius . . 16 Bode 179 

Cancer, as the summer solstice, introduces the longest day in our 
hemisphere, and names the North Tropic ; for as that " aisword beste," 
the Crab, walks obliquely, it is figurative of the sun's retrogression on 
arriving at its greatest northern declination in this sign. (See a 2 Capri- 
corni.) It forms the fourth of the zodiacal signs, and designates one of 
the quadrants of the ecliptic. In the fine copy of Albumazar's Introductio 
in Astronomiam, 1489, in the Bibliotheca Lambethana, Cancer is repre- 
sented as a large Crayfish ; and in Lubienietzki's Theatrum Cometicum, 
1667, it is figured as a huge lobster, between the tail of which and 
Gemini is a small shrimp-like companion, designated Cancer Minor. 



552. 160 P. VIII. HYDROS. (S. 1270.) CCCXXXVII. 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 8 39 47 
Decl. S ~2 12 O 



Free. + 3-03 
S I'sj-Sf 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o tt 

STRUVE, W. 259-0 ... 4-7 ... 1830-98 

SMYTH 258.9 ... 4.9 ... 1833-08 

STONE, 0. 260-5 ,.. 4-6 ... 1879-10 

A neat double star, in the space interposed between Hydra's head and 
the Unicorn's tail. A 7, silvery white ; B &, smalt blue. In R.A. it 
slightly precedes e Hydrse, the middle star in that creature's head, being 
9 to the southward of it, and nearly due 8. of the Prsesepe, 



E.A. 8 h - 



8 h - 40" 



239 



553. 



l CANCRI. (S. 1268.) CCCXXXVI. 

s. 

Free, -f 3*65 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 8 40 3 



Decl. N 29 9-7 



S 12-89 



Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL, W f 309 9 
STRUVE,W. 307-1 

307-5 
307-4 



Distance. 



Epoch. 



JEDRZEJEWICZ 



29-9 ... 1782-11 

304 ... 1828-04 

30-3 ... 187271 

30-5 ... 1878-20 

A double star, at the end of the Crab's northern claw; Piazzi's 
No. Ig8, Hora VIII., erroneously marked v in the Palermo Catalogue. 
A 5^, pale orange ; B &, clear blue, the colours finely contrasted. A line 
from e Geminorum, carried through /3, and extended something more 
than as far again to the E.N.E., will find it ; and its identity will 
be instantly made out by its forming another line ta the S.W. with 
Procyon and Sirius. The several observations show that no material 
change has occurred. 



554. 



6 HYDROS. (2. 1273.) CCCXXXVIII. 

s. 

Prec. -f 3-19 
S 12-95 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 8 40 57 



Decl. N 6 49 3 

Position. 



Distance. 



STROVE, W. AB 195-5 


... 3-21 


DAWES AB 199-2 


... 3-65 


SMYTH AB 203-2 


- 3-6 


SECCHI AB 210-0 


... 3-33 


PLUMMER AB 216.7 


... 3-67 


BURNHAM AC 192-0 


... 2O-0 


JEDRZEJEWICZ AB 22.3-3 


... 3-34 



Epoch. 

1830-60 
1834-00 
1843-14 
1856-19 
187673 
1878-60 
1880*23 

A Nautical Almanac star, triple, "and the middle one in the head of 
Hydra. A 4, pale yellow ; B 8|-, purple ; C 13. A long ray from a Orionis 
brought over Procyon, and carried nearly as far again, finds it about 14 
S. of the Prsesepe; and nearly midway between /3 Geminorum and 
a Hydree. 

Dawes remarked to me, " Indeed, were the small star visible fifty years 
ago, as It is now, it never could have escaped the scrutinising eye of 
Sir W. Herschel." On this appeal, my observations were rigidly attended 
to, and the results corroborate the orbital motion. 

[Though the observations are very discordant inter se, a fact which 
Gledhill's table renders very apparent, there can be no doubt that the 
angle is increasing. The distance seems not to have altered.] 



240 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



555. 288 $. I. DBACONIS. (h. 520; H. 1691; .) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 8 41 10 



Decl. 



78 38 '1 



Free. + 8-19 
S 12-97 



A nebula thus described in Sir J Hersc-hel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; c L ; 1 E 90 -f ; g, svmb M ;" which means : " very bright ; con- 
siderably large; a little extended in the direction of 90 with the meridian; 
gradually, then suddenly much brighter in the middle." 



556. 



8 ARGUS. (*h. 4136.) 

h. m. s, 

R.A. 8 41 39 



Decl. S 54 18*8 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J. 62 est. 



Prec. -f- 1-66 

ft 
S 13-00 

Dist-mce. Epoch. 

H 

80 est. ... 1835-17 



A conspicuous star, mag. 2|-, with a distant companion of mag. n. 
The difference in E. A. between the 2 stars is 7o s . 



557. 



3545 Lac. CABINS. 



"h. m, . 

E.A. 8 42 30 
Decl. S 58 19-3 

Position. 

o 

c AB 289.7 
HEBSCHEL, J. ] A C 357.3 

(AD 217.6 



Free. .+ 1-43 
S 13-06 

Distance. Epoch. 

// 

4 est. \ 

60 est. > ,.. 1837-02 
80 est. ) 



A double star, with 2 distant companions, making a coarse quadruple 
object. A 7 ; B ?; C 12 ; D 12. 



558. 67 M. CANCRI. (h. 531; H. 1712; K.) CCC^XXIX. 



h. m. ti. 

R.A. 8 45 10 
Decl. N" 12 12'7 



Free, -f- 3-29 
S 13-24 



A rich but loose cluster, at the root of the Crab's southern claw ; 
where a liae from /3 Orionis through Procyon, into the E.N.E., will find it 



B.A. 



241 



about 5 N. of Hydrge. It consists principally of a mass of stars of the 
9 fc k and lo^ 1 magnitude**, gathered 
somewhat in the form of a Phrygian 
cap, followed by a crescent of strag- 
glers. It was first registered by 
Messier in 1780, and resolved by Sir 
W. Herschel in 1783. The place here 
given, though differing largely in B.A. 
from Messier's, evidently is that of his 
object. Sir W. Herschel saw above 
200 stars at once, in the field of view; 
with my refractor, of far inferior 
light, but excellent definition, the 
object appears as herewith repre- 
sented. 

[Visible in finder.] 




FIG. 13. 67 M. CANCRI. 



559. 242. $. I. URS-aa MAJOEIS. (hi. 630; H. 1711; K.) 



fa. m. 9. 

B.A. 8 45 36 
Decl. N 51 43'8 



Free, -f 4'35 
S 13-28 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : " v B; 
L ; vg, vsmb M * 10;" which means : " very bright; large ; at first very 
gradually, then very suddenly brighter in the middle where there is a 
io tlA mag. star." 

560. 200 $. I. LEONIS MINOBJS. (h. 532; H. 1713; .) 

CCCXL. 

B.A. 8 45 51 



Decl. TS 33 40 '7 



Free, -f 3*75 
S 13-28 



A bright oval nebula, between Lynx and Cancer, but in a confusing 
gap given to Leo Minor. It trends nf and sp, with a splendid centre, 
and is closely followed by a 9 th magnitude star, which is in a line with 
a coarse telescopic pair in the tip quadrant, and the preceding of a trio in 
the sf. 1$. with his powerful eye and instrument saw it " very beautiful, 
8' long, and 3' broad." 

This asterism was formed by Hevelius, from 18 sporades between Leo 
of the Zodiac and the Great Bear; the conFtituents of which weie 
increased by Flam&teed to 53 stars, and by Bode to 96. It was first 
announced as a constellation in the Prodromus of the former, 1691; and 
the author tells us, that he selected the place in order not to disturb the 

B 



242 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



circles, notions, or rules of astrologers: "Since they esteem the Bear 
and the Lion as the hottest and fiercest animals, I wished to place there 
some quadruped of the same nature." 

[" Scarcely worth the search with 3f*V' Welb.] 



561. 



B.A. 
Bed. 8 



16 HYDIUB. 

h. m. . 

8 46 10 



CCCXLI. 



o 
6 





Prec. -1- 


2-95 






H 




g 


I3-30 




Distance. 


Epoch. 




n 






43 


., 1782.99 





0*46 \ 




... 


457 [ 


1878-18 


... 


50-0 ) 





45*9 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHBL,W. AC 340 

i AB 158-8 

BUBNHAM < A C 356-2 
(AD 52-2 

A most delicate triple star, between the Unicorn's .tail and the first 
bend of Hydra. A 6^, pearl white ; [B 7^] ; C 12, D 13, both purplish ; 
other stars in the field. It is located iii a region utterly destitute of 
large stars, to the S. of Hydra's head, being about 12 E. of Cor Hydra ; 
its place is therefore nearly pointed by a ray passed from /3 Canis Minoris 
through Procyon, and carried 6 times as far into the S.E, -void. 
[AB constitute ft 587.] 



562. 



t 2 

h. 

B.A. 8 


CANCRI. 

m. B. 

47 32 


(2. 15 
Prec. 


Bed. 1ST 


30 59*8 


. , , 


Position. 


Distance. 


HERSCHEL, W. 
STRUVE, W. 
DEMBOWSKI 




338-2 

333-3 


0-85 

1-2 


JEDBZEJEWICZ 


332-5 
330-0 


1*43 
1.48 



CCCXLII. 



+ 

S 



3-68 
13-39 

Epoch. 



1782.27 
1829.71 
1856.19 
187102 
1880-29 

A close double star, over the Crab's northern claw, A 5|-, white; 
B 7, yellow. This star is designated t 2 by Flamsteed, and he is followed 
by IjjL, H., S. and S. ; but there is only one star distinguished by that 
letter in Bayer's Map, which is 48 Cancri, and Piazzi's 158, Sora VIII. 
To preserve identity it may be mentioned that the object before us is 
192 P, VIII; and that Baily has restored the or in his edition of Flam- 
steed, 

For want of convenient naked-eye stars in this vicinity, the searcher 
for the point in dispute must remember that it is about 18 E. of 
and on the parallel of a Geprinoriim; where its pl&ce is sufficiently 



R.A. 8J*- 45"?-. 8 h - i*h 243 



indicated by a long line drawn up from Sirius in the S.W, and passed 
over Procyon. 

[I have thought it well to go back to the c and not follow Smyth.] 



563, 211 Birm. CANCEL 

fa. m. s. 8. 



B.A. 8 49 11 
Bed, 3ST 17 39'0 



Free. + 3-39 
S 13-50 



A red star of mag. 6. Lalande says "rouge," 6\ ; Sir J. Herschel at 
the Cape, "fine red," "brick red" 8; Birmingham, "colour varying in 
different degrees of red and orange, 7 to 7^ ;" Webb, under date of 
March 5, 1872, "rather pale ruby, 8." The above variations in colour 
and the varying estimates of magnitude seem to imply variability in this 
star generally. It deserves to be systematically watched. I do not 
think that I have seen it myself. 

564, 17 HYBB^S. (2. 1295.) COCXLIII. 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 8 50 6 



o 



Becl. S 7 33-0 



Prec. -h 2-94 



S 13-39 

Position. Distance, Epoch. 

o // 

STEUVE,W. 358-6 ... 4-3 ... 1831-59 

SMYTH 357-8 ... 4-5 ... 1838.12 

SMYTH 358-5 ... 4-5 ... 1849-21 

STONE, 0. 358-3 ... 4-2 ... 1878-50 

A close double star, between the Unicorn's tail and Hydra's heart. 
A and B, both 7 J, and both white. 

To align this object, draw a right angle at Procyon to a line brought 
from Sirius, and it will meet 17 Hydree at 1 1 "W. of a Hydree, or rather 
a greater distance than that between the two first-named stars. 

565. i TJBS^ MAJOBIS. CCCXLIV. 

h. to. 8, . 8. 



R.A. 8 51 41 
Decl, K 48 28 '4 



Prec. + 4-18 

s 13-43 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o it 

SMYTH 348*0 ... 12-0 ... 1839-12 

CHALLIS 350*0 ... 106 ,.. 1841-19 

MADLEE 350-7 ... 10-1 ... 1852-27 

STEUVE, 0. 356*9 ... 9*7 ... ' 1871-80 

A Nautical Almanac star of 1830, dauble, fuuLin the: Great Bear's 

B 2 



244 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

right fore-paw ; where it may be readily identified by shooting a W.S.W. 
ray from ft, the southernmost of the two pointers, which will pass 
through 6 at nearly 12, then at half that distance further on will 
strike e. A 3$, topaz; yellow; B [n], purple. There isa star of the 
8*1* magnitude preceding, at an angle =2 68- 7, with A K. A. = 5 2 -9 s . 

From strong impressions on his mind, confirmed by what he saw in 
the Southern Hemisphere, Sir J. Herschel supposed that certain ver^ 
minute companions to stars may possibly shine by reflected light ; and 
i TJrsse is one of those instanced as having a dull satellite. 

This star has obtained the name of Talita, the third vertebra, the 
meaning of which is not clear. 

[The angle seems increasing and the distance diminishing. The proper 
motion of this system is however considerable, viz. 0-04 7 8 in R. A. ; 
and 0*28" in Dec!.] 



566. <r* CANCEL (2. 1298.) CCCXLV. 



h. 



B.A. 8 54 40 
DecL 1ST 32 41'0 



Prec. -I- 3-70 
S 13-85 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

STRUVE, W. 137-8 ... 4-6 ... 1831-16 

SMYTH 136-4 ... 4-8 ... 1837-13 

DuNiiB 137.4 - 4-3 ... 1869.^9 

A close double star, nf the Crab's northern claw. A 6, lucid white ; 
B 9, sky blue. There being some confusion in identifying Bayer's 
sigmas, it is as well to state that this is Piazzi's 226, Hora VIII. ; and a> 
ray from Sirius through Procyon, carried nearly double that distance into 
the N.N.E., will find it. 



567, 3667 Lac. VELOEUM. (*h. 4165.) 



B.A. 8 58 21 







Decl. 8 51 45*0 



Prec. H- i '86 
8 14-08 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HJBBSCHEL, J. 87.9 .,. 1-4 ,,, 1837^6 

A double star. A 6; B 8 



R,A. 



245 



568. 249 I#. I. UBS-flS MAJORIS. (h, 550 ; H. 1750 ; .) 



B.A. 8 58 49 
Decl. JST 60 54*6 



Free. + 4-79 

n 

8 14-11 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B ; c L ; E 90 4; ; er ; " which means : " considerably bright ; con- 
siderably large ; extended in the direction of 90 or thereabouts with the 
meridian; easily resolveable." Seen at Parsonstown, March 12, 1852, 
as " an amorphous mass of nebulosity of uneven character." 



569. 



0-2 TTR8JE MAJOBIS. (S. 13O6.) OCCXLVI. 



Free. 


+ 5-42 




H 





S 14-23 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


7-9 


1782.42 


4-5 


1832-14 


5-o 


1835-27 


3-8 


'851-39 


2.6 


1875.21 



B A. 9 44 
Bed. N 67 35 '0 

Position, 

o 

HEESCHEL,W. 283.0 
STRUVE, W. 263-6 
SMYTH 262.4 

STRUVE, 0. 257.5 
DEMBOWSKI 245-2 

A neat double star, in the Bear's forehead. A 5^, flushed white ; 
B 9!, sapphire blue. [The retrograde orbital motion and the diminu- 
tion in distance are very pronounced.] 

There is only one star designated by the letter <r in Bayer's Map : 
11 but," says Baily, in his notes to the ^British Catalogue, " as there may 
be a doubt whether such letter belongs to 1 1 Ursse Majoris, or to the 
present star, Flatnsteed has annexed it to each, which I have therefore 
retained. 1 ' It will be easily fished up nearly midway of a line from 
Polaris to i Ursee Majoris, where it is the N.E. vertex of a small triangle 
formed by the aforesaid two sigmas and p. 



570. 



194 B. CANCEL (2. 1311.) 



h. m. 

ILA. 91 
Decl. 



7 
23 24' 9 

Position. 



Free, + 3-49 

S 14-25 

Distance. Epoch. 



STBUVE, W. 
DUJSTEB 



200*5 
201*4 



7.3 
7-3 



1831-31 
1870-63 



A double star. A 7^, white; B 7|, white, B is rated smaller than 



46 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

by Struve, but Struve's fractions of magnitudes cannot be given in 
le scale which I have adopted generally for my additional objects. 



71. 250 jp. I. TTESv MAJOBJS. (h, 555 ; H. 1765 ; 

h, m. s. s. 



R.A. 9 3 2 
Bed. K 60 29 '2 



Free, + 4-73 
S 14-37 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
cB; cL; IE; psmbMLBN;" which means: "considerably bright; 
msiderably large ; little extended ; pretty suddenly much brighter in 
le middle so as to exhibit a bright nucleus." Described at Parsons - 
>wn, Jan. 16, 1852, as a "lenticular ray trending IT. and S. and 
radually very much brighter in the middle.*' On Feb. 19, 1868, the 
flowing edge was there seen to be more sharply defined than the 
receding edge. In the head of the Great Bear about midway between 
and v. 



72. 2 $. I. HYDB43. (h, 564; H. 1771; ,) 



h. m. 



R.A. 9 4 27 
Becl. N 7 29*2 



Prec. -f 3-19 

// 
S 14-46 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
cB ; cL ; R ; vg, vsmb M ; r ? " which means : "considerably bright ; 
msiderably large ; round ; at first very gradually, then very suddenly 
luch brighter in the middle ; resoiveability uncertain." 



73. 66 $. I. VBLOBUM. (h. 569, 3147; H. 1777; 



R.A. 9 6 15 



o 



Decl. 8 14 22*2 



Prec. + 2-84 
S 14.56 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864 : 
B ; S ; pmE 90 ; psmb M ; " which means : " bright ; small ; 
petty much elongated in the direction of about 90 with the meridian ; 
retty suddenly much brighter in the middle." Noted at Parsonstown, 
[arch 12, 1852, to be " more round than elongated." 



B, A. 



247 



574. 167 #. I. LYNCIS. (h. 568 ; H. 1778 ; ft.) 



h. m. a. 

B.A. 9 7 11 
Bed. N 40 31*3 



Free, -h 3-86 
S 14-62 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
"cB; R; mbMBN;" which means: "considerably bright; round; 
much brighter in the middle where it exhibits a bright nucleus." 



575. 59 $. I. PYXIS NAUTIOSB. (h. 571, 3148 ; H. 1780.) 



h. m. 8. 

B.A. 9 7 26 
Decl. S 23 43*9 



Free. 4- 2-67 
S 14-63 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; L ; m E 63.7 ; g m b M ; " which means : " bright ; large ; much 
extended in the direction of 63.7 with the meridian; gradually much 
brighter in the middle." 



576, 



3149 h. VELOBUM. (H. 1783.) 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 9 8 18 
Decl. S 41 58-9 



Prec. 4- 2-25 
S 14-68 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
! QJ pB = *9; vS; B; am st ; " which means : " a remarkable 
object ; planetary; about as bright as a 9 th mag. star ; very small ; round; 
amongst stars." 



577. 



3729 Lac. VELOBUM. (*h. 4188.) 



h. m. i. 

B.A. 9 8 26 
Peel. 8 43 96 

Position. 
o 



HEESCHEL, J. 280-9 
A double star. A6; B 7|. 



Prec. -f 2-22 
S 14-69 



Distance. 
n 



Epoch. 
183579 



248 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects, 



578;' * 



HYDBJE. 



CCCXLVII. 



B.A. 9 
Decl. N 

JUBNHAM 


8 38 

o / 

2 47-1 

P. sition. 
o 
175-0 ., 


Free. + 

S 


3-12 

Epoch. 
1879.25 


Distance. 
// 

. 53** 



A wide double star in the fore part of Hydra's neck. A 4^, pale 
yellow; B [n], ash-coloured. 

This star will be met from the "W. by a line drawn from a Orionis 
through Procyon, till it meets another from the N.E., running from 
8 Leonis through Regulus. The point of intersection is visible enough. 



579. 216 #. I. TJR&ffi MAJOEIS. (h. 570 ; H. 1781.) 



h. m. 8. 

B.A. 9 9 12 
Decl. KT 69 40 5 



Free. + 5-53 
S 14-74 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p L ; 1 E 90 ; mb M ; r ; v S * sf inv ; " which means : " bright ; 
pretty large; little extended in the direction of ajbout 90 with the 
meridian ; much brighter in the middle ; resolveable ; there is a very 
small star involved in the nebula on the sf side." At the top of the 
Bear's head. 



580. 265 Dunlop CARING, (h. 3152 ; H. 1793.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 9 9 45 
Decl. 8 64 24 '7 



Free. + 1-18 

S M-7 



A cluster thus described in Sir 3. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ! ; ; vL; eRi; vgeC M ; 45^d; st. 13 . . 15 ;" which means : 
"a remarkable object; a globular cluster; very large; extremely rich ; 
very gradually becoming extremely condensed in the middle ; diameter 
45 s in R.A. ; the component stars vary from the 13^ to the 15 th 
magnitudes." 



R. A. 



8 m -- 



249 



581. 504 Dunlop PYXIS NAUTIO^B. (h. 3154 ; H. 



R. A. 9 11 33 
Decl. S 36 9-3 



Free. + 

S 14 



8. 

2-41 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"!; OpB; pL; E; vglbM; in L, C, 01;" which means: "a 
remarkable object; a pretty bright planetary nebula; pretty large; 
round ; very gradually less bright in the middle ; in a large condensed 
cluster." 

Engraved, Cape Obs., PL v. Fig. 8. 



582. 



18289 Lalande LYNCIS. (2. 1333.) 



h. m. . 

R.A. 9 11 39 
Decl. N 35 49 -2 

Position, 
o 

STRUVE, W. 39-4 

MADLEK 42-6 

MORTON 39-2 

DUN&R 41-4 



Free. + 


3*73 
14-89 

Epoch. 


. 
Distance. 


i'. 4 2 
1.46 ... 
1-44 
H5 


1828-59 

1845-51 
1859-27 
1872-24 



A double star. A 7, very white; B 7^, very white. 



583. 



38 LYNCIS. (S. 1334.) CCCXLVIII, 



E.A. 9 12 Free. + 3-76 
Decl. 3ST 37 16'3 S 14-91 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HEBSOHEL, J., and FOUTH 

SMYTH 
MADLEB 
GLEDHILL 
JEDBZEJEWICZ 

A close double star, in the animal's tail. A 4, silvery white ; B f-J, 
lilac. 

It is to be found where a line from a Leonis, carried over Leonis, 
and 23 further to the N.N.W., meets another from and y Ursee 
Majoris, 



242.7 ... 


2.89 


1822.46 


241.6 


2-8 


1832*35 


241-7 ... 


2-62 


1854.30 


238.6 .,. 


2.92 


1874-18 


237-9 ... 


2-95 ... 


1880-27 



250 
584. 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 
113 $. I LYNCIS. (h. 582 ; H. 1811 ; 

h. m. s. 8. 

Free, -h 3-68 



R.A. 9 13 3 
Decl. K 34 13'0 



S 14-96 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B ; c L ; IE; m b f ; 3 st s ;" which means : " considerably bright ; 
considerably large ; little extended ; much brighter on the following 
side; there are 3 stars on the S. side." 



585. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 9 13 51 



40 LYNCIS. 

S. S. 

Free. 4- 3-69 

// 
S 15-01 



Bed. N 34 49-5 

A fine red or orange star of mag. 4, with a 8 or 9 mag. companion, 
"violet" (Webb). Birmingham rates 40 Lyncis at inag. 3-1, but I find 
no other authority for that rating. 



586. 



157 B. LYNCIS. (2. 1338.) 

h. m. s. s. 

Free. + 3-80 
S 15.0 



R.A. 9 14 7 



Decl. H 38 39*1 

Position. 



Distance. 



Epoch. 



STRUVE, W. 121-1 ... 1-76 ... 1829.53 

STRUVE, 0. 128-1 ... 1.82 ... 1840-33 

DAWES iS 1 ^ 1-69 ... 185012 

DEMBOWSKI 138-8 ... 1-73 ... 1862-85 

TALMAGE 142-6 ... 1-58 ... 1871.40 

WILSON and SEABROKE 150-0 ... 1-78 ... 1876.26 

A binary star. Ay}, white ; B 8, white. The increase in angle is 

very marked, but the distance seems unchanged. " The apparent orbit is, 
therefore, probably nearly circular." (Gledhill.) 



587. 205 lil. I. XJRSJE MAJORIS. (H. 1823 ; &.) CCCXLIX. 

B.A. 9 14 24 Free. 4- 4-19 
Bed. 1ST 51 28 '1 8 15-04 

A bright nebula in the animal's right fore-leg, of a pale creamy 
whiteness, with several bright stars in the northern part of the field. It 
is large, nucleated, and elliptical, with its major axis lying np and */, and 



E.A. 



7 111. 



_ 9 h. 



7 in. 



251 



about 4' long. It lies i sp of Ursae Majoris, and nearly on the line 
described by t, 0, /3, and & of that constellation. 

[Noted at Parsonstown as being " in general appearance very like the 
nebula in Andromeda."] 



588. 



39 LYNCIS. (2. 1340.) 



CCCL. 



h. m. s. 

R.A, 15 2 
Decl. N" 50 0-7 



Free, + 4-14 
S 15-08 



Position. Distance. 



Epoch. 

O H 

HERSCHEL, W. 3182 ... 7-1 ... 1782-87 
SMYTH 319.5 ... 6-2 ... 1839-18 

A neat double star, on the Great Bear's right leg, and about 2^ sp 
in that constellation ; whence, but for the map-makers, it must have per- 
tained to Ursa Major. A 6|-, lucid white ; B 9, sapphire blue. It has 
required some trouble to trace unequivocally the identity of this object. 
Baily diminished its E. A. above 3^', in order to correspond with modern 
observations, as there appeared to be some error in the British Catalogue 
reduction of Feb. 16, 1704. Piazzi, Note 47 to Hora IX., says that, by 
Flamsteed and La Lande, the proper annual motion in R. A. of this star 
would be 0-8", which he vainly tried to confirm from Bradley, who 
observed it on March 14, 1757; and he therefore concluded that some 
error of It. A. had crept in here, and at 40 Lyncis. 



589. 



K.A. 

Decl. 



65 P. IX. HYDB.33. (2. 1347.) 

S. 

Prec. + 3-13 

n 
I5-22 



h. 

9 



m. s. 

17 32 

o / 

3 582 



S 



Position, 
o 

STEUVE, W. 310-5 
MAIN 309.0 



Distance. 



CCCLIII. 



Epoch. 


21-2 ... 1832.23 

20-9 ,., 1863-16 
A neat double star, at the back of Hydra's neck; it is 12 N. 
by W. of a Hydree, and 16 W.S,W. of a Leonis. A 8 and B 9, 
both white. 



590. 137 $. I. LYNCIS. (H. 1837; ft. 

8. 

Prec. + 3-69 
S 15-23 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 9 17 36 
Decl. H 34 59 2 



COCLII. 



A bright nebula, on the fore-paws of Leo Minor ; a line from under 



252 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

y and through X Ursee Majoris, carried 1 6 beyond, marks its site. It is 
round, pale white, and sparkling at the centre ; nearly all the stars in the 
field precede it, especially a yellow 7 th magnitude, which lies on the 
parallel. This may be liable to error of identity, if 1$. mistook 41 
Lyncis for 40. 1$. remarked that the chevelure, or additional faint circular 
nebulosity surrounding the nucleus, was 3' in diameter: by my equa- 
torial, of course, such a magnitude could not be inferred. 



591. 21 TrRSu MAJORIS. (2. 1346.) CCOLI. 

h. m. 8. . 



R.A. 9 17 51 

Peel. T 54 29 3 



Free, -f 4-32 
S 15-24 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 309-0 ... 6-4 ... 1822-12 

STRUVE,W. 310-9 ... 5-7 ... 1830-29 * 

SMYTH 310-9 ... 6-3 ... 1839-17 

SECCHI 3 I0 3 5*8 ... 185698 

GLEDHILL 312-0 ... 5-3 ... 1874-26 

A neat double star, on the Bear's left fore-knee, where an occult line 
from Polaris to the W. of will find it nearly on the parallel of decli- 
nation with y Ursse Majoris, A 8, silvery white ; B 9, violet tint, with 
a third star at a distance in the np quadrant. 

[A slight increase of angle and decrease of distance is perhaps 
indicated.] 



592. 3163 h. CABIELaB. (h. 3163 ; H. 1843.) 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 9 18 18 
Decl. S 67 50 '6 



Free, -f 



S 15-27 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
!! ; O = * 8 ; vS ; E; "15, 59-13, 13"; " " which means : "a very 
remarkable object ; a planetary nebula of the brightness of an 8 th mag. 
star; very small; round; there is a star of the I5 tb mag. at an angle of 
59-13, and 13" distant from the centre of the nebula/' 



593. 260 $. I. TTEL&M MAJOBIS. (h. 596; H. 1848.) 



R.A. 9 20 56 



o 



DecL IT 62 57'9 



Free. + 4-76 
S 15-42 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 :- 



R. A. 9* 1 * I7 m - 9 1 *- 22 m * 



253 



u B ; c 8 ; E ; m b M ; am st ; " which means :- " bright ; considerably 
small; round; much brighter in the middle; amongst stars." It precedes 
23 Ursse Majoris, a star of mag. 4, by i m 55 s , and is 34' to the S. 
of it. 



594. 



41 LYNCIS. 



CCCLIV. 



B.A. 9 21 27 
Bed. K" 46 5*3 



SOUTH 
BUBNHAM 



Position. 
o 
161-5 

161-8 



Free, + 3-97 

S 15-44 

Distance. Epoch. 



86-6 
81-6 



1824.72 
1880-37 



A wide pair of stars under the Great Bear's foot. A 6 and B 8-|, both 
bluish. Classed after Piazzi's magnitudes, though A seems to merit a 
higher rate. 



595. 



a HYDE^B. 



CCCLVI. 



B.A. 22 11 
Bed. S 8 10 "9 



Prec. -f 2-95 
8 15- 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

BUKNHAM 152-8 ... 281.2 ... 1879-25 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, in Hydra's 
heart. A 2, but suspected of variability, orange tint; B io,pale green. 

This star has been known as Cor Hydrse, and Lucida Hydras, among 
the Latins; and also as Alphard, i.e. the Arabic Al-fard, the solitary, 
so termed perhaps, because there is no competitor in brightness near it. 
It has been most familiarly known as Hydra's heart. It is readily found 
by drawing a line from y and 8 Ursse Majoris, the two last in the 
square southwards by y Leonis and through Regulus ; or, as expressed 
in galley-stave heroics : 



Thro' Cancer's sign, whence no bright stare 
Pollux from Castor leads you down 



distinguish 'd light impart, 
to hideous Hydra's heart. 



Hydra, sen Serpens Aquaticus, the water- snake, with 
and the Crater upon it, is figured after the same manner in mot of the 
delineations, from the grand Farnese Globe and the MS. of Cicero'* 
AratUB, down to Mr. Carey's maps and Miss WhitwelFs drawings. 
While some term it Hydra, others use the designation Hydros, and a 
third party Anguis. In addition to these, it has been called Asina, 
Coluber, Anguis, Sublimatus, Furiosup, in a word, all mariner of names. 



254 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



It is indeed a strange asterism, trailing to such a length, that but for the 
subdivisions afforded by the Cup and the Crow, it would seem inter- 
minable : the parts so treated become Hydra, Hydra et Crater, Hydra et 
Corvus, and Hydrse continuatio. The head of the reptile is to the S. of 
Cancer, from whence its body winds Eastward with many curves, under 
Leo and Virgo as far as Libra. It was one of the old 48 constellations, 
and has thus been gradually increased in constituents : 

. 33 stars. 



Ptolemy . . 
Tycho Brahd . 
Clavius . . . 
Bayer . . . 



27 stars. 
24 
34 
29 



Bullialdus 
Hevelius . 
Flamsteed 
Bode . . 



60 
370 



596. 



0> LEONIS. (S. 1356.) 

h. m. 8. 



CCCLVII. 



K.A, 9 


22 34 


Free, -f 


3-22 




o / 




// 


Decl. N* 


9 32-2 


S 


15-51 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 







ff 




HEBSCHEL, W. 110.9 


. 0.4? ... 


1783-26 


SMYTH 


160.0. 


, 0.5 ... 


1832-11 


SMYTH 


193-0 .. 


. 0.3 


1843.14 


MADLEB 


350-0 .- 


. 0.47 ... 


18^2-30 


SEOCHI 


32-9 - 


0-30 ... 


1866-30 


DOBEBCK 


71-2 ,. 


. 0,54 . 


1877.21 


BUBNHAM 


79'8 .. 


. 0-51 ... 


1879.78 



An exquisite close double star, before the Lion's left fore- foot ; being 
one of the "pervicinse" of 2. A 6^, pale yellow; B 7-|> greenish ; at 
times both stars look yellow. I am the more particular in stating 
these colours, as I was drawn to the subject by I$. f s remark that it would 
be curious " if a considerable difference in the colours could have led us 
to discover which of the two stars is before the other ! But the far 
greatest part of thfeir diameters being spurious, it is probable that a 
different coloured light of two stars would join together, where the rays of 
one extend into those of the other ; and so, producing a third colour by 
the mixture of it, still leave the question undecided." 

To fish up this interesting object by alignment, carry a ray from a 
Geminorum through the Preesepe, and extend it just as far again in the 
S.E., where it is the middle one of Flamsteed's Nos. 6, 2, and 3 ; it lies 
in an open space about 1 1 to the "W.S.W. of a Leonis, and 17 due N. of 
a Hydrse. 

[In taking the above observations 1$. and Smyth measured one, end of 
the " egg " yielded by the 2 stars in contact, and the other observers the 
other end of tbe "egg." Hence it follows that the discordances ^re not 
as great as they seepi t,p ie, This is undoubtedly a ,biaary. star, but 



B. A. 



255 



the period is uncertain : the latest, and for the present the best, estimate 
is Doberck's, = noy. The stars are widening, and after another 20 
years a better value will be obtainable.] 



597. 



3 LEONIS. 



CCCLVIII. 



R.A 9 221 38 
Decl. H 8 40-2 



Free. + 3-20 
S 15-51 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O n 

BUENHAM 79-1 ... 25-1 ... 1878.62 

A delicate double star, close to the Lion's left fore-paw, where it will 
be found by the above alignment. A 6^, pale yellow ; B 1 3, blue, two or 
three other stars in the field, of which the nearest is about 2' distant in the 
sf. This object, one of IjJL's doubles, was looked at by me principally as 
a focus adjustment for attacking o>, which is within a degree to the due 
N. of it. 



598. 



23 UBS^I MAJORIS. (2. 1351.) 



R.A. 9 22 51 
Decl. N 63 32*6 



Free. 



4-82 



s 



Position, 



STRDVE, W. 
SMYTH 



272.4 
271-8 



Distance. 
22.8 



CCCLV. 



Epoch. 

1830-61 
1833-26 

A neat double star, in the Great Bear's neck ; at rather better than one- 
third the distance between and Polaris. A 4, pale white ; B p-J, grey.' 

[This star is known also as h TJrsse Majoris. 
from to Polaris.] 



It lies at 4 the distance 



599. 









r 1 ETS 


r DR^. 






h. 


m. 


s. 




s. 


R A. 


9 


23 


34 


Prec. + 


3*3 









/ 




H 


Decl. 


8 


2 


17 2 


S 


15-66 


Position. 


Distance 


Epoch. 








o 


// 




HERSCHEL 


, W 




358-6 




1782.09 


SMYTH 






2.9 


.. 64-9 ... 


1831-97 


MAIN 






2-2 


.. 66.2 ... 


1863-17 



OCOLX, 



A wide double star, in the Serpent's fore-body, and 6 N. of a Hydree. 
A 5|, flushed white ; B .8, lilac, .with a small star preceding it near the 
np vertical. 



256 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



600. 56 $. I. LEONIS. (h. 604-1; H. 1861; .) 



B.A. 9 25 57 
Decl. 3ST 21 58 '4 



Prec. + 3-41 
S 15-70 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B ; v L ; E ; gmb M ; r ; sp of 2 ;" which means : " considerably 
bright ; very large ; extended ; gradually much brighter in the middle ; 
resolveable ; the sp of 2 nebulae." 

The second nebula here spoken of is the next object (No. 60 1). It 
is mentioned as " very faint," but " considerably large ; round ; pretty 
suddenly brighter in the middle ; resolveable/ 1 Both are engraved to- 
gether in Phil. Trans., 1833, PL vii. Fig. 70; and Phil. Trans., 1850, 
PL xxx vi. Fig. 3. 



601. 57 $. I. LBONIS. (h. 604 2 ; H. 1863 ; .) CCCLXII. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 8 25 57 
Bed. JSf 21 59*1 



Prec. + 3-41 
S 15-70 



A bright-class white nebula, in the Lion's lower jaw ; Jjl. described it 
as a double nebula, each having a seeming 
nucleus, with their apparent nebulosities run- 
ning into each other, and this was confirmed 
by Sir J. Her.idieL It is vertically between 
two groups, of three small stars each, and it 
is elongated with a major axis lying sp and nf. 
To fish it up, run a line from a to y, and there 
draw another, perpendicular to it, which, car- 
ried nearly twice the length of the base, will 
strike it 2 S. of A Leonis. The upper or S. 
part is better defined than the lower ; it re- 
quires, however, the closest attention and 
most patient watching, to make it a bicentral 
object, with my means ; but the annexed is 

Eomething of its aspect under the best vision. 

[Engraved iu Phil. Trans., 1833, PI. vii. Fig. 70; Phil. Trans., 1850, 

PL xxxvi. Fig. 3.] 




FIG. 14. 57 y. I, LEONIS. 



E. A. 



h - 



257 



602. 



6 LEOMTS. 



CCCLXIII. 



R.A. 9 26 4 

Decl. 3ST 10 12 '1 

Position. 



Free. 4- 



8 



Distance. 



15-70 

Epoch. 

36.1 ... 1781-14 
37.6 ... 1832.23 
36-8 ... 1874.05 
A double star, in the Lion's left fore-paw ; lying 9 W. by S. of a on 
the line projected from Leonis through that luminary, and at half the 
length of that line. A 6, pale rose-tint ; B 9^, purple. 



HERSCHEL, W. 

SMYTH 

DEMBOWSKI 



77-0 
73-6 
74'3 



603. 



ANTLIJE. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 9 26 4 



Decl. S 31 25*6 

Position. 

o 

HEESCHEL, J. 210-6 
STONE, 0. 211-5 

A double star. A 6 ; By. 



Prec. 4- 

q 


2-56 
15-70 
Epoch. 


Distance. 


. 8-3 ... 
8.2 


1836-22 
1877.10 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 9 29 48 



604. 3917 Lac. VELORUM. (*h. 4220.) 

8. 

Prec. 4- 2-15 

S 15-90 

Distance. Epoch. 

// 
2-99 ... 1836-29 



Decl. S 48 31-1 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J. 202-0 

A double star. A 6|; B 7. 



605. 



7 LEONIS. 



CCCLXIV. 



R.A. 9 29 52 

Decl. N 14 52*3 

Position. 



Prec. + 3*29 
S 15-90 



HEBSOHEL,W. 

SMYTH 

HALL 



81-4 
80. i 
79.5 



Distance. 
it 

42-4 
42-6 
41-2 



Epoch. 

1782-10 
1833.33 
1877-30 



A wic but very delicate double star, in the space opposite the Lion's 
neck ; it is 8 "W.N.W. of a, in the line formed by that luminary and 
t] Virginis, a bright star lying about twice the distance in the E.S.E. 
A 6 J, flushed white ; B 8, violet tint. 



258 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

606. 3179 h. CARING. (H, 1881.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 9 31 13 
Decl. 8 46 26 '9 



Free, -f 2-22 
S 15-98 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; e L ; v Ri ; st L & S ;" which means : " cluster ; extremely large ; 
very rich ; the stars are of various sizes, large and small. 1 ' 

607. 114 I. I. LEONIS MINORIS. (h. 622 ; H. 1896 ; .) 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 9 36 21 
Decl. 3ST 32 20 '0 



Free. + 3-57 

// 
S 16-25 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; v L ; IE; vgb M ; p*of 2 ;" which means : " bright ; very large ; 
little extended ; very gradually brighter in the middle ; the preceding of 
2 nebulae." 

The 2 nd nebula here spoken of ( = 491 1$. II.; h. 624; H. 1899) is 
mentioned as "pretty bright; pretty large; little extended; very gradually 
less bright in the middle/' 

608. 61 $. I. SEXTANTIS. (h. 630; H. 1904; .) 

h. m. s. a. 



K.A. 9 37 



o 



Decl. S 3 12-0 



Free, -f 3.03 
8 16-28 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; cS; iR; bM; *9sp3 8 ;" which means: "bright; considerably 
smalt ; irregularly round ; brighter in the middle ; there is a 9*^ mag. 
star in the sp quadrant at a distance of 3 s ." 



609. 161 P. IX SEXTANTIS. (2. 1377.) CCCLXVII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 9 37 45 



o 



Decl. 3ST 3 7'9 



Free, -f 3-12 
S 16-32 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

STKUVE, W. 142.3 ... 3-3 ... 1830-24 
DBMBOWSKI 140.4 ... 3-6 ... 1867-84 
STROVE, 0, 145-9 37 1868-29 

A delicate double star, just inside the upper frame of the Sextant, but 



E. A. 9 h - 31^ 9 h * 4o m * 259 

also on the more ancient Lion's leg ; where it will be found nearly in 
mid-distance and closely W. of a line between a Leonis and a Hydree. 
A 8, yellowish white; B 13, blue, with two or three other small stars in 
the field, one of which nearly precedes. 



610. 285 $. I. URS^I MAJORIS, (h. 625 ; H. 1905 ; 



h. m. 



K.A. 38 7 
Decl. N" 68 25'5 



Prec. -f 5*5 
S 1633 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; vL; mE 152-4; stinv;" which means : " bright; very large; 
much extended in the direction of 152-4 with the meridian; there is a 
star involved," 



611. 282 1$. I. DEACO3STIS. (H. 1906.) 



h. m. 



R. A. 9 38 51 
Decl. JST 75 36 '7 



Prec. -f 6- 1 1 
S 16.37 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B : p L ; IF;" which means: " considerably bright ; pretty large ; 
of irregular figure." Not found by D* Arrest, who suggested that the 
places of all Sir W. Herschers nebulce discovered on April 2, 1801 (this 
being one of them), were affected by some common and large error. 



612. 78 y. I. TJBS^B MAJORIS. (h. 629; H.1909.) CCCLXV. 



h. m. s. s. 



R.A, 9 40 32 
Bed, N 72 47'7 



Prec. -f 5.57 
S 16-41 



A bright-class round nebula, above the Great Bear's ear, with several 
stars in the field from the 9 th to the 12 th magnitudes; of which a 
vertical pair precedes the nebula, and it is closely followed by a very 
minute one, which is caught only by glimpses. It may be fished up 
by running a line to the N.E.W, from Ursse Majoris under X Draconis, 
in the tails of the Bear and the Dragon, and carrying till it is nearly 
due S. of Polaris. Here the observer will find Flamsteed's 27 Ursse 
Majoris, a star of the 5^ magnitude, and closely following it is the nebula 
sought, 

8 2 



260 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

613. 50 $. V. AWTLLffi. (h. 3188; H. 1923,) 



h. M. 



R.A. 9 40 50 
Decl. S 30 41' 



Free. -H 2-62 
S 16-47 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"!; vF; vL; vg, vsb MN 4" ; 19.5^;" which means: "a remark- 
able object; very faint; very large; at first very gradually, then very 
suddenly brighter in the middle, where there is a nucleus 4" in diameter ; 
the diameter of the nebula as a whole is 19- 5 s ." 

614. B LBONIS. 

h. m. s. 0. 



B.A. 9 41 39 
Dec!/ N 11 56*5 



Prec. + 3-24 
S 16-52 



An old and well-known variable and red star, noted to be variable by 
Koch in 1782. Eange from 5^ to io ttl mag. Period, 312^. Criswick, 
" blood red ;" Dunkin, " very red ;" Birmingham, 1873, " red, with orange 
cast." I find it mentioned in my own notes under date of Jan. 20, 1865, 
as " a fine rich ruby star." Hind says : " It is one of the most fiery- 
looking variables on our list fiery in every stage from maximum to 
minimum, and is really a fine telescopic object in a dark sky, about the 
time of greatest brilliancy, when its colour forms a striking contrast with 
the steady white light of the 6 th magnitude, a little to the N." This was 
written in 1857 (M. N., xvii. 199). This star is B.A.C. 3345. 

615. 26 $. V. LBONIS MINOBIS. (h. 639 ; H. 1931 ; ,) 



h. m. 



B.A. 9 42 2 



o 



Decl. N 33 55-5 



Prec. + 3-58 
S 16-53 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" ! ; c B ; L ; vim E 90 ;" which means : " a remarkable object ; con- 
siderably bright; large; very irregularly but much extended in the 
direction of 90 with the meridian." 

616. 115 Ijl. I. LEONIS MINORIS. (h. 645 ; H. 1944 ; M.) 

h. m. s. s. 



It. A. 9 44 27 
Decl. 3ST 34 4*1 



Prec. + 3-58 
S 16-65 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 



E. A. 9 h * 40 m - 9 h - 48 



- 



261 



" p B ; p S ; vl E ; mb M ; *io sf 100 ;" which means : " pretty bright ; 
pretty small ; very little extended ; much brighter in the middle ; there 
is a io ttl mag. star in the sf quadrant at an angle of ioo." D' Arrest 
places the star differently. He says it follows at 4'4 S , in Pos. 141. 



617. 81 and 82 M. URS^I MAJOBIS. 



(h. 1940 and 1950 ; .) 
CCCLXIX. 



h. m. . 

B.A. 8 46 23 
Decl. N 69 38 '8 



Prec. 



S 



5-06 
// 
16-74 



No. 8 1 (=h. 649) is a fine bright oval nebula, of a white colour, in 
the Great Bear's ear. Its major axis lies np and sf ; and it certainly 
is brightest in the middle. There are several minute companions in 
the field, of which a close double star in the sp quadrant is 2. 1386, and 
by him marked vicince ; the members are both of the 9^ magnitude, and 
trend np and sf, about 2" apart, forming a fine though difficult object. 
[Pos. 294; Dist. 1-89"; Epoch 1869-15. Dembowski. The angle is 
slowly decreasing. Somewhat nearer to the nebula, 81 M., is another 
double, 2. 1387, formed of two io th magnitude stars. Pos. 272; Dist. 
9-0"; Epoch 1864-02. Knott?[ 

With a low power, 82 M. can be brought into the N. part of the same 
field of view, although they are half a degree apart. It is very long, 
narrow, and bright, especially at its northern limb, but rather paler than 
8 1 M. A line drawn through three stars in the sp to a fourth in the nf 
passes directly through the nebula. The two nebulae precede A, in the 
end of Draco's tail, by 25, but as the vicinity is deficient of large stars, 
they are not readily fished up. 

The apparent place here taken is that of a small star between the two 
nebulae. 

[Huggins finds the spectra of both to be continuous.] 

[82 M. was described at Parsonstown on May 21, 1871, as "a most 
extraordinary object, at least 10' in length and crossed by several dark 
bands."] 



618. 



9 SEXTANTIS. 



K.A. 9 48 22 
Decl. 3ST 5 27'9 

Position. 



SOUTH 
MAIN 



2927 
292*2 



Prec. 4- 3' 1 4 
S 16-83 

Distance. Epoch. 
// 

51-0 ... 1825.01 

53-1 ... 1863.19 



CCCLXXI. 



A double star on the right fore-leg of Leo, though crimped into the 



62 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Sextant; it lies at one-third of the way from a Leonis to a Hydrse. 
A 7 and B 9, both bine, and well defined. [Colour of B uncertain or 
changeable, according to Knoti] 

Desirous of assigning an asterism to the perpetual remembrance of 
celestial affairs, and especially wishing to commemorate the instrument 
so successfully used by Tycho Brand at Uranienburg, about the year 
1590, Hevelius gathered some informes between the Lion's fore-legs and 
Hydra, and called them Sextans Uranice. But, with more zeal than 
taste, he fixed the machine upon the Serpent's back, under the plea that 
the said Sextant was not in the most convenient situation, but that he 
placed it between Leo and Hydra because these animals were of a 
fiery nature, to speak with astrologers, and formed a sort of commemo- 
ration of the destruction of his instruments when his house at Dantzic 
was burnt in September, 1679; or, as he expresses it, when Vulcan 
overcame Urania. He who thus placed it in the heavens only mustered 
12 stars, but Flam&teed made out 41, and Bode increased them to 
112. This, and some other of Hevelius's denominations, occasioned an 
ill-natured and groundless sneer from the redoubtable La Lande, himself 
a wholesale apotheosizer ; but it assuredly speaks more for his flippancy 
than for his scientific gratitude. 

The above ebullition is however to be strictly confined to the case 
in point ; for whatever singularities or failings he possessed and, from 
the testimony of his own camarades, these were neither few nor trivial 
there were not many of his day to whom the "million" were more 
indebted for scientific supplies than to Jerome Le Franfais La Lande. 



619. 213 P. IX. VELORTJM. 

to. m. s. 



K.A. 9 49 58 
Decl. S 44 45*8 



Prec. + 2-35 
S 16-91 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o 

HEBSCHEL, J. 239-1 ... 5-9 ... 1836-15 

A double star. A 6 ; B 9^. 

620* 286 $. I. WRSM MAJOBIS. (h. 658 ; H. 1982 ; &) 

CCCLXXII. 



h. BQ. 



B.A. 9 53 36 



o 



Decl, If 69 16*3 



Free. + ' 4*92 
S 17-08 



A bright-class round nebula, at the back of Ursa Major's left ear, 



B. A. 9 h - 48^- 9 h - 59- 263 

preceding X, at the end of Draco's tail, by 2 2 ; it is lucid white, and 
lights up in the centre, There are two lines of three stars each across 
the field, of which the one preceding the nebula is of the yth magnitude, 
and that following of the lo** 1 ; between these the sky is intensely 
black, and shows the nebula as if floating in awful and illimitable space, 
at an inconceivable distance. Dr. Derham, whose judgment led" him to 
consider nebulse as vast arese of light "infallibly beyond the fixed 
stars,'' thought that some of them might be openings in an opacity 
surrounding the visible system, which chasms allow us a sight of the 
empyreal sphere beyond it. The present object, under the favourable 
conditions in which I viewed it, would have almost countenanced his 
supposition. 

Ijl. says, that " on the nf side there is a faint ray interrupting the 
roundness." 

621. 47 $. V. UBS^3 MAJOBIS. (H. 1983; .) 



h. 



B.A. 9 54 27 
Decl. T5T 56 13 '0 



Prec. + 4-12 



S 



A nebula thus described in Sir J". Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"vB; L; mE 135+ j" which means: "very bright; large; much 
extended in the direction of about 135 with the meridian." 



622. 


1402 2. UBS^E MAJOBIS. 






h. m. s. 






s. 






B.A. 


9 57 31 


Prec. 


+ 


4-12 








o / 






// 






Decl. 


N 56 0-8 





S i 


[7-26 








Position. 


Distance. 




Epoch. 








o 


// 










STBUVE, W 


96-0 


2I-O 


... 


1831-68 






MAIN 


98-1 


23-5 


... 


1864.47 




A double 


star. A 


7|-, yellow; 


B 8|, bluish. 


Midway 


between 


and 0. 















623. 297 Dunlop CABIN-SB, (h. 3224; H. 2007.) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 9 59 8 
Peel. S 59 35-4 



Prec. + 1-93 
S 17-33 



* A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"Cl; eL; 1C; B; fit 9... 14;" which means: " a cluster; extremely 
large ; little condensed ; bright ; the component stars vary from the 9 th 
to the 14 th magnitudes/' 



264 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



624. 163 $. I. SEXTANTIS. (h. 668, 3223; H. 2008; .) 

CCCLXXIII. 

h. m. s. s. 

R.A, 9 69 45 



Decl. S 7 ITS 



Prec. -f 

, - S 



2-99 



An elongated bright nebula, on the radius or graduated limb of the 
Sextant, followed by two stars of the ii*h magnitude, which are the only 
other objects in the field of view. Its major axis trends towards the 
vertical of the sp and nf quadrants ; and the extremes appear pointed. 

It is remarkable that this object was very clearly distinguished in my 
telescope ; for H. says it was scarcely perceptible in his 2O ft when he 
gave it only 6 inches of aperture. It follows a Hydrse by about 10, a 
little N. of the parallel ; where it precedes a knot of small stars, which 
are a couple of degrees further to the W. 

[Query, variable 1 Seen without the slightest difficulty in a finder of 
by Brodie. Webb notes that it " bears magnifying unusually well."] 



625. 



3228 h. ANTLL&J. (H. 2017.) 



B.A. 10 2 23 . 
Decl. S 39 53-8 



Prec. + 2*52 
S 17.47 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" !! ; Q; vB; vL; IE; *9 M ; 4.0** d;" which means : " a very 
remarkable object ; a planetary nebula ; very bright ; very large ; 
little extended; resembles a 9 th mag. star; it has a diameter of 4-0 
in R.A." 

Engraved, Cape Ols., PI. vi. Fig. 9; Lassell, Mem. R.A.S. vol. xxiii. 
PL ii. Fig. 10; Secchi, Descrizione del Osserv. Coll. Rom. 1856, PI. iv. 
Fig. 1 6. 



626. 



a LEONIS. 



CCCLXXIV. 





h. 


m. 


s. 




8. 




B.A. 


10 


2 


30 






Prec. + 3-20 








o 


/ 






ff 




Decl. 


K 


12 


30-3 






S 17.47 




Position 


Distance, 


Epoch. 










o 






HERSCHEL, W. 






AB 


305.0 


... 168.3 


1781-84 


HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 


AB 


307-1 


... I74-96 ... 


1821-21 


JEDRZEJEWICZ 






AB 


306.8 


... 177-0 


1877.30 


BtJRNHAM 






BC 


88.5 


3-2 


1878-10 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, in the Lion's 
breast. A i, flushed white ; B 8|, pale purple; [C 1]. 



R. A. 9 h - 59 m - io h - 2* 1 - 265 

A comparison of the measures of Ij., and J. Herschel and South, 
induced a belief, that a considerable alteration had occurred in the relative 
places of the two stars, in a lapse of 40 years, showing a physical con- 
nection between them ; but I am inclined rather to attribute the 
differences to proper motion and instrumental errors, than to incon- 
stancy of angle or increase of distance. Indeed, it is a wide object 
for this system of measuring, and a long run upon the micrometer 
spring. 

This star is well known as KapSia Xeom>r, Cor Leonis, the lion's 
heart. It is pointed to by a Tauri and y Geminorum, as well as 
by running a line from Orion's belt through Procyon, and carrying it 
nearly twice as far again to the E.N.E. The prolongation of the 
same line, or rather great circle, will lead to Denebola, /3 in Leo's tail. 
Regulus and Denebola form the longest side of an extensive quadrila- 
teral figure, with two other stars to the N. of them ; there is a still 
more remarkable square adjoining this, y being a corner-stone of each. 
Regulus is also readily found by drawing a line southwards from y and 
b Ursse Majoris, the last stars in the square; or, with the poetaster, 
reversing it : 

From Hydra's pass through Leo's heart, (which marks th* Ecliptic Line,) 
You'll rise to where, in Ursa Great, the third and fourth stars shine. 

Ptolemy calls this star BatnXtWor, from an opinion of its influencing 
the affairs of the heavens ; whence comes its Latin name Eegulus, a word 
which appears to have been first used by Copernicus as the diminutive of 
rex. It is the lucida of the extensive northern constellation Leo, whose 
stars are well disposed and conspicuous, forming the 5^ asterism in 
zodiacal order. The classic star-gazers viewed this as the apotheosis of the 
Nemsean Lion, and the emblem of heat ; but Stower's celebrated manu- 
script Almanac of 1386 recognises in it one of Daniel's lions, and there- 
fore " whoso es born in yat syne he schal be hardy and lytherus." The 
Arabs called this " fiery trigon" Kalb-al-Asad, or lion's heart, and 
Meliki, or kingly; for this impression of greatness was as rife among the 
Oriental astronomers and their successors as among their classic prede- 
cessors. Thus "Wyllyam Salysbury, treating of the sphere, or frapae of 
the world, in 1552, tells us, "The Lyon's herte is called of some men 
the Royall Starre, for they that are borne under it are thought to have a 
royall nativitie;" and in the Tabule Astronomies Alfonsi Megis, 1492, it 
is written against E-egulus, " Que est super cor : et dicit. Rex," Yet 
after all Horace only sings of it as 

Stella vesani Leonis. 



, Leo, Nemeas alumnus, Bacchi sidus, Stella regia, are also names 
by which the Lion has been designated ; and it is visible to the gazer 



266 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

by the large trapezium which it displays. Even should Eegulus not be 
personally known, this trapezium is readily found by the universally- 
known pointers of the Great Bear ; for as they serve to show Polaris to 
the northward, so also doth the line produced by them, prolonged south- 
ward about 45, point to the Lion. It is one of the old 48 constellated 
groups, and has been thus catalogued : 

. Ptolemy . . . 35 stars. Maraldi ... 60 stars. 

Tycho Brahd , . 40 Flamsteed . 95 

Bayer .... 43 Hodell . . .276 

Hevelius ... 50 Bode . ... 337 t, 



627. 79 $. I. DRACONIS. (h. 674; H. 2024; 

h. m. s. . 



B.A. 10 7 25 
Decl. N 73 56 "6 



Tree. + 5*28 
S 17-68 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; L ; R ; v g, v s v m b M ; " which means : " very bright ; large ; 
round ; at first very gradually, then very suddenly very much brighter in 
the middle." 



628. 3 !. I. SEXTANTIS. (h. 684; H. 2038; .) 



h. m. 



B.A. 10 8 3 
Decl. BT 3 58*3 



Prec. -f- 3-11 
S i"7-65 



A bright-class round nebula, on the frame of the instrument, thus 
described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: "B; pS; H; 
p s m b IE ; p of 2 ;" which means : " bright ; pretty small ; round ; 
pretty suddenly brighter in the middle ; the preceding of 2 nebulae." 

This object was discovered by Sir W. Herschel in December, 1783, 
but it is very remarkable that, though he made 4 observations of 
it, he did not notice that there were 2 nebulae in the field. H., how- 
ever, saw them both. The place is not very difficult to find, being 
about 9 S. by E. of a Leonis, and in the line with that luminary and 
/x Leonis. 

Engraved, Eosse, Dublin Trans., 1879, ^ *" J^fif- 2038. 

This object is on or near the spot where the Capuchin, De Eheita, 
fancied he saw the napkin of S. Veronica, in 1643, with an improved 
telescope which he had just constructed. In a letter to his friend J. 
Caramuc4is, dated Cologne, 24 th April, 1643, he mentions having detected 



R.A. io h - 



io h - 



267 



most clearly, by means of his binocular telescope, with the greatest 
surprise, admiration, and delight, the sacred " sudarium Veronicae sive 
faciem Domini maxima similitudine in astris expressum," in the sign of 
Leo, between the equinoctial and the zodiacal circles. And this is an 
accurate reduction of the figure which Zahn gives of it in the Oculus 
ArtiftciaUs : 




FlG. 15. "A PIOUS FBAUD," A.D. 1643. 

Padre de Rheita makes very respectable mention of this same appa- 
rition in his great work, Oculus Enock et Elice, sive Radius Sidereo- 
mysticus, the very elaborate engraved title-page of which thus invites us, 
in the words of the Royal Psalmist, Venite et videte opera Domini. In 
craving permission to doubt his assertion, Sir John Herschel's words may 
be applied : " Many strange things were seen among the stars before the 
use of powerful telescopes became common." 



629. 4 1$. I. SEXTANTIS. (h. 685; H. 2041; .) CCCLXXV. 

s. 

Prec. -f- 3-12 
S 17. 73 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 10 8 34 



Decl. N 4 0-4 

This is the second of the two nebulae spoken of under No. 628. Sir J. 
Herschel's account of it is that it is " bright ; pretty large ; very little 
extended ; pretty gradually much brighter in the middle ; there is an 
i i th mag. at an angle of 78-2 and distant 80"," 



268 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

630. 1415 S, TJBSuE MAJOBIS. 

h. m. s. s. 

Free, -f 5-05 



B.A. 10 9 5 
Decl. Of 71 36'4 



S 17-76 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 167-1 ... 16-7 ... 1832-21 

MAIN 167-8 ... 16-8 ... 1864-47 

A double star. A 6f, very white; B 7-|, very white. 



631. 3241 h. CHAM^IiEONTIS. (H. 2003.) 



h. 



B.A. 10 10 36 



o 



Decl. S 80 19-1 



Free, -J- 0-50 
S 17-81 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"!; O; pB; S; IE; 13-08$; 3 S st nr ;" which means : " a re- 
markable object ; a planetary nebula ; pretty bright ; small ; little 
extended; has a diameter of 13 in K. A. ; there are 3 small stars 
near it." 

Engraved, Cape Obs., PL vi. Fig. 2. 

632- 3239 h CABINS. (H. 2067.) 



h. 



B.A. 10 12 49 



o 



Decl. S 57 24'6 



Free, -f 2-13 
S 17-90 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ! ; v B ; v L ; falcate ; N ; " which means : " a remarkable object ; 
very bright ; very large ; in shape like a scythe ; there is a double star 
in the nucleus/' 

Engraved, Cape Obs., PL iv. Fig. 3. 

633. 199 $. I. UBS, MAJOBIS. (h. 696 ; H. 2066 ; ,) 



h. m. 



B.A. 10 13 5 
Decl. K 46 6*8 



Prec. -f 3*70 
S 17.92 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"pB; vL; mE 45 + ; vgbM;' 1 which means : "pretty bright; 
very large; much extended in the direction of about 45 with the 
meridian ; very gradually brighter in the middle." 



E. A. io h - o m io h - 



14' 



m. 



269 



634. 445 Dunlop CABINS, (h. 3238 ; H. 2068.) 



B.A. 10 13 6 
Decl. S 45 61-0 



Free. + 2-45 
8 17-91 



A cluster tints described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"@; vL; iH; 1CM; gbM; sti3...i6;" which means : " a 
globular cluster; very large; of an irregular roundish outline; little 
compressed in the middle ; gradually brighter in the middle ; the com- 
ponent stars vary from the 13 th to the i6 th magnitudes." 



635. 



B.A. 
Decl. 



y 

h. 

10 



LEONIS. (S. 1424.) 



CCCLXXVI. 



13 54 

N 20 23'8 

Position. 



Prec. -f 3-30 



17.82 



Distance. 



JEDKZEJEWICZ 



3.00 

3.24 

250 

2-8 

302 

3.21 

3-63 



231.46 



Epoch. 

1782-71 
1822.24 
1831-51 
1843.18 
1857-28 

J866- 2 1 
1877-23 

1880-40 



HERSCHEL, W. 83-5 

HEKSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 98-4 
STRUVE, W. 103-4 

SMYTH 107.2 

STRUVE, 0. 109*0 

KNOTT 110.5 

DOBERCK m.i 

( 114.2 

( 292-6 

A splendid double star, close to the Lion's mane, about 7|- to the 
N.N.E. of a, and nearly in the middle of the constellation. A 2, bright 
orange ; B 4, greenish yellow, and there are two other stars in the field. 
This most beautiful object has a slow progressive angular acceleration, 
with an annm magnus of about 40 7 y (Doberck). 

[Both the angle and the distance are, it will be seen, slowly 
increasing.] 

This star has been improperly called Algieba, from Al jeb-bah, the fore- 
head; for no representation of the Lion which I have examined will 
justify that position. 



636. 266 



I. URSJEJ MAJOBIS. (h. 697; H. 2073.) 

Prec. + 



h. 

10 



R.A. 10 14 31 
Decl. N 67 28 '9 



4-01 



S 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; cL; E; vglbM;" which means: "pretty bright; con- 
siderably large ; extended ; very gradually less bright in the middle." 



270 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



637. 



2955 Brisb. CABINS. (*h. 4306.) 



h. m. S. 

B.A. 10 15 11 
Dec!. 8 64 8*0 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J. 139-8 

SANTIAGO OBS. 145-5 
A close double star. Ay; B 7. 



Prec. + 1-85 
S 18.00 



Distance. 
tt 
1.4 

2-8 



Epoch. 

1836-50 
1850-28 



638. 



T VELORUM. 



h. tn. s. 

B.A. 10 16 49 
Decl. S 55 29'2 

Position. 

I A 

HEKSCHEL, J. 



! AC 191-4 .. 
A triple star. A 5^ ; B 10 ; C 10, 



Prec. 4- 2-22 
S 18-06 

Distance. Epoch. 

7-o .,, 183671 
6-1 ... 1836-31 



639. 



283 1$. I. DBACOKTS. (H. 2081.) 



h. tn. a. 

B.A. 10 17 2 
Decl. K 75 13 '1 



Prec. + 5-30 
S 18-07 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; c L ; e E ; " which means : " considerably bright ; considerably 
large ; extremely round." D' Arrest failed to find this. (See No. 61 1, ante.) 



640. 386 Dunlop CABIN-SB, (h. 3245 ; H. 2090.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 10 17 21 
Becl. S 51 10 -0 



Prec. + 2.35 
S 18-08 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; 9 L & a few S st ; " which means : "a cluster consisting of 9 large 
and a few small stars/' 



K.A. io h i5 m - io h - 19^- 271 



641. 705 h. LEONIS. (H. 2091; 



R.A. 10 17 52 
Decl. K 13 6'6 



Prec. -f 3-20 

S 1 8- 10 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" ! ; * or ** in neb. ; " which means : " a remarkable object ; a double 
or triple star in a nebula/* Or, as Sir John elsewhere calls it, " a nebulous 
wisp." The double star is *h. 2529. 

642. 58 P. X. UES^S MAJOEIS. (2. 1428.) CCCLXXVII, 

h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 10 19 4 



Prec. -f 3-86 



JLSVU.L. JL* V<J JLJ. V/ 

Position. 


Distance. 




o 


n 


STRUVE, W. 


84.5 


3-84 


SMYTH 


85-0 


3-6 


MADLER 


86.7 


3-99 


DEHBOWSKI 


85-5 ... 


3-69 


DUNR 


88-2 


3'36 



S 18-17 

Epoch. 

1831-69 
1832.49 
1844-21 
1858-00 
1871.32 

A neat double star, on the Great Bear's right shoulder. A 8, and B 
8, both white. The juxtaposition seems to be only optical. 

To find this pair by alignment, run a line from the Lesser Bear's leading 
guard, /3, through a Ursa* Majoris, and the mid-distance on the N.E. of 
that lucida will mark the place of K Draconis, while a similar extent to 
the S.W. of Dubhe will strike upon 58 P. X, 

643. 27 1. IV. HYDROS. (h.3248; H.2102; &.) CCCLXXVIII. 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 10 19 25 



o 



Decl. S 17 35'6 



Prec. -f- 2-88 
S 18-15 



A planetary nebula, pale greyish -white, nearly 2 S. of ft, about 20 
S.W. by "W. of Regulus, and in the middle 
of Hydra's body. From its size, equable 
light, and colour, this fine object resembles ft ,-' f ' 

Jupiter; and whatever be its nature, must ^.. O-' x 

be of awfully enormous magnitude. It was .,-- 

discovered by I$L in February, 1785, and ,,--'' 

has four telescopic stellar companions, two .--'" N 

of which are posited at nearly equal dis- 

i jf f n, -LI \ Fio. 16. 279.1V. HYDROS, 

tances, np and /, from the nebula. As a 

line passing from a star in the np quadrant to another in the $f just 
touched its disc, it was diagrammed as above, 



272 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Though this curious nebula escaped H., his remarks on planetary 
nebulae are so applicable to it, that they should be here transcribed: 
" Granting these objects to be equally distant from us with the stars, their 
real dimensions must be such as would fill, on the lowest computation, 
the whole orbit of Uranus. It is no less evident that, if they be solid 
bodies of a solar nature, the intrinsic splendour of their surfaces must be 
almost infinitely inferior to that of the Sun's. A circular portion of the 
Sun's disc, subtending an angle of 20", would give a light equal to 100 
full moons ; while the objects in question are hardly, if at all, discernible 
to the naked eye. The uniformity of their discs, and their want of 
apparent central condensation, would certainly augur their light to be 
merely superficial, and in the nature of a hollow spherical shell; but 
whether filled with solid or gaseous matter, or altogether empty, it would 
be a waste of time to conjecture." 

[Secchi, in the clear Italian sky with which he was blessed, seems to 
have seen this nebula to great advantage : according to him, within a 
circular nebulosity there are 2 clusters connected by 2 semicircular 
arches of stars, forming a sparkling ring, with one star on the hazy ground 
of the centre. At Parsonstown something of the same kind has been 
noted. Huggins finds a gaseous spectrum.] 

[Engraved, Cape Obs., PL vi. Fig. 5; Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., vol. xxiii. 
PL ii. Fig. n, and vol. xxxvi. PL iii. Fig. 14; Secchi, Descrizione del 
Osserv. Coll. Rom. 1856, PL iv. Fig. 5; Eosse, Dublin Trans., 1879, 
woodcut.] 



644. 67 P, X. LEONIS. (2. 1431.) CCCLXXIX. 



h. m. 



K.A. 10 19 47 
Decl. N 8 20-2 



Prec. + 3-17 
S 18-17 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O (I 

SOUTH 64-0 ... 3-6 ... 1825.20 

STRUVE, W. 65.9 ... 3-2 ... 1832-56 

SMYTH 65.3 ... 3.5 ... 1843-16 

SMYTH 67.5 ... 3.5 ... 1853-22 

A very neat double star, on the Lion's right shoulder ; about 5^ to the 
S.W. of a, and exactly on the line described from that luminary to 
a Corvi. A 8, white ; B 9J, pale blue. This beautiful but delicate object 
is [perhaps in motion]. 

[Closely / 44 Leonis, an orange star of mag. 6, which itself is 2 p 
p Leonis of mag. 4.] 



R'Ai lo 1 *- i9 m 10^* 27*** 273 

645. 86 y. I. LEONIS MINOBIS. (h. 711; H. 2104; <) 

CCCLXXX. 



h, m. s. s. 



R. A. 10 21 6 
Decl. -f 20 4'0 



Free., -h 3-39 
S 18-22 



A bright-class nebula, beneath the animal, but pretty close to the 
old Lion's mane; where a N.N.E. ray from a Leonis carried closely 
before y 1 Leonis, and extending rather more than as far again, will find 
it in the centre of a trapezium of 4 stars, of which the 2 southern ones 
are the largest, This fine object is of an oval shape, with a palpable 
central nucleus, 

646. 72 I. I. LBOISriS MINORIS. (h. 714; H. 2112; .) 



h. 



B.A. 10 23 8 
Bed. 8 30 3 4 



Free. H- 3-39 
S 18-29 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; L ; E 45 -f ; psmbMN;" which means : " considerably 
bright ; large ; extended in the direction of 45 or more with the 
meridian ; pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle, where it exhibits 
a nucleus." Described at Parsonstown, Jan. 27, 1852, as a "long 
lenticular ray/ 1 but " suddenly brighter in the centre. 1 ' This last remark 
however was made on a later date. l 

(547. 94 P. X. SBXTA3STTIS. (2. 1441.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 10 25 28 
Decl. S 7 4-3 



Free. + 3-00 
S 18-37 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o w 

STRUVE, W. 169-3 ..: 2-59 ... 1830-12 

STONE, 0. 166-3 ... 2-46 ... 187875 

A double star. A 7, golden ; B u. 



648. 8 VBLORITM. 

h. m. s. s. 



E.A, 10 27 13 
Bed. 8 44 30'4 



Prec. -f 2-54 
S 18-43 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HERSCHEL, J. 37.8 ... 13-8 ... 1836.55 
A double star. A 6 J ;" B 6. 



274 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

649. 49 LEONIS. (2.1450.) CCCLXXXI. 



49 LEONIS. 


(S. 1450.) C( 




h. m. 


&. 




8. 


B.A. 


10 29 


16 


Prec. 


+ 3 >l6 







f 




// 


Becl. 


N 9 


13*1 





S 18-50 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 




// 




STRUTE, W. 


161 


t 


2-39 


1830-76 


SMYTH 


158 


i 


2-5 


1838-37 


SECCHI 


157 


i 


2-3 


185674 


GLEDHILL 


156-6 ... 


2-8 


1874-70 


HALL 


159-8 


2.40 


1878-33 



A close double star, under Leo's right shoulder, close to p and about 
8 W.S.W. of Regulus. A 6, silvery white ; B 9, pale blue. 

[The above results may imply a very slow retrograde angular motion.] 



650. 164 $. I. LEONIS MINORJS. (h. 724; H. 2145; .) 



h. 



K.A. 10 29 57 
Becl. N 37 53-5 



Prec. -f 3-47 
S 18-53 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1 864 : 
c< c B ; L; m E 135 + ; glbH;" which means: < considerably 
bright; large; much extended in the direction of about 135 with the 
meridian ; gradually less bright in the middle/' 

651. 60 IjjL IV. TTRSJE MAJOBIS. (h. 731; H. 2158; .) 

CCCLXXXII. 



h. m. 



K.A. 10 31 53 
Becl. N 54 5'0 



Prec. + 3'77 
S iV 57 



A planetary bluish-white nebula, in the Great Bear's right shoulder, 
having two stars of the io th magnitude nearly between it and an orange- 
coloured companion in the sf quadrant. It is a small object but well 
defined, with a palpable unattenuated round disc ; this I note the more 
particularly as denoting the limit of my means upon such bodies, for I 
saw no symptom of the " very feeble atmosphere " with which H. says it is 
surrounded. It bears about 4 S.W. of /3 Ursse Majoris, and is nearly on 
the same parallel with y. 

Sir W. Herschel considered the indistinctness on the edges sufficiently 
extensive to make this a step between a planetary nebula and those 
bright in the middle. 

[Engraved, Phti. Trans., 1833, Pl.^v. Fig. 40.] 



R.A. io h * 2 m -- io h - m - 275 



652. 322 (P) Dunlop CABINS, (h. 3286 ; H. 2167.) 



h. 



B.A. 10 33 11 
Decl. S 58 3-1 



Prec. 4- 2*28 
S 18-64 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" p b ; vv L ; IF; * inv. ; " which means : " pretty bright ; unusually 
large ; irregular in figure ; there is a double star involved in it." Precedes 
T| Argus 7 m 36 s , and is i 3' to the N. thereof. 

653. 272 1$. I. LEONIS. (H. 2170.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 10 33 39 
Decl. H 9 50 5 



Prec. 4- 3-16 
g 18-67 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B; S; iE; mbMBN;" which means : " bright ; small; of an 
irregularly round outline ; much brighter in the middle where it exhibits 
a bright nucleus." Position given by Schonfeld and Vogel, and perhaps 
not very exact. 

654. 81 $. I. LEONIS. (h. 739; H. 2178; .) 



h. 



B.A, 10 37 27 
Decl. N 25 30 '3 



Prec. + 3-29 
S 18-77 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1 864 : 
" c B ; L ; gb M ; * inv ; 2 st f ; " which means : " considerably bright ; 
large ; gradually brighter in the middle ; a star is involved in the nebula ; 
2 stars follow it." Seen at Parsonstown as a "very faint spiral with a 
bright centre." 

655. 35 SEXTANTIS. (2. 1466.) CCCLXXXIV. 



h. m. 



B. A. 10 37 38 







Deol. N 5 19*6 



Prec. -f 3.12 
S 18-77 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

* STKUVE, W. 240.8 ... 6-7 ... 1825.20 



SMYTH 239-6 ... 6-8 ... 1839.19 

DUN^B 240-0 ,.. 6-6 ... 1872.62 

JBDBZEJEWICZ 240.3 ... 6.7 .., 1877.49 

A neat double star, on the N. extreme of the graduated limb of the 
instrument, and three-fifths of the distance between a Hydrse and 
/3 Leonis. A 7, topaz yellow ; B 8, smalt blue. . 

T 8 



276 A Cyde of Celestial Objects. 

656. 96 M. LEONIS. (h. 743; H. 2184; &.) CCCLXXXV. 



h. 



R.A. 10 38 10 
Bed. N 12 10-3 



Free. + 3-18 
S 18-79 



A lucid white nebula, on the Lion's ribs, with only two small stars, np 
and nf y in the field. Its place is almost due E. of a Leonis, with a 
distance of 9, where it forms the southern vertex of a triangle nearly 
equilateral with y and 8 Leonis. This nebula is round and bright, and 
perhaps better defined on the southern than on the northern limb, a 
phenomenon worthy of remark, and observable in the great nebula of 
Andromeda, and other wonderful masses. It was discovered by Me* chain 
in 1781, and registered by Messier as a "feeble nebula, without a star." 

Nearly a degree to the E. of this object follows another round 
but not equally well-defined nebula, large, and of a pale white colour, 
96 M. (= h. 749; H. 2194), also discovered by Mechain in 1781; it 
constitutes the intersecting point of a rectangle formed by five stars, of 
which the nearest is in the sp quadrant, and of the i I th magnitude. 



657. 80 y. I DKACONIS. (h. 738; H. 2182; 



h. 



R.A. 10 38 48 
Decl. N 73 25 2 



Free, -f 4*^5 
8 1 8-8 1 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B; S; ilE; psbM; *n, 281-8, 2O-o s ;" which means: "bright; 
small ; irregularly extended ; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle ; 
there is an II th mag. star at an angle of 281-8 and distant 2O-o 8 
in B. A." 



658. t) ARGUS, (h. 3205 ; H. 2197.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 10 40 47 
Decl. 8 59 6*5 



Prec. 



S 18-87 



" The great nebula in Arg" which surrounds the star 77, thus described 
by Sir J. Herschel in his Outlines of Astronomy : 

" This star is situated in the most condensed region of a very extensive 
nebula or congeries of nebular masses^ streaks and branches; a portion of 
which is represented in Fig. 2. PI. iv. [of the Outlines], The whole 
nebula is spread over an area of fully a square degree in extent, of , which 



R A. io h - 38' io h - 40^- 277 

that included in the figure occupies about one-fourth, that is to say, 28' 
in polar distance, and 32' of arc in R.A., the portion not included being, 
though fainter, even more capriciously contorted than that here depicted, 
in which it should be observed that the preceding side is towards the 
right hand, and the southern uppermost. Viewed with an i8 in reflector, 
no part of this strange object shows any signs of resolutidn into stars, nor 
in the brightest and most condensed portion adjacent to the singular oval 
vacancy in the middle of the figure is there any of that curdled appear- 
ance, or that tendency to break up into bright knots with intervening 
darker portions which characterise the nebula of Orion, and indicate its 
resolveability. The whole is situated in a very rich and brilliant part of the 
Milky Way, so thickly strewed with stars (omitted in the figure), that in 
the area occupied by the nebula, not less than 1200 have been actually 
counted, and their places in R.A. and P.D. determined. Yet it is 
obvious that these have no connection whatever with the nebula, being, 
in fact, only a simple continuation over it of the general ground of the 
galaxy, which on an average of 2 hours in Right Ascension in this 
period of its course contains no less than 3138 stars to the square degree, 
all, however, distinct, and (except where the object in question is situated) 
$een projected on a perfectly dark heaven, without any appearance of 
intermixed nebulosity. The conclusion can hardly be avoided, that in 
looking at it we see through, and beyond the Milky Way, far out into 
space, through a starless region, disconnecting it altogether from our 
system. * It is not easy for language to convey a full impression of the 
beauty and sublimity of the spectacle which this nebula offers, as it enters 
the field of view of a telescope fixed in Right Ascension, by the diurtial 
motion, ushered in as it is by so glorious and innumerable a procession of 
stars, to which it forms a sort of climax/ and in a part of the heavens 
otherwise full of interest. One other bright and very remarkably formed 
nebula of considerable magnitude precedes it nearly on the same parallel, 
but without any traceable connection between them/' 

The nebula alluded to at the close of the foregoing paragraph appears 
to be H. 2167, which precedes 77 Argus 7 m 34*, and i 3' to the N., and 
which has already been described, (See No. 652, ante.) 

A keen controversy sprang up some years ago as to whether any 
sufficient proofs existed of this great nebula having undergone changes of 
figure within the previous \ century. The balance of "testimony was 
against the idea. For particulars of the arguments adduced I must refer 
the reader to my Handbook of Astronomy, 3 rd edition, p. 546. 

Engravings of this nebula will be found in the Cape Obs., PI. ix. Fig. i ; 
in Sir J. Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy, as mentioned above; Month. 
Not. JZ.A.S. vol. xxiv. p. 2, (Abbott) ; vol. xxviii. p. 200, (Abbott) ; vol. 
xxix. p. 82, (Capt. J. Herschel); vol. xxxi. p. 234, (Abbott.) 



278 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

659. 17 y. I. LEONIS. (h, 757; H. 2203; 

h. m. s, s. 

Free. + 3-18 
S 18-90 



B.A. 10 42 1 



Bed. N 13 9*4 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
u vB; cL; R; psbM; r;" which means: "very bright ; consider- 
ably large; round; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle; resolve" 
able." 

660. 1474 2. HYDROS. 

h. m, s. . 



B.A. 10 42 12 
Ded. S 14 40-9 



Free. + 2-95 
S 18-91 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O M 

STBUVE, W. | AB 22 ' 2 ?*' 6 1 ... 1822.16 

( C B 193.9 ... 6.9 ) 

STONE, 0. CB 196.4 ... 6-6 ... 1878.23 

A triple star. A 7^, very white; B 9, very white; C 8^. i| N. of 
v Crateris, alias v Hydras. 

661. 159 P. X. HYDR^J. (S. 1473.) CCCLXXXVI. 

h. m. s. . 



B.A, 10 42 13 
Decl. S 15 2-7 



Free, -f 2-95 
S 18-91 



Position. Pistance. Epoch. 

o n 

STRUVE, W. 9.7 ... 31-4 ... 1822-16 
SMYTH 10-0 ... 31.5 ... 1836-22 

MAIN 93 .., 319 ... 1863-19 

A double star, near the cup on the Hydra's back, where an E.S.E. ray 
from a Hydrse towards the middle of the little square that constitutes 
Corvus will meet it in the half-way. A 8, pale white ; B 9, light 
blue. 



662. 1813 I. LEOWTS. (h. 758 ; H. 2207; M.) CCCLXXXVII. 



h. 



B.A. 10 42 28 
Decl. N 13 12'3 



Free. -H 3-18 
S 18-92 



A pair of bright-class nebulae, sp and w/'of each other, on the Lion's 



RA. io h - 42- io h - 44 m * 279 

body ; while at a small distance to the nf is a neat but minute double 
star. These are two of the three nebulae described by both the Her- 
schels ; but the third I cannot distinguish, unless it be a glow in the 
sf, in a vertical line with two small stars. 

We now approach a region where these mysterious luminous masses are 
scattered over the vast concavity of the heavens, in truly boundless 
profusion. 

The objects here treated of are among the nebulae included within 
a round patch of about 2 or 3 in diameter, in the apparently starless 
space of the Lion's loins. The field may be found, under a moderate 
power, S. of the line which joins a and Leonis about 10 E. of, and 
nearly on the parallel with, the former. 

[" The 3 rd nebula forms nearly an equilateral triangle with the other 2 : 
Query, variable. 7 ' J3rodie.] 



663. 116 1$. I. LEONIS MINOBIS. (h. 765; H, 2216; ,) 



B.A. 10 43 42 

Decl. 3ST 33 33' 9 



Free, -f- 3-36 
S Ts-95 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"cB; pS; ilE; I 8t of 2 ;" which means: "considerably bright; 
pretty small; irregularly extended; the i* fc of 2 nebulae." The other 
nebula here mentioned (=117 1$. I. ; h. 766 ; H. 2217) is situated at an 
angle of 20 in the nf quadrant at a distance of 80", and is the fainter of 
the 2. 

Both are engraved in Lord Basse's paper in Phil. Trans., 1861, 
PI. xxvii. Fig. 15. 



664. 41 SEXTANTIS. CCCLXXXVIII. 



h. m. s. 5, 



B.A. 1C 44 47 
Decl. S 8 18-9 



Prec, + 



18-99 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

BURNHAM jf^ 303-8 ... 26.9 I Ig 

(AC 72.3 ... 233.4$ '* 



72-3 

A most delicate triple star below the Sextant, of which the third is 
not seen by me, though I have measured a distant companion in the 
same quadrant. A 6, white; B 1 6, dusky; C 10, bluish. It lies exactly 



280 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



oOF|the parallel, and 20 to the E., of a Hydros, nearly "alone in its 
g!$ry," so that, like an oasis in a desert, it is tolerably visible to the 
Enquiring eye. A line from e, in the Lion's head, through a Leonis 
prolonged more than as far again to the S.E., strikes upon it. This object 
was forwarded to me by Sir J. Herschel, as an experimentum crucis of 
my optical power, on mounting the large telescope, there being a minute 
point in the sf of the 17 th or iS^ 1 magnitude, which baffled all my 
endeavours to detect it. Indeed the one in the np quadrant, B, is only 
caught by transient glimpses and keen gazing, so that the estimated angle 
and distance are mere guesses. 



665, 27 #. I. LEONIS. (h. 774; H. 2229} .) 



B.A. 10 45 5 
Bed. 1ST 13 59 '7 



Free. + 3-18 
S 18-99 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
U B; S; !Ei35; smbMN;" which means : " bright ; small; little 
extended in the direction of about 135 with the meridian; suddenly 
much brighter in the middle where it exhibits a nucleus."* 



666. 362 $. II. LEONIS MZKTORIS. (h. 773; H. 2227; &.) 

CCCLXXXIX. 



h. 



K.A. 10 45 12 
Becl. H 28 33 '4 



Free. + 3-31 

// 
S i9'00 



A faint round nebula, pale white, on the ham of the Little Lion's 
hind-leg ; it is preceded nearly on the parallel by an 8 th magnitude star, 
and there are several other small ones in the field, of which four following 
ones cross the parallel in a neat arc. It may be fished for nearly in mid- 
distance between y Leonis and Ursae Majoris. 



667. 172 1JL I. LEONIS MINORIS. (h. 780; H. 2238; .) 



h. m. 



R.A. 10 46 16 







Decl. 3S" 37 12 



Free, -f- 3-39 
S 19-03 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 



RA. 

" p B ; p L ; vm E 42-3 ; * inv 1 ;" which means : " pretty 
pretty large; very much extended in the direction of 42-5 
meridian ; a double star is seemingly involved in the nebula." Engra 
Gape Obs., PL iv. Fig. 10. 



668. 179 P. X. LEOHT8. (I. 1482,) CCCXC. 




h. m. s. 

R.A. 10 46 26 
Decl. N 8 2*8 



Prec. + 3-13 

// 
S 19-03 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

STROVE, W. 305.3 ... i'i-7 ... 1831-97 
SMYTH 305-6 ... n*8 ... 1836-26 

A neat double star, under Leo's body. A 8J, and B 9, both bluish 
white. It is to be picked up about 13 on a line from a Leonis to 
a Virginis. 



669. 267 IjL I. UES^B MAJORIS. (h. 787; H. 2245; 



RA. 10 47 50 
Decl. N 57 34 2 



Prec. + 3-73 
S 19-07 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B ; p L ; i R ; vglb M ; * 10 nf 2' ;" which means : " considerably 
bright ; pretty large ; of an irregular round outline ; very gradually less 
bright in the middle; there is a star of mag. TO is the nf quadrant at a 
distance of 2'." Precedes /3 ITrsse Majoris 7 m 22 s ; and is 35' to the N. 
of it* Engraved, Rosse, Dublin Trans^ 1879, PL iii. Fig. 2245. 



670. 268 $. I. TJRS^EJ MAJORIS. (H. 2257.) 



h. 



R.A. 10 49 15 

Decl. IS" 57 42 '4 



Prec. -f 3-72 

;/ 

8 19-11 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; vS; R; stellar;' 1 which means: "very bright; very small; 
round; stellar/' 

Precedes /3 Ursee Majoris 5 m 57 s ; and is 44' to the N. of it. 



282 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



671. 



54 LEONTS, (2. 1487,) 



CCCXCI, 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 10 49 39 
Decl. 2ST 25 20' 2 

Position, 
o 

HERSCHEL,W. 99-2 

STRUVE, W. 102-8 

SMYTH 1027 

SECOHI I0 4'3 

DOBERCK 104-9 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 106.3 



Prec. -F 3-27 

// 
S 19-12 



Distance. 
// 
7.1 

6-i 
6-2 
6-3 

6-5 
6-3 



Epoch. 

1781.14 
1830-35 



1856-59 
1877.30 
1878-35 



A neat double star just over the Lion's back, where it is preserved 
from the Lesser Lion by one of the map-maker's nooks ; it will be found 
about 1 5 N.E. of a Leonis, on the line produced towards i) Ursse Majoris, 
at the end of the Great Bear's tail. A 4^, white ; B 7, grey. This is a 
beautiful object. 

[A slow increase in angle seems certain.] 



672. 



4531 Lac. CARING. (*h. 4383.) 



B.A. 10 60 6 



Decl. S 70 7'9 

Position. 

o 

HEBSCHEL, J. 285-8 
A double star. A 7 ; B 8|. 



Prec. -f 1-95 

// 
8 19-12 

Distance. Epoch. 

1.41 ... 1837-18 



673, 



1495 2. UBS^J MAJORIS. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 10 53 5 



Peel. 



59 29-9 

Position. 



o 
STBTJVB, W, 38-2 



Prec. -f 3-77 

H 

S 19-21 

Distance. Epoch. 

34.4 ... 1833-07 



A double star, A 6J, yellowish ; B 9, white. About midway between 
a and 3. 



; A. io n . 49 m -- io h - 



674. 87 #. I. LEONIS MINOBIS. (h, 805; H. 2274; , 

CCCXCII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 10 54 12 
Bed. N 29 34 '0 



Free, -f 3-29 

// 
S 19-24 



A large bright-class orbicular nebula, on the Little Lion's haunch, 
lying 4 on a line from f Ursee Majoris into the S.W. space towards 
a Leonis. This remarkable object, with the exception of a 7 th magnitude 
star in the N., is in a field strewed with glimpse stars, from the most 
remote of which it may still be inconceivably remote, proceeding by 
analogy. H. observed it closely, and says, " no doubt a distant globular 
cluster ;" in other words, not only suns beyond suns, but glorious 
systems of suns arranged in harmonious order. Where facts are still 
\> anting, we can only form our opinions upon general principles. 
Now, when the dot which includes our system occupies a range of 
3,600,000,000 of miles in diameter, besides a larger tpace which it 
controls, should it be taken for an average among the millions of suns 
around, what imagination can grasp the immensity of creation 1 Indeed, 
where system thus stretches beyond system, the space must be infinite, 
or infinitely near it ; and in such contemplation we become conscious of 
our own littleness. But no subject whatever, except Revelation, can give 
a more exalted conception of the Eternal Fountain of all Intelligence. 



675. a CBATEBIS. CCCXCIII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 10 54 27 
Decl. S 17 42-9 



Free, -f 2-95 

// 
S 19-24 



Position. Difference of R. A. Epoch. 



A star with two very distant companions in the sf, on the base of the 
Cup. A 4, orange tint ; B 8, intense blood colour ; C 9, pale blue, 
a fourth star away in the sf quadrant. This object may once have been 
brighter, since it acquired a name Alkes and was lettered a ; but 6 
is now the lucida, and wears the Nautical Almanac honours. It may be 
found by carrying an occult line from Arcturus, though b Virginia, and 
rather more than the same distance to the S.W. The large star has a 
very considerable proper motion. 

[B is the well-known variable R Crateris. See No. 677, post.] 
Kpdrrjp, Crater, though a small and inconsiderable a&terism, is one 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

of the old 48 ; and is easily made out by 6 stars of the 4 th magnitude 
in an annular form, on Hydra's back, forming Cicero's fulgens Cratera. 
The scholiast on Germanicus termed it Urna, and the Arabians Bdfiyah, 
a large cup, and al-Kkas, the shallow basin ; which last was con-up ted 
to Alhas by the framers of the Alphonsine Tables, but Scaliger properly 
suggested that the word should be Alkes, the name now used for the 
star a, The number of its constituents have been thus stated : 

Ptolemy . * . . 7 stars. Hevelius . . . 10 stars. 
Tycho Brah . . 8 Flamsteed ... 31 
Bayer . . . . 1 1 Bode 95 



676. 101 $. II. LEONIS. (h. 806; H. 2276; R.) 



h. 



R.A. 10 54 31 
Decl. TS 14 20*4 



Prec. -h 3-17 

// 
S 19-24 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; p L ; 1 E 8o+ ; smb MN ;" which means : " very bright ; pretty 
large ; a little extended in the direction of about 80 with the meridian ; 
suddenly much brighter in the middle where it exhibits a nucleus," 



677. B, CRATERIS. 

h. m. s. 



R.A. 10 55 8 
Decl. S 17 37 '6 



Prec. -f- 2-94 
S 19-26 



A fine red star, variable, from about the 8*^ to the 9 ttl magnitude. 
Sir J. Herschel, " scarlet ;" "Webb, 1874, "vtfry intense ruby," 9^; 
Birmingham, 1876, "red, not so deep as formerly." Later on in 1876 
Birmingham marked it " good red/' and "crimson." On March 6, 1880, 
its colour was to me by no means striking. 



678. /3 URS^EJ MAJORIS. CCCXCIV. 

h. m. a, a. 



R.A. 10 55 12 
Decl. 3ff 56 58 '3 



Prec. 



S 19-26 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

BURNHAM 353-9 ... 245^ ... 1879-29 

A bright star with a distant companion, on the Greater Bear's body. 
A 2, greenish white; B n, pale grey, other stars in view* 



10 56 56 

o / 

N 62 20-7 


Prec. + 


3'77 

ft 
J9-30 


Position. Distance. 

o // 

203.8 ... 380.6 


Epoch. 
1832.41 



RA, io h * 54 m - i& 

Although the name Helice, a winding spiral figure in geometry, per- 
tained to the whcftet a#terisra of the Greater Bear as will presently be 
seen it was also specially applied to /3, the southernmost of the two 
pointers ; this star has always been a favourite with ancient and modern 
seamen, because, by a line from it through a both stars being the 
farthest from the tail the Pole-star is always readily found. It has 
since then obtained the name of Merak, from the Arabian Merdk al- 
dubb-al-akbar, the loins of the Greater Bear : 

Where Charles's Wain adorns the sky, if Merak you would know, 
The Pole-star led through Dubhe's light will mark it just below. 



a UBS^E MAJORIS. CCCXCV. 



Decl. 



SMYTH 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, on th Great 
Bear's back. A i, yellow ; B 8, yellow. A, the northern pointer, which 
was marked ft or 2 nd magnitude by Ptolemy, was suspected by H. of 
being variable, and he asked me in October, 1838, to compare it with e 
in the same asterism ; but my slight examination was res infecta. 

[It was Lalande who suggested the variability of this star, but the 
question has made no progress since Smyth wrote his remarks above. 
B violet in 1850 according to Webb.] 

*ApKTos fieyoXj;, Arctos Major, the Great Bear, rivals Orion in beauty, 
and is the most splendid and conspicuous of those asterisms in the 
Northern Hemisphere which never set; and is, of course, one of the 
ancient constellated groups. But the " doers into English" have certainly 
injured the purity of its descent to our times, for Job is made to talk 
about Arcturus, whereas Bochart assures us that the Hebrew word is 
derived from an Arabic one for bier; but Eben Ezra maintains it to 
be agalah, a waggon. Both these renderings apply to the succeeding 
denominations of the Greeks, Romans, Italians, Germans, and English,, 
in the *A/iafa, Plau strum, Triones, Feretrum, Cataletto, Wagen, and 
David's Car, the Plough, and Charles's Wain. In the latter, the two 
pointers are termed the hind wheels, tlie other two the fore wheels, and 
the three in the tail are the horses. The Egyptians, we are assured, 
called this constellation the Hippopotamus, whence my friend, Professor 
Leemans, says, "Ursa Major, quee secundum Ctampollioneia dlcebatur 



286 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Canis Typhonis, in tabulis astrononricis indicatur figurS liippopotami : 
Horus Apollo." It was also sometimes styled C E\I'KI? in Greece, a name 
which, dropping the mythological fable, alludes to its circumvolution 
round the pole, whence Aratus, speaking through Germanicus, says : 

Dat Graiis Helice cursus majoribus astris, 
Phoenicas Cynosura regit. 

Homer's description, however, of this revolving course, by which the 
asterism watches Orion from its arctic den, is but lamely rendered by 
Pope. In those early times the name of bier, or sarcophagus, was 
directly applied to the four bright stars disposed in the form of a quad- 
rangle on the bear's body ; and the three which we call the horses, or 
tail for this bear actually has a tail of 20 projecting from his stern- 
frame symbolized the children of the deceased in attendance. Our 
popular name of Charles's Wain (ceorl unde churl) is familiarized from 
the Gothic Karlvvagen, the chart, or peasant's cart ; and it is applied to 
the seven well-known stars a, /3, y, 6, e, , and 77, which are disposed in 
the form of a quadrangle joined by one of its corners to a triangle. 
Here the classic astronomer will recognise the Septentriones, of which 

Cicero says : 

Quas nbstri Septem soliti vocitare triones. 




17. URSA MA j OK. 

This constellation guided the nocturnal path of ships, whence it i 
introduced into the beautiful picture of night in Apollonius XUiodius; 
and Manilius tells us, 

Seven equal stars adorn the Greater Bear, 
And teach the Grecian sailors how to steer. 

Modern navigators, of course, resorted to the same asterism, wherefore 
King James in his Prentise, describing the azure gown of Uran:a an 
decorated with fixed stars, says, 

Heir hynes the Charlewain, there the Harp gives light, 
And heir the Seaman's Starres, and there Twinnis bright. 

Nor is it lees an object of regard with our present seamen, by whom 



HA. io h - 56 m io h - 57 m - 287 



it is usually referred to in alignment, as a known figure ; though as Nep- 
tune obligingly consented that it should never set within his domain, 
both he and Juno must have been dwelling in Europe, for it has been 
my fate to see it set often enough, as well as to lose it entirely. And 
there is little in southern celestial scenery to balance the loss, either in 
beauty or utility. Look to the rhymes for its prime use in alignment : 

Where yonder radiant hosts adorn the northern evening sky, 

Seven stars, a splendid glorious train, first fix the wand'ring eye. 

To deck great TJrsa's shaggy form, those brilliant orbs combine ; 

And where the first and second point, there see Polaris shine, 

But it must be admitted, that our poets have done little to foster or 
exalt the taste for astronomy, though Young's 

One sun by day, by night ten thousand shine; 
And light us deep into the Deity 

deserves a word of thankful commendation. 

To return. The principal star in this constellation is called Dubhe, 
from Dubb, the Arabic for a bear, the name of the whole asterism, and 
erroneously entered in the Alphonsine Tables for a Ursse Majoris only. 
It was also designated Dhuhr dubb-al-aJcbar, the back of the Great Bear. 
When Bayer facilitated the arrangement of the fixed stars, in 1603, he 
marked those in each constellation by the Greek alphabet, according to 
their degrees of brightness. But he made an exception in Ursa Major, 
so that the principal stars are lettered nearly in their order of R.A. 
The constituents of this grand asterism have been thus numbered, as 
progressive power has been applied : 

Ptolemy ... 35 stars. Griemberger . . 57 stars. 

Copernicus . . 35 Hevelius .... 73 

Tycho Brane* . . 56 Flamsteed ... 87 

Kepler .... 56 M Bode ..... 338 , v 



680. 88 $. I. LEONIS MZNTOBIS. (h. 810; H. 2287; .) 

OCCXCVI. 



h. m. . 

B.A. 10 67 12 



o 



Bed. N 28 33 9 



Prec. -f 3-27 
8 19-31 



A bright-class nebula, on the Little Lion's haunch, with some glimpse 
stars in the field, of which the principal are in the sp quadrant. It is 
pale white, elongated, and has the semblance of a nucleus. H. says it ia 
a resolveable distant cluster. 



288 



A Cycle of Celestial: Object^ 



681. 



229 P. X. LEONIS. (S. 1504.) 



CCCXCVII, 



b. 

10 


m. 
58 


9. 

19 


Free. 


s. 




o 


i 




H 


N 


4 13*9 





s 19-33 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 




if 






275-6 


... 


1-07 


1829-13 




280.0 




1-3 


1836-29 




278.1 




1.07 


1854.99 




286.3 


... 


I-l6 


1875.37 




28-1-0 


... 


1*13 


1878.33 



B.A. 
Peel. 



STKUVE, W. 
SMYTH 
STRUVE, 0, 
SPARER 
HALL, A. 

A very neat double star, preceding the Lion's hind legs. A 8, and 
B 8, both white. It closely follows 58 Leonis, a star of the 5 th mag- 
nitude, which lies a little S. of a line produced from a Leonis to 
a Virginis, at one-third of the distance. S. marked it one of his " per- 
vicinae." 

[According to 0. Struve, one or both of the components are variable.] 



682. 



13 $. I. LEONIS. (h. 818 ; H. 2301 ; .) CCCXCVIII. 

h. m. s. s. 

B.A, 11 O 10 



Peel. N 33-5 



Free. -|- 3-07 
S 1-1 



A bright-class nebula, preceding the Lion's hind-paws, with an 8 th 
magnitude star following in the sf quadrant, and four of the io th mag- 
nitude form a trapezium in the nf, between which and the nebula is one 
of the 13^. The nebula is large, elongated in direction np and sf, pale 
white, and well defined, with the brilliance increasing in the sp region. 
It closely follows 62 Leonis, a star of the 6 ttl magnitude, which is 
20 S.E. of a, and about u^ W, by S. of /3 Virginis, the nearest bright 
star to the E. 

This enormous mass of luminous matter is an outlier of the vast 
nebulous tract which appears to be posited nearly at right angles to the 
Galaxy; but in irregular occurrence. This wonderful zone consists 
mostly of groups of spherical nebulae ; and doubtless they are as much 
beyond our sidereal system, as ;the distance of the stars- exceeds that of 
our planet from the Sim ! As to our own apparently vast distance from 
the solar orb, it may be deemed pitifully minute and almost infinitesimal 
in comparison. 

Besides the more condensed masses, diffused nebulosity exists in an 
abundance which exceeds all imagination ; and the indefatigable Ijl . 
examined more than 150 square degrees of it. His conclusion is, that 
the high degree of rarefaction of the nebulous matter should not be 



E.A, io h s8 m - n h ' i m , 289 

considered an obstacle to the theory of its finally being compressed 
into a body of the density of our Sun : for, supposing the nebula to 
be about 320 billions of miles distant, and its diameter subtending 
an angle of 10', then must its magnitude exceed that of the Sun by 
more than 2 trillions of times ! This presents magnitude and mass vast 
and inconceivable; and has staggered many a tyro. Now several im- 
portant astronomical truths have been strongly conceived, and adopted by 
vigorous understandings, long before their evidence became indubitable. 
The developments which crown 1$. with imperishable fame, will for ages 
draw forth both practical and theoretical talent, so that his reasonings 
and conclusions on the condensation of nebulous matter into suns and 
planets will be rigorously reviewed and tested. 



683. 239 P. X. LECXNTS. (2. 1507.) CCCXCIX. 



h. ra. 



R.A. 11 25 
Bed. JST 7 43-8 



Free. + 3-12 
S 19-38 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

SOUTH 164-0 ... 8*6 ... 1825.29 
SMYIH 164.7 ... 8-2 ,., 1839.16 

A neat and delicate double star, close to the Lion's hind-legs. A 8, 
topaz yellow; B n*~, cerulean blue. These places do not quite quadrate 
with Piazzi's ; and there is some doubt as to identity, this being placed 
before No. 238, Hora X., in the Palermo Catalogue. Its relative fixity 
seems conclusively established. 

This small pair closely follows x Leonis, a 4 tb mag., nearly in mid- 
distance between a Leonis and 77 Virginis : it will, therefore, be readily 
caught up. [But a somewhat larger star more to the N. is nearer x than 
this double.] 



684, 323 Bunlop CENTAITBI. (h. 3315 ; H. 2308.) 



h. 



B.A. 11 1 50 
Beol. S 58 4-7 



Prec. + 2-53 
S 19-41, 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschers, Catalog w of 1864 : 
" !! ; 01 ; e L ; R ; 1C; st 8 . . . 1 2 ;" which means : " a very remark- 
able cluster; extremely large ; round; little compressed; the component 
stars vary from the 8 th to the 12 th magnitudes/ 1 

u 



290 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

685. 248 P. X. CENTATJBI. (*h. 4409.) 

b. m. *. s. 

Free, -f 2-76 

// 
S 19-42 



B.A. 11 2 10 



Decl. S 42 2*3 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HEBSCHEL,J. 278-0 , 1.40 ... 1837-27 
A dcruble star. A s| ; Eg. 

686. 220 W. I. UBS^E MAJORIS. (H. 2317; .) 

h. m. . . 



RA. 11 4 30 
Decl. N 53 58 '5 



Free. -f- 3-52 
S 1*9-47 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; c L ; c E 1 60 ; " which means : " considerably bright ; con- 
siderably large; considerably extended in the direction of 160 with the 
meridian." 

687. 351 $. III. LEONIS MINOBIS. (h. 829; H. 2319; #.) 

h. m. . . 



B.A. 11 4 45 
Decl. 3ST 29 21 -4 



Free. -f 3' 2 5 

// 
S 19-46 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ! ; F (1 var.) ; S ; E ; b M ; * 9 f i'; i*t of 4 ;" which means : " a re- 
markable object ; faint and perhaps variable j small ; round ; brighter in 
the middle; a star of mag. 9 follows at a distance of i'; the i sfc of 4 
nebulae/ 1 No. 2 of the series follows at 6 s and is exceedingly faint and 
small ; No. 3 follows at 8 s and is very faint and rather small ; No. 4 
follows at 32 s and is very faint but larger than the others. These nebulae 
are respectively H. 2320; 2321; and 2326. All are S. of H. 2319, 
within about 6' of arc. These objects lie near the boundary line between 
Leo Minor and Ursa Major. " The observations of this nebula [H. 2319], 
which are numerous, disagree eo very remarkably in the particular of 
brightness, that a considerable suspicion of variability exists." Sir J. 
fferscheL 

688. 46 $. V. TJBS^B MAJOBIS. (h. 831; H. 2318; ,) CCCC. 

h. m. 0. 8. 



B.A. 11 4 59 
Decl. K 56 15 '6 



Free. + 



S 19-48 



A large milky-white nebula, on the body of the Great Bear, with a 



E. A. 



ii 1 *- 8 m - 



291 



small star at its sp apex, and an 8 th magnitude preceding it at double 
the distance; there is also a brightish group in the up quadrant. It 
is easily found, since it lies only about i S.E. of ft. This object is 
faint but well defined, being much elongated with an axis-major trend- 
ing sp and nf across the parallel, and a small star, like a nucleus, 
in the centre. As 1$. considers this star to be unconnected with the 
nebula, it follows that it is between us and it, and therefore strengthens 
to confirmation our belief in the inconceivable remoteness of those 
mysterious bodies. 



689. 



9 P. XI. LEONIS. 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 11 7 50 



Decl. N 20 44 '0 

Position. 



(2. 1517.) 

S. 

Free. + 3-19 



COCCI. 



S 



Distance. 



I9'54 

Epoch. 



STRUVE, W. 287-8 ... 1-05 ... 1829.70 

SMYTH 288-6 ... 1.2 ... 1833-51 

SECCHI 287-4 -7 8 1856-98 

DOBERCK 284-8 ... 0.61 ... 1877.26 

BURNHAM 281-1 ... 0-83 ... 1879-22 

A neat double star, on the Lion's loins ; and closely sp 6, a star of the 
3 rt * magnitude. Both 7^, and both faint yellow. This is a beautiful 
object, resembling r\ Corouse. 

[According to the observations of the two Struves and Secchi one or 
other of these stars is certainly variable. Perhaps both the angle and the 
distance are decreasing. " Common proper motion ; and undoubtedly a 
binary system." Burnham^. 



690. 



1516 2. DBACONIS. 



h. 


m. s. 


It. A. 11 


8 7 




o t 


Decl. N 


74 4-5 




Position. 




o 


STBUVI, W. 


AB 298.7 


STBUVB, O. 


AB 310-6 


SfBUVB, O. 


AB 341.7 


STRIVE, O. 


JAB 64.4 
( A C 297.0 


Drain 


JAB 87.3 
\ A C 299.4 


FLAMMABION 


AB 91*0 


A triple star. A y-J., 


yellowish ; ] 



Free, -f 


4-23 




n 


_ S 


19-55 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


n 




9*9 


1831-5* 


6-i .. 


1841*92 


2-9 .. 


1850-92 


3-7} .. 
8.0) .. 


1861-33 


7-3 .. 


1871-49 


7-4 - 


I875-54 


9-5 .- 


i877'37 



discovered C in .1 



ashy yellow; On. O. Struve 
The star B is therefore fixed, and has no 

TT 2 



292 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



physical relation with A. The star C, on the contrary, participates in 
the large proper motion of A." Gledhill. 



691. 



8 LEONIS. 



CCCCIII, 





h. m. 8. 




i. 


B.A. 


11 8 15 


Prec. + 


3*19 




o / 




n 


Decl. 


N 21 7-6 


S 


19-54 


Position, Difference of R, 


A. Epoch. 







s, 




SMYTH 


\AB 5 o 

(AC 345 


4-9 j 

2-9 ) 


1836-21 




Position. 


Distance. 






o 


// 




BUBNHAM 


JAB 44-2 
(AC 344.7 ... 


95-5 I 
not stated ) 


1879.28 



A Nautical Almanac star, with companions forming a coarse triple 
object, in a black field, at the root of the Lion' tail. A 3, pale yellow ; 
B 13, blue; C 9, violet; a fourth and most minute star is suspected 
nearly in the line of C, and about a third of the distance, but this was 
not confirmed by Dawes, who also examined the object for me. 

6 Leonis and 6 Virginia are the stars which Flamsteed observed, in 
1690, with the object which has since proved to be Uranus. 

This star is called Zosma, from fao-pa or a>/ua, a tunic or girdle, but 
why so designated, deponent sayeth not : it is not mentioned by Ideler. 
Zosma will be readily distinguished 18 N.E. of a Leonis, arid 5 due N. 
of 0, where it forms a fine scalene triangle with and /3. 

692. 97 M, UES^I MAJORIS. (h. 838; H. 2343; .) COCCII. 



h. 

R.A. 11 8 19 
Decl. N 55 36 '7 



Prec. + 3-51 

s is 



A large planetary nebula, or globular collection of nebulous matter, 




J?IG. 1 8, 97 M. UKSAJ MAJORIS. 
found by M. in 1781 on the Great Bear's flank, with several stars in 



R. A. n h - 8 m - 



293 



the field, one of which is pretty close. It lies about 2 to the S.E. of /3, 
and just S. of an imaginary line from /3 to y. This very singular object 
is circular and uniform, and after a long inspection looks like a condensed 
mass of attenuated light, seemingly of the size of Jupiter. This diagram 
was sketched. Sir W. Herschel discovered this orb in 1789, and found 
it a globular body of equal light throughout : he also says, " From the 
observation of the 2O ft telescope, it appears that the profundity of this 
object is beyond the guaging power of that instrument ; and as it must be 
sufficiently distant to be ambiguous, it cannot well be less than of the 
980^ order." The 980*^ order ! [Sir J. Herschel assigned to this object 
a diameter of 2' 40" ; the light equable, with only a softened edge ; but 
the Earl of Rosse found a good deal of structure in it, that is to say, 
2 large perforations and a resolveable spiral arrangement. Webb points 
out that of 2 stars, one in each opening, one only has been seen since 
1850. Huggins finds the spectrum to be gaseous.] 



693. 29 1$. I. LEONIS. (h. 840; H. 2347; .) 



K.A. 11 8 50 
Decl. N 13 24-8 



Free, -f 3-14 
S 19-56 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B; cL; E 90+ ; psmbM;" which means: "bright; considerably 
large ; extended in the direction of about 90 with the meridian ; pretty 
suddenly much brighter in the middle," Engraved, Vogel, Nebelflecken, 
1876, PL i. Fig. 2. 



694. 



234 B. URS^E MAJOEIS. (2. 1520.) 



h. m. 8. 

B.A. 11 9 43 
Decl. N 53 22 5 



Position. 

o 

STRUVE, W. 345-3 
MAIN 344-0 



Prec. -f 3-49 
S 1*9-58 



Distance. 

// 
13-0 



Epoch. 

1831-71 
1864-46 



A double star. A 7, white; B 8, bluish. 



294 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

695. 50 $. II. LEOHTS. (h. 845; H. 2358; .) CCCCIV. 



h. 



K.A. 11 11 6 

Decl. JST 18 38 '7 



Free. 



S 19-60 



A fine round white nebula, at the root of the Lion's tail, well-defined, 
and with a brightish centre. A little to the N. of it is another rather 
smaller, which is 51 Ij[. II. [H. 2359]; and there are some telescopic 
stars between them. They are followed by a triangle of three stars, 
and the whole forms a field of high interest. 

This object was described by I$L as a "triple" nebula, but I can only 
see the above-mentioned. It bears about 2^ to the 8.8.E. of S Leonis. 



696. 270 $. I. UES^E MAJOBJS. (h. 847; H. 2360; .) 



h. m. 



R.A. 11 11 57 



o 



Decl. N 59 22 '7 



Free, + 3*55 

// 
S 19-60 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; pS; IE 90+; vsvmbllSN";" which means : "very bright; 
pretty small ; a little extended in the direction of about 90 with the 
meridian ; very suddenly very much brighter in the middle where it 
exhibits a small nucleus," 



697. 271 1$. I. URS^B MAJOBIS. (h. 848; H. 2362; K.) 



h. 



B.A. 11 12 6 
Bed. BT 58 35' 5 



Free. + 3-53 
S 19-62 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; c L ; m E 305-0 ; smb MN ; " which means : " very bright ; 
considerably large; much extended in the direction of 305-0 with 
the meridian ; suddenly much brighter in the middle where it exhibits 
a nucleus/' 



698, IJRS^S MAJOBIS, (2. 1523.) CCCCVI. 



h. m. s. 



K.A. 11 12 20 



o 



Decl. 1ST 32 0*5 



Free. + 3.25 
S 19-62 



RA. I I*i- Iim . _ Ir h. j 2 m. 295 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

HEBSOHEL,W. 143-8 ... 3-50 ... 178033 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 258.5 ... 2-81 ... 1823.29 

SMYTH 207.5 ' I>8 - * 8 3*94 

KAISER 152-2 ... 2-08 ... 1840.25 

HTRUVE, 0. 124-1 ,., 2-67 . 1850-39 

MORTON 105-3 * 2> &4 ... 1860-08 

DUNER 53.8 ... 1-16 ... 1870-43 

WILSON and SEABROKE 295-0 ... 1-50 ... 1877-41 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 272-0 ... i8i ... 1880.48 

A binary star of the most interesting description, in the Bear's left 
hind-paw, directly under v, or Al ula Borealis ; the two forming a 
miniature of 8 and Leonis, which are 10 due S. of them. A 4, 
subdued white ; B 5^, greyish white, and both very bright. It is usually 
designated Al Ula Australia, from the Arabian Al-kafzali-al-fdq, the 
gazelle's first spring or leap. 

This extraordinary pair forms an object of the gravest importance, 
since its motion is so rapid as to admit of being demonstrated by 
measurements at short intervals. So far back as 1825, H. most 
strongly recommended it for constant and careful observation. "This 
done," said he, " there is no doubt of our arriving at a precise know- 
ledge of the elements and position of the orbit described by each about 
their common centre of gravity ; and the question of the extension or 
non-extension of the NEWTONIAN law of gravity to the sidereal heavens 
the next great step which physical astronomy has yet to make will be 
effectually decided." The effect of such a call was to animate exertion ; 
and its consequence has been a series of excellent measures by various 
astronomers. 

There is not a binary star which goes further to prove that there is 
yet much to be accomplished in the art of measuring, than ; for the 
discordances in the value of its annual movement in orbit are great. 
This, and the gap in the period of the starting points, make it difficult 
to investigate the elements by the process of gathering the radii vectores 
of the revolver from the angle of position a method founded by Herschel 
on the condition, that they are equal to the square roots of the apparent 
angular velocities. Still I essayed it, and brought out a period of 65*'. 

Sir John Herschel had also predicted that, between 1839 an( * 1841, 
this star would have completed a full revolution from the epoch of ihe 
first measurement of its position in 1780, in a periodic time of about 
59 years. M. Savary elaborately computed its orbit in 1830, making its 
period to be 58} years, and in his acute discussion of the details, adduces 
an equation due to the finite velocity of light. Indeed, of all the stellar 
orbital periods yet discussed^ this of f Ursae Majoris is admitted to be the 
most rigorously determined; and did we but know its parallax, and 



296 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

thence its absolute distance from the Earth, we might readily decide upon 
the linear extent of its orbit. 

[The rapidity with which the position angle of this star changes has 
enabled a vast number of observations to be accumulated since Admiral 
Smyth's epoch. But notwithstanding this, our knowledge of its orbit 
is less precise than might be expected. There can be no doubt however 
that the period does not sensibly differ from 60 years. DuneVs elements 
are as follows : 

Peri-astron passage . . T = 1875-29 

Longitude of peri-astron , \ 132 33' 

Longitude of Ascending Node S3 = 101 30' (Equinox, 1850-0) 

Inclination . . . . 7 56 54' 

Eccentricity . . . = 0-3952 

Mean Annual Motion . JJL = 5.9 2 

Semi -axis major . . a = 2 -5 49" 

Period = 6o79 yrs - 

699. V UBS^J MAJOEIS. (2. 1524.) CCCCVII. 



h. 



B.A. 11 12 32 
Decl. N 33 41'7 



Prec. -f 3-26 
S 1*9.63 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ff 

STBUVE, W. 146-5 ... 7-1 ... 1830-69 

SMYTH 147-2 ... 7-8 ... 1834-31 

WILSON I47- 1 ... 7'i ... 1873-25 

BUENHAM 146-0 ... 7*0 ... 1878*26 

A delicate double star, on the Bear's left hind-foot, immediately above 
f, and therefore called Al Ula Borealis* A 4, orange tint; B 12, 
cerulean blue, preceded exactly on the equatorial line by a %& mag. star, 
with A B.A.=2i-5 s . 

It is mentioned under No. 698 that this star with forms a miniature 
of 5 and B Leonis, 10 to the S. of them; and for further identity it 
may be added that a W. S. W. ray from Cor Caroli to e Leonis passes them 
in mid-dibtance. 



700. 241 #. I. CBATERIS. (h. 3337; H. 2371.) 



h. 



B.A. 11 12 57 
Decl. S 32 12 '5 



Prec. -f- 2-90 
S 1*9-63 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; v L ; E 160+ ; am 4 st ;" which means : " considerably bright ; 
very large; extended in the direction of about 160 with the meridian; 
amongst 4 stars/* This is 617 Dunlop. 



E. A. 



_nh. 



I4 



m. 



297 



701. 



330 B. 


LEONIS. (S. 1627.) 




h. m. 


8. 




8. 


B.A. 


11 13 


14 


Free. H- 


3-15 




o 


; 




// 


Decl. 


N 14 


52-4 


L q 


I9-64 




Position* 


Distance. 


Epoch. 









// 




STRUVE, W. 9- 


7 


3-7 


1822*20 


DAWES 


10. 


2 


4-0 


1840-60 


MORTON 


11-6 


3-9 


1855-70 


TALMAGE 


12-8 


3*6 ... 


1866-28 


DUNEB 


14-4 


3-4 


1875.30 



A double star. A 7, yellow ; B 8, blue. A may be variable : at 
least South puts it at 8 ; Dawes at 8, 7-2 ; Struve at 8, 6-9; Duner at 
6-5, 6. A slow increase in angle and decrease in distance seems prob- 
able. 



702. 



39 P, XI. CRATERIS. (2. 1530.) CCCC1X. 



R.A. 11 14 10 
Decl. S 6 17'7 

Position. 

o 
STRUVE.W. 314-6 

SMYTH 315-0 

WILSON and SEABROKE 313-4 
BURNHAM W3 



Free. + 3-04 
S 1*9.65 



Distance. 

// 

. 7-6 . 
, 8-0 . 
, 7-4 



Epoch. 

1830-23 
1836-29 
1874-22 
1880.22 



A neat but minute double star, between the Cup and the Lion's hind- 
feet ; and exactly 8 due N. of 8 Crateris : a ray projected from b Crateris 
to Leonis passes over it at nearly one-quarter of the distance. A 8|-, 
arid B 9, both bluish white ; other small stars in the field. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 11 14 22 



703. 66 M. LEONIS. (h. 857; H. 2377; .) CCCCX, 

8. 

Free. 4- 3-14 
Decl. N 13 34-9 S 19-66 

A large elongated nebula, with a bright nucleus, on the Lion's haunch, 
trending np and sf. This beautiful specimen of perspective lies just 3 
S.E. of Leonis, It is preceded at about 73 s by another of a similar 
shape, which is 65 M., and both are in the field at the same time, under a 
moderate power, together with several stars. They were pointed out by 
M^chain to Messier in 1780, and they appeared faint and hazy to him. 
The sketch on the next page represents their appearance in my in- 
strument. 




298 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

The two preceding of these singular objects were examined by Sir 
W. Herschel, and his son also ; and the latter says, " The general form 

of elongated nebulae is 
elliptic, and their con- 
densation towards the 
centre is almost in- 
variably such as would 
arise from the super- 
position of luminous 
elliptic strata, increas- 
ing in density towards 
FIG. 19. 65 and 66 M. PEBSEI. the centre . In many 

cases this increase of density is obviously attended with a diminution 
of ellipticity, or a nearer approach to the globular form in the central 
than in the exterior strata." He then supposes the general constitution 
of those nebulae to be that of oblate spheroidal masses of every degree of 
flatness from the sphere to the disc, and of every variety in respect of 
the law of their density, and ellipticity towards the centre. This 
must appear startling and paradoxical to those who imagine that the 
forms of these systems are maintained by forces identical with those 
which determine the form of a fluid mass in rotation ; because, if the 
nebulse be only clusters of discrete stars, as in the greater number of 
cases there is every reason to believe them to be, no pressure can be 
propagated through them. Consequently, since no general rotation of 
such a system as one mass can be supposed, Sir John suggests a scheme 
which he shows is not, under certain conditions, inconsistent with the 
law of gravitation. "It must rather be conceived/' he tells us, "as a 
quiescent form, comprising within its limits an indefinite multitude of 
individual constituents, which, for aught we can tell, may be moving one 
among the other, each animated by its own inherent projectile force, 
and deflected into an orbit more or less complicated, by the influence of 
that law of internal gravitation which may result from the compounded 
attractions of all its parts." 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, PI. vi. Fig. 54; Phil Trans., 1861, 
PI. xxvi. Fig. 16; Vogel, Nebelflecken, 1876, PI. i. Fig. 5.] 



704. 226 $. I. UKS^B MAJOBJS. (h. 858; H. 2379; .) 

h. m. R. i. 



K.A. 11 14 44 
Becl. B* 53 46 '0 



Prec. + 3-43 
S 19-67 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 :- 



RA. ii h - I4 m - ii h - i8 m ' 299 

"pB; L; R; svmbMrN;" which means: "pretty bright; large; 
round ; suddenly very much brighter in the middle where there is a 
resolveable nucleus/' Engraved, Rosse, woodcut, Phil. Trans, 1861. 

705. 5 tjji. I. LEONIS. (h. 873 ; H. 2306 ; &.) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 11 17 7 
Becl. N 17 11-6 



Free, -f 3-15 
S 1*9-71 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" p B ; p S : i R ; b M ; r ;" which means : " pretty bright ; pretty 
small ; irregularly round ; bright in the middle ; resolveable." 



706. i LEONTS. (2. 1536.) CCCCXI. 



i 


LEONTS. 


(2. 1536.) 




h. 


m. s. 


s. 




R.A. 11 


18 11 


Free, -f 3- 


12 




o t 







Decl. N 


11 8'4 


S 19 


72 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


// 




STRUVE, W. 


97-0 


2-30 


1827-28 


SMYTH 


86-0 


2-5 


1843.38 


SECCHI 


76-4 ... 


2-26 .. t 


1856-26 


DEMBOWSKI 


74-9 


2-56 


1866.10 


JEDKZEJEWICZ 66-7 


2-69 


1878.33 



A binary star on the Lion's flank ; 7 S.W. of Leonis, with which 
star and it forms a neat scalene triangle, of which it is the southern 
vertex. A 4, pale yellow ; B 7^, light blue. A binary system. 



707. 4737 Lac. CARING. (*k. 4432.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 11 18 36 



o 



Decl. 3 64 21*3 



Free. 4- 2-55 
S 19-73 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J. 288.5 ... 2.37 ... 1836*27 

SANTIAGO OBS. 202-2 ... 4.5 ... 1850-28 

A double star. A 6 ; B 8. A considerable change of angle and 
distance would seem to have taken place, but no other observations are 
known to me. 



300 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

108. 219 $. I. URS^S MAJORIS. (h. 881; H. 2404; &.) 

CCCCXII. 

R.A. 11 18 44 Free. -f 3-27 



Bed. H 39 21*8 



S 19-73 



A bright-class nebula, before the animal's left hind-leg, nearly in a 
line with 4 telescopic stars to the 8. from the 9 th to the n* 1 * mags. two 
of which precede, and two follow ; the latter are the smallest and by far 
the nearest. It is small, round, and lucid white; and H. says it is 
resolveable. Assuredly it is most wonderful that this object apparently 
about 40" or 50" in diameter should present a remote universe ; yet 
the resolveability implies the existence of an immense number of stars 
at a proximity apparently much greater than those in our own Via 
Lactea. Indeed it has been shown that clustering collections of stars 
may easily contain upwards of 50,000 of them ! 

This nebula is nearly in mid-distance between e Ursee Majoris arid 
a Leonis, and exactly between Flamsteed's 55 and 57 Urcee Majoris. 

[" A faint nebula in 7|^ in refractor/' DrodieJ] 

709. y CBATEBIS. CCCCXIII. 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 11 19 23 
Decl. S 17 4-7 



Prec. -f- 2*99 
S 19-74 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

102-5 ... 3 ... 1838-26 

STONE, 0. 98-3 ... 5-1 ... 1877-21 

A close double star, in the centre of the Goblet, and 3 S.S.E. of 5, the 
present lucida. A 4, bright white ; B [to], grey, a star of the i I th mag. 
following nearly on the parallel, in the line of A and B, at about 25** ; and 
the 8*k mag. star mentioned by Piazzi, Note 62, Hora XI., is at a 
distance in the np. This fine but delicate object, erroneously lettered x 
in the Palermo Catalogue, was discovered by H, in his 2O ft Sweeps : 
the acolyte was sufficiently visible in my telescope for the rock-crystal, 
or for exact estimation, but was utterly " obnubilated" under the slightest 
artificial light. 

710. 131 $. I. CBATERIS. (h. 886; H. 2411; .) 

h. m. &. 



K.A. 11 19 28 
Decl. 8 9 11 -7 



Prec. -f 3*3 
S 19-75 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : * 



B.A. n h * i8 m ' n h ' 2i m - 301 



"pB; L; E 0+ ; gbM;" which means: " pretty bright ; large; ex- 
tended in the direction of the meridian or thereabouts ; gradually brighter 
in the middle." 



711. 104 $. I. UES^I MAJOBJS. (h. 887; H. 2413; &.) 

CCCCXIV. 



h. "m. 



B.A. 11 20 6 



o 



Decl. N 44 11 -5 



Prec. + 3-30 
S 19-75 



A large elongated nebula, between the Greater Bear's hind knees, with 
two minute stars about twice as far to the 8. of it, as they are from each 
other. This nebula is pale white, and brightish towards the centre, and its 
axis of extension is preceded by star-dust ; but it presents an ill-defined 
surface, and has the appearance of a flat stratum seen obliquely. About 
i 71/56 Ursse. 



712. 481 Dunlop CENTAUBI. (h. 3342; H. 24L8.) 

h. m. a. a. 



B.A. 11 20 23 
Decl. S 42 37'7 



Prec. -f 2-86 
S 19-76 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
'Cl; cL; pEi; 1C; st io.,.i4;" which means: "a cluster; con- 
siderably large ; pretty rich ; little compressed ; the component stars vary 
from the io th to the 14^ magnitudes," 



713. 262 $ . I. HUSO. (h. 890 ; H. 2420 ) 

h. m. 8. 



B.A, 11 21 7 
Bed. H 67 11 -6 



Prec. + 3-62 
S 19-77 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B ; S ; i E ; spmb MN ;" which means : " considerably bright; 
mall ; irregularly round ; suddenly pretty much brighter in the middle 
where there is a nucleus," 



302, A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

714. 83 LEONIS. (2. 1540.) CCCCXV. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 11 21 13 
Decl. K" 3 36 '7 



Free. + 3-09 
S 19-77 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, W. !44*9 ... 2 9 >0 ... 1^80-27 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 151-1 ... 29.5 ... 1821-20 

STROVE, W. 150-0 ... 29.5 ... 1832-71 

SMYTH 150-8 ... 29-8 ... 1839-22 

MAIN 149*3 ... 29-9 ... 1862-25 

JEDRZEJEWICZ *5-5 ... 2 9*5 1878-80 

A neat double star, on Leo's right hind-leg, closely np r Leonis, which 
lies 21 E.S.E. of a. A 8, silvery white; B 9, pale rose-tint. A com- 
parison of the several measures, while it shows the distance to be stationary, 
does not confirm the suspected direct change in the orbital angle. The 
difference, therefore, between 1$. and recent observers must be attributed 
to instrumental error. 

The object is of very easy measurement, and therefore its fixity may be 
deemed to be established. 



715. 246 y. I, UES^EI MAJOBIS. (h. 892; H. 2421; .) 

b. m. s. s. 



B A. 11 21 16 
Decl, N 57 29-2 



Prec. + 3-43 
S /9-77 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; p L ; E ;" which means : " considerably bright ; pretty large ; 
extended!" 



716. 247 $. I. UBS-SI MAJOBIS. (h. 896; H. 2425; 

h. m. a. . 



B.A. 11 22 28 



o 



Decl, K 59 9'3 



Free. + 3-44 
S 19-80 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; pS; vlE8o 4;; pgbM; Sstsfnr;" which means : " pretty 
bright ; pretty small ; very slightly elongated in the direction of about 
80 with the meridian ; pretty gradually brighter in the middle ; there is 
a small star on the s/side, near/ 1 



RA. 



25 



m. 



303 



717. 



67 



B.A. 
Becl. 



MAJOKIS. (2. 1643.) CCCCXVI. 



h. 
11 



SOUTH 
STRUVE, W. 
SMYTH 
SECCHI 

BUBNHAM 



23 9 

f 39 56-5 

Position, 
o 

10-3 
107 

9-9 

6-5 ... 



Free. 



S 



Distance. 
n 

5.86 

5-3 
5-9 
5-16 

5-43 



I9-80 

Epoch. 

1825-25 
1831.91 
1835.42 

1857.89 
1878-42 



A neat double star, on the Bear's left hind-leg, nearly midway on a 
line produced between e Ursse Majoris and a Leonis. A 6, lucid white ; 
B 9, violet. This is a beautiful object. A slight orbital change was 
inferred, [and this is confirmed by recent observations]. 

Another remark is called for : 1$. says that the small star is " a red 
point without sensible magnitude;" and S., upwards of half a century 
afterwards, rated it of the lo^ 1 lustre, as shown by his 7^ telescope. In 
the summer of 1835 ^ was ver J distinct, being a bright 9 tn size, bearing 
illumination admirably. Is it variable $ 



718. 



81 P. XI. CENTAUBI. 



K.A. 11 23 16 

DecL S 42 4*1 

Position, 
o 

HEBSCHEL, J. 166-9 
A double star, A 6 ; B 8. 



Free. + 2-86 

S 19-80 

Distance. Epoch. 
ft 

12-9 ... 1835-26 



719. 



91 P. XI. LEONIS. (2. 3072.) CCCCXVIII. 



K.A. 



h. 
11 



DecL 8 



25 15 

o / 

6 6-7 



Free. 



Distance. 



3'5 

19-83 

Epoch. 



Position. 

STBUVE, W. 331.8 ... 9-3 ... 1831-65 

SMYTH 330-2 ... 9.5 ... 1834-30 

STONE, 0. 3287 ... 9.4 ... 1879.33 

BUBNHAM 330.4 ... 9.5 ... 1880.22 

A fine but very delicate double star, in a barren field, under the Lion's 
hind-paw ; it lies 8. of a line from 77 Virginis to a Hydrse, and one-fourth 
of the way, where it is also two-thirds of the distance between ft Leonis 



304 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



and 8 Crateris, A 8, creamy white; B n, greenish, and rather more 
difficult under illumination than its magnitude quite warrants. 



720. 



88 


LEONIS. (2. 1547.) ( 


h. 


m. 


8, 




s. 


R,A. 11 


26 


5 


Free, -f 


3'*3 




c 


/ 




tt 


Decl. N 


14 


58-8 




19-84 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 









// 




HERSCHEL, W. 


317-5 


14-6 


1782-11 


STBUVE, W. 


319-9 


15-3 . . 


1829-02 


SMYTH 


31 


98 


*4'9 


1835-38 


MAIN 


3 20 '5 


H-7 


1861-33 


JEDKZEJEWICZ 


323-8 ... 15-3 


1878-31 



CCCCXIX. 



A neat double star, on Leo's flank, nearly midway between /3 and 6. 
A 7, topaz yellow; B 9, pale like; a third star of the io th mag. follows 
in the sf quadrant. This is a good object, although it rather weakens 
under illumination. 

[According to Struve both stars are endowed with a common proper 
motion.] 



721. 221 1$. I. UES^E MAJOBIS. (h. 008 ; H. 2443 ; .) 



R. A. 11 26 26 
Bed. 1ST 53 40 -7 



Free. + 3-34 
S 19-84 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" p B ; v L ; K ] vgl b M ;" which means : " pretty bright ; very large ; 
round ; very gradually less bright in the middle," 



722. 



17 CEATEBIS. 




b, 


m. s. 




B.A. 


11 


26 49 


Free. 






f 




"Oft/*l 




OQ QQ . ft 




JUrUV*X> 




<uO OI7 U 

Position. 


Distance. 






o 


if 


HERSCHEL, W. 


205.5 


9-7 


SMYTH 




207.8 


IOI 


HERSCHEL, 


J. 


30-2 


8.9 


WBOTTESLEY 


211-4 


8-8 


STONE, 0. 




3^3 


8.7 



ccccxx. 



S 19-85 



Epoch. 

1783-03 
1833.21 
1835-11 
1857.29 
1877-10 

A neat double star, of which A is 5|-, lucid white; and B 7, violet 



B. A, iit- 25 m. _ ii*. 28*.- 305 

tint. This object is situated in the far S., about 15 8. by E. of 6 Crateris, 
its ludda; and there it is also pointed to by a ray from a Virginis through 
a in the Raven's beak. Though on Hydra's back, it is in the Crater's 
boundary, and albeit Bayer's stars in that asterism do not exceed n, 
Flamsteed numbered it as above, in the British Catalogue, having carried 
his numeration up to 31. 

The observations are as coincident as can be expected, under the 
variable refractions with which the place of this star is troubled. 

Now had not B been physically connected with A, it seems clear that 
their situations regarding each other ought to have varied in 40 years 
owing to proper motion. Even Baily's reduced value, although it would 
let the position alone, would have increased the distance to 15*7". 

[Magnitudes much more nearly equal than stated by Smyth, according 
to Sir J. Herschel at the Cape, 1835, Webb, 1852, and Lord Wrottesley, 
I857-] 



723. 222 I}. I. URS^ES MAJOBIS. (h. 911; H. 2447; 



h. 



R.A. 11 27 42 
Deel. H 53 44 '3 



Free. -f 3-33 
S 19-86 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" p B ; p L ; 1 E o g b M ; *i 2 nr ; " which means : " pretty bright ; 
pretty large ; slightly elongated in the direction of the meridian or ther^- 
abouts ; gradually brighter in the middle ; there is a 1 2 th mag, star near." 



724. 90 LEONIS. (S. 1552.) CCCCXXI. 





90 LEONIS 


. (S. 1552 


) 


C 




h. m. s. 




B. 




B.A. 


11 28 59 


Free. + 


3' 


'3 




o / 




ff 




Decl. 


N 17 24-4 


R 


*9 


87 






Position. 


Distance. 




Epoch. 




o 








i 


AB 209.1 
AC 233.9 


3-5 I 

58.8 ( " 





1835.38 


., j 


AB 214.1 
A C 234.5 


3-5} 
63-3 I ' 




1865-33 



A triple star in the root of Leo's tail, infra eductionem wu&a, where 
it will be found 4 W.N.W. of ft Leonis, nearly on the line shot from 
that star towards b Leonis. A 6, silvery white ; B 7^, purplish ; C 9 J, 
pale red. This is a fine object. 

[" A B, probably binary : in A C, rectilinear motion."- GledMl.] 

X 



306 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



725. 



287 



I. DRACONIS. 



b. m. s. 

KA. 11 29 32 

Bed. N 71 8'5 



(h. 014 ; H. 2452.) 

8. 

Prec. + 3-60 
S 19-88 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" p B ; L ; m E 1 30-4 ; m b M ; " which means : " pretty bright ; large ; 
much extended in the direction of 130-4 with the meridian; much 
brighter in the middle." 



726. Ill P. XI. UBS^B MAJOBIS. (2. 1555.) CCCCXXII. 



B.A. 11 


30 30 


Prec. + 


3'I7 




o / 




// 


Becl. N 


28 23*5 


Q 


19-89 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




O 


tf 




STROVE, W. 


AB 339.3 


1-25 


1829-12 


SMYTH \ 


AB 3401 


- -4 | 


1834-31 


( 


A C 145-0 


., 17 1 




SECCHI 


AB 339-0 


080 


... 1855.95 


ENUELMANN 


AC 142.4 


.. 13-4 


1865-27 


DOBERCK 


AB 337.1 


071 


1877-33 



A fine and delicate triple star, under the left hind-leg of Ursa. A 6, 
and B 7, both pale blue ; C [12], plum colour. 

Here a typographical error has crept into H/s first series of 7 ft 
measures, 1 1 1 Piazzi being designated 3. At a distance in the sf is the 
star mentioned in the Palermo Catalogue : "Alia 8 W magnitud, sequitur 57" 
temporis, 20" circiter ad austrum." It is situated in a very vacant space 
to the eye, about 8 from 6 Leonis, in a N.N.E. direction towards ( Ursae 
Majoris ; but, to the powerful reflectors now in use, is in a very ocean of 
nebulse. 



h. 

B.A. 11 



m. s. 

31 4 



727. 289 Dunlop CENTAUIII, (h. 3852 ; H. 2468.) 

s. 

Prec. H- 2-76 

n 

Becl. S 60 59*4 S 19-90 

A cluster thus described in Sir J, Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
*' Cl ; p L ; p Ei ; p C ; st 8 . . . 13 ; " which means : " a cluster ; pretty 
large; pretty rich; pretty condensed; the component stars range from 
the 8^ to the 1$^ magnitudes." 



R A. n h - 29"- ilk- 33 m - 307 

728. 284 B. TJRSJE MAJORIS. (2. 1559.) 

h. m. ft. 8. 



R.A. 11 32 39 
Decl. H 64 57-1 



Free. + 3-46 

ft 
S 19-91 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O H 

STRUVB, W. 322.7 ... 2-05 ... 1831*50 
MAIN 318-6 ... 2-38 ... 1866-53 

A double star. A 7, white; B 8, white. 



720. 126 P, XI. VIRGINIS. (2. 156O.) CCCCXXIII. 



h. 



R.A. 11 32 47 



o 



Peel. S 1 40*6 



Free. H- 3*06 

H 

S 19-92 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

STRUVE, W. 280-5 ... 5.1 ... 1831.58 
SMYTH 280-9 ... 5 ... 1833-27 

STONE, 0. 280-5 ... 5* 1 ... 1878.96 

A fine but very delicate double star, between Leo's hind-paw and 
the Virgin's wing. A 7, pale orange; B 12, reddish, with a distant dull 
star in the sf. This beautiful object, far too delicate for a small in- 
strument, was discovered by 2). 

This star may be fished up about 5 S.S.W. of (3 Virgin is. 



730. 290 B. UBSu MAJORIS. (2. 1561.) 





h. m. s. 




c. 


B.A. 


11 33 2 


Free. 


+ 3^5 


Bed. 


N 45 43-1 

Position. 




S 19-92 
Epoch. 


Distance. 


STROVE, W 
MAIN | 


o 
266-0 

AB 263.2 
BC 268-6 


10.4 

IO-2 ) 
82-2 ] 


1831.68 
1864.45 



A double star. A 6, yellowish white ; B 8|, ash, 

X 2 



308 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

731. AWTLI-SS. (*h. 4463.) 

h. m. '' s. s. 

Prec. 4- 2-96 
S ip-94 



R.A. 11 35 4 



Deel. S 32 58 '0 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HEBSCHEL, J. 248-3 ... 2| est. ... 1835-09 

A double star. A 6, yellow ; B 8. Sir J. Herschel calls this " a 
fine star," but he gives no micrometrical measures of its distance. 

732. 21 $. I. LEONIS. (h. 943 ; H. 2499 ; .) 

h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 11 35 19 
Becl. N 12 4-9 



Prec. -f 3-10 
S 19-94 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; L ; v 1 E; " which means : " bright ; large ; very little extended." 

733. 94 $. I. TJRSJE MAJOEIS. (h. 945; H. 2501; .) 

CCCCXXIV. 



h. m. 



R.A. 11 35 27 

Decl. N 87 9*4 



Prec. + 3-18 
S 19-94 



A nebula, at the back of the Bear's hind-leg, of a pale white tint. It 
is elliptical, and though large, is so faint as not to be readily made out, 
till the equatorial clock fixes the telescope upon it, when it rises to view, 
lying slightly across the parallel, with a following star. The space around 
is apparently blank and starless. 1$. and H. contradict one another as 
to the direction in which the elongation shows itself. The former says 
N. to S. ; the latter, "in the parallel/' 

734. 201 $. I. TJBS^S MAJORIS. (H. 2546,) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A, 11 40 82 
Becl. N 48 6*0 



Prec. + 3-20 
S 19-98' 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; L; mE^ ;" which means: "bright; large; much extended 
in the direction of about 25 with the meridian." Rumker's E. A. is 
less by 148. , , 



R.A. ii 1 *- 35. iih. 4 3 m. 309 

735. 120 $. I. CEATERIS. (h. 979, 3360; H. 8554; .) 

h. m. s. 8. 



E.A. 11 41 28 
Decl. S 10 14-8 



Free. + 3-04 
S 19-99 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; L; iE; vgpmbM;" which means: "pretty bright; large; 
irregularly round ; very gradually pretty much brighter in the middle.'* 



736. 248 $. I. UBS. MAJOBIS. (h. 983 ; H. 2560 ; .) 

h. m. s. 



R.A. 11 42 58 
Decl. N 60 13 



Free. 4- 3-25 

// 
S 19-99 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p L ; i 11 ; p g m b M ; p of 2 ; " which means : " bright ; pretty 
large ; irregularly round ; pretty gradually much brighter in the middle ; 
the preceding of 2 nebulae." The other nebula here spoken of follows at 
a distance of i I s , and about i' to the N. It is described as " pretty faint ; 
pretty large ; very little extended ; gradually brighter in the middle." 



737. 1573 S. DRACONIS. 



h. 



B.A, 11 43 11 







Decl, N 67 56'0 



Free. + 3-36 
// 

S 20-00 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

177-9 -. II ' 

177-2 ... ii-; 

A double star. A 7, white ; B 8, white. 



STRUVE, W. 177-9 II * 1 1832-71 
MAIN 177.2 ... 11-3 ... 1864-45 



738. 228 1^1. I. URSJE MAJORIS. (h. 085; H. 2564; 

h. m. s. 



R.A. 11 43 22 







Decl. 3ST 56 4T6 



Free. + 3-22 
// 

S 2O'OO 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; pL; IE; svmbM;" Which means: "bright; pretty large; 
little extended ; suddenly very much brighter in the middle/' 



310 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



739. 82 $. I. URSJ9E MAJOBIS. (h. 988; H. 2566; .) 



h. 



B.A. 11 43 26 
Dec!. N 27 38 '3 



Prec. -h 3-12 

// 
8 20-00 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; pL; v!Eo; bMN;" which means: "bright; pretty large; 
a very little extended in about the direction of the meridian; brighter "in 
the middle where there is a nucleus/' 



740. /3 LEONIS. CCCCXXV. 





/3 LEONIS. 




"h. m. s. s. 


B.A. 


11 43 27 


Prec. -|- 3-10 




o ; 


it 


Decl. 


N 15 11-2 


S 19-99 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH 114 ... 298 ... 1833.47 

A Nautical Almanac star, with several companions, on the switch of 
Leo's tail. A 2-|, bluish; B 8, dull red; preceded by a 7* magnitude 
star in the np. 

[Knott's account of the companions of A is hopelessly at variance with 
Smyth's. Knott finds : A 2\, bluish ; B8; Cio; D 7 ; Ei2; Fn; 
with angles and distances as follows : 



TAB 206-2 


4 4 2 1 


A C 186-9 
j AD 201-6 


ii 30 1 
19 30 }> 


1 AE 116.1 


5 3 j 


L AE 120 est. ... 


10 est. J 



KNOTT < A D 201-6 ... 19 30 J* 1864.37 



If Knot^s E is identical with Smyth's B there is an enormous dis- 
crepancy in the estimates of magnitude. On the other hand, if Knott's 
B is identical with Smyth's B there is an enormous discrepancy in angle 
and some in distance. However, in a letter to Fletcher dated June 6, 
1864, Smyth states: "It seems that by some stupidity or other I may 
have read the angle of position short by a quadrant, for adding 90 will 
place it sufficiently near." [Burnham has found another companion in 
Pos * 345; Disk 77"; Epoch 1878-24. The same observer has also 
discovered that Knott's D is a close double: Pos. 337; Dist. 1-52"; 
Epoch 1878-21 ; Mags. 6| and u.] 

This star is named Denebola, from the Arabian dhanab-al-asad, the 
lion's tail. A line from Procyon through a Leonis passes 0, and over /3 



LA. u n> 43 m n n - 47 11 



311 



Leonis, the latter being about 25 from a ; or, for eye measurement in 
aligning, half as far from a, as the latter is from Procyon. If seeking it 
from the E., drop a line from 77 Ursae Majoris, lead it through Cor Caroli, 
and extend it about double the distance between those two stars into the 
S.W. The brackish rhymes point out a nearly equilateral figure, thus : 



From Deneb, in the Lion's tail, 
Then will these two with Arcturus 



to Spica draw a line, 
a bright triangle shine. 



741, 



3365 h. CEKTAUBI. (H. 2581.) 



B.A. 11 44 51 
Decl. S 56 34*1 



Free, -f 2-93 

ft 

S 20-01 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" O > ?* S ; R ; blue ; =*7 m ; i5 8 = d ; " which means : " a planetary 
nebula; remarkable; small; round; blue; resembles a 7 th mag. star; 
diameter i-5ofR.A." 



742. 259 $. I. CBATEBIS. (h. 2366 ; H. 2586.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 11 45 28 
Bed. S 28 13 '1 



Free. 4- 3-02 
8 20-01 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p L ; IE; grnb M ; r ; v s * sp inv ; " which means : " bright ; 
pretty large ; little extended ; gradually much brighter in the middle ; 
resolveable ; there is a very small star involved on the s%) side/' 



743, 203 Iff.. I. UBS^B MAJOBIS. (h. 1002; H. 2507; 1L) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 11 47 4 



Decl. 



44 44*4 



Prec. + 3-15 

ft 
S 20-02 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; v L ; R ; b M p B N ; er ; " which means : " bright ; very large ; 
round ; brighter in the middle where it exhibits a pretty bright nucleus ; 
easily resolveable." Engraved, Rosse, woodcut, Phil. Trans., 1861. 



812 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



744* 



170 P. XI. LBONIS. 



h. 


m. s. 




S. 


B.A. 11 


47 6 


Prefc. + 


3-10 




o / 




n 


Decl, N 


16 32 


S 


2O-O2 


Position. Distance 


Epoch. 




o 


// 




HEBSCHEL, W. 


19.2 


... 37-2 


1782-09 


HEBSCHEL, J., and 


SOUTH 14.1 


... 37-i 


1823-28 


SMYTH 


J 3-4 


... 35-o 


1832-99 


STONE, 0. 


14-6 


... 39-4 


-. 1879-34 



A double star, in the brush of Leo's tail, and following /3 at about i 
to the N.E. A 7|, pearl white; B p|, livid. 



745. 



173 1$. I. UBS^l MAJOBIS. (h. 1005 ; 2600 ; JL) 

CCCCXXVIII. 

h. m. 3. s. 

B A. 11 47 12 



Decl. N 37 36 2 



Free, -f 3-13 
// 

S 20-02 



A bright-class nebula, of a pale white tint, with a central blaze, 
between the Bear's hind-legs and the Hounds. When seen by strong 
moonlight, it looks like a star in a burr ; but in dark nights has a very 
large apparent diameter [4' by 3' at Parsonstown], Its site is known by 
glancing from rj Ursse Majoris, at the tip of the Greater Bear's tail, 
towards a Leonis, and it is passed at rather less than half the distance. 
But the immediate vicinity is very poor to the unassisted eye. 



746. 



/3 CRATEBIS. (*h. 4478.) 



B.A. 11 47 22 
Decl. S 88 18-0 

Position. 



HEBSCHEL, J. 
HERSCHEL, J. 
STONE, O. 



339-6 
342*2 
344-6 



Prec. 


+ 3' 01 





S 20-03 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


// 




2-03 


... 1835.85 


not stated 


1838-09 


1.98 


1877-13 



A double star. AS; 65. The above and some other angles by 
Hir J. Herschel which I do not give imply au increase of angle, though 
the intervals of time are too short to be very conclusive. 



R A. u h - 47 m -- n h - 48^- 313 



747. 251 $. I. URS.ffi MAJORIS. (h. 1006; H. 2602; K.) 

h. m. 8. 8. 



B.A. 11 47 26 
Decl. 1ST 61 16' 8 



Free, -f 3-2 1 

H 
S 20*03 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p L ; g m b M ; r ; * f ; " which means : " bright ; pretty large ; 
round ; gradually much brighter in the middle ; resolveable ; a star 
follows." Rumker and D' Arrest say that the 



748. 202 Ig. I. UBS^I MAJOBIS. (h. 1009; H. 2604; .) 



h. 



B.A. 11 47 56 



o 



Decl. N 48 28 '0 



Free. + 3' r 5 

// 
S 20-03 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; p L ; pm E ; vgb M ; " which means : " considerably bright ; 
pretty large ; pretty much extended ; very gradually brighter in the 
middle." 



749. 45 $. V. UBS^E MAJOBIS. (h. 1011; H. 2606; .) 

CCCCXXX. 



h. m. 



B.A. 11 48 4 
Decl. N 53 57 '0 



Prec. -f 3-18 

// 
S 20-03 



A large pale-white nebula, on the Bear's right haunch, about i|^ S. 
of y. It has a peculiar appearance in the field, from there being a coarse 
small double star to the 1ST. of it, and from its being followed by a vertical 
line of 5 equidistant telescopic stellar attendants. This object is fine, 
but, in my instrument, faintish; it brightens towards the middle; and 
Ijl. says there is, in that part, an unconnected star, the which I cannot 
make out. [But Brodie " glimpsed" it clearly with 8^ in refractor. " It 
precedes the nebula, say 2' or 3' of arc."] 

From every inference this nebula is a vast and remote globular cluster 
of worlds, for H. assures us it is actually resolveable. By its blazing 
towards the centre, proof is afforded that the stars are more condensed 
there than round its margin, an obvious indication of a clustering 
power directed from all parts towards the middle of the spherical 
group. In other words, the whole appearance affords presumptive 
evidence of a wonderful physical fact, the actual existence of a central 
force. 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1861, PI. xxvi. Fig. 17.] 



314 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

750. 340 Dunlop CENTAUEI. (h. 3360 ; H. 2614.) 



h. 



B.A. 11 48 58 



o 



Bed. 8 55 6'4 



Prec. 2-98 

n 

8 20-03 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; p L ; p Ei ; gplmb M ; st 13 ;" which means : " a cluster ; pretty 
large ; pretty rich ; gradually pretty much brighter in the middle ; the 
stars are of mag. 13." The "1" in the 4 th member of the above abbre- 
viated sentence appears to have been inserted by mistake. 

751. 67 $. I. CKATERIS. (h. 3370 ; H. 2616 ; .) 



R.A. 11 49 3 



o 



Decl. S 13 21-5 



Prec. -f 3 -06 

// 
S 20-03 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; p L ; i B, ; gmb M ; A 2 st ;" which means : " considerably 
bright ; pretty large ; irregularly round ; gradually much brighter in the 
middle ; forms a triangle with 2 stars." 

752. 65 UBS^E MAJOBIS. (2.1579; 20 App. I.) CCCCXXXI. 



h. m. 



B.A. 11 49 23 







Decl. H 47 5 '4 



Prec. 4- 



20-03 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ff 

HEESCHEL, W. [ A ^ 36 ' 2 - *' I ... 1782.89 

( A C 1 1 2. 3 ... 6oo ) 

SMYTH j^ 35-8 ... 3-8 1 ... l837 . 39 

(AC 115.0 ... 63-5 i 

MAIN AC 113-2 ... 62-9 ... 1866-53 

JEDEZEJEWICZ } _, ^ '^ "* & \ ... 1877-44 

(AC 113.9 6 3' ' 



A triple star, on the Bear's left thigh. A 7, bright white ; B 9^, pale 
purple ; C 7> white. The various measures hitherto taken indicate 
fixity. 

The magnitude which I have assigned, on mature comparison, to B, 
does not altogether quadrate with I$L's description of its being a mere 
point, which would hardly be suspected. It may be variable; and I 
have reason also to think C is. Probably all three are physically con- 
nected, in which case they will partake of the slow proper motions 
of A. 



R A. n h - 48- ii h - 54' 315 

There is therefore reasonable ground for supposing that this object 
will increase in interest. It is easily fished up by carrying a ray from 
the Pole-star, between K and A. Draconis, through y TJrsse Majoris, and 
7 S. of it, where it will meet a cross line from ^ to rj. [Or it may be 
said to be 2 s 



753. 62 $. IV. URS^SE MAJORIS. (h. 1017; H 2620; .) 

CCCCXXXII. 



h. m. x. 



B.A. 11 50 41 
Decl. N 55 44 -1 



Prec. -f 3-16 

// 
S 20-04 



A planetary nebula, in a barren field, on the Bear's hind- quarter. 
It is small, and uniformly of a pale bluish-white colour, but exceedingly 
well-defined, without the haziness mentioned by H. in Phil. Trans., 1833, 
(in which it is No. 1017); but I certainly had a splendid night for the 
examination, with the instrument in capital working order. There is a 
lilac-tinted io th magnitude star on its S. vertical. It is only about ii 
N. by E. of y Ursse Majoris. 

[" There is another nebula about 30' to the N. of this one." Brodie. 
But I cannot feel sure whether Brodie refers to H, 2634 or H. 2637. 
Both follow the present object about 2 m and both are 20' to the K] 

754. 223 $. I. URS^B MAJORIS. (h. 1047; H. 2660; M.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 11 53 40 
Bed. 3ST 51 34 '2 



Prcc. 4- 3-12 
S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; c L ; m E i6o ; vsvmb MBN ;" which means : " very bright ; 
considerably large ; much extended in the direction of about 160 with the 
meridian ; very suddenly very much brighter in the middle where there 
is a bright nucleus." 

755. 121 13. I. VIRGINTS. (h. 1048; H. 2663; .) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 11 54 44 



o 



Decl. 3 29'1 



Prec. + 3-07 

H 
S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; L ; vl E ; psmb M ; B st nr " which means : " considerably 
bright ; large ; very little elongated ; pretty suddenly much brighter in 
the middle ; there is a bright star near." 



Si 6 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



756. 253 $. I. UBS^B MAJOBIS. (h. 1050 ; H. 2668.) 



h. 



B.A. 11 55 45 
Decl. 3ST 62 30 '0 



Prec. + 3- 1 2 

// 
S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; v L ; E ;" which means : " very bright ; very large ; extended." 

But Sir J. Herschel's own account is very different from his father's, 
being as follows : " p B ; 25" ; B, ;" = " pretty bright ; 25" in diameter ; 
round." D'Arrest and Schultz however both agree with Sir "William 
Herschel, and as the places of all 4 tally, Sir J. Herschel must have 
viewed the object under some specially unfavourable conditions. 



757. 252 $ . I. UBS. MAJOBIS. (h. 1054 ; H, 2672.) 

h. m, s. 9. 



B.A. 11 56 32 
Decl. N 62 44 '8 



Prec. -f 3-12 
S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; c L ; R ; g, psvmb M r N ;" which means : " bright ; considerably 
large ; round ; at first gradually, then suddenly very much brighter in the 
middle where there is a round nucleus." 



758. 174 ^. I. COMBES BEBENICIS. (h. 1066 ; H. 2687; &,) 



h. m. 



B.A. 11 58 25 Prec. + 3-08 
Decl. N 32 30 '4 S 20-06 

A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" p B ; v L ; m E 97 ; vgb M ;" which means : " pretty bright ; very 
large; much extended in the direction of 97 with the meridian; very 
gradually brighter in the middle." 



759. 2 COM. BEBENICIS. (S. 1596.) CCCCXXXIII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 11 58 39 
Decl. H 22 45 



Prec. + 3-08 

// 
S 20-06 



R A, ii h - 55 m - i2 h - o m - 317 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o tt 

HEBSCHEL, W. 242-3 ... 4'00 ... 1782.30 

STRUVE, W. 239.9 3' 82 1837.28 

SMYTH 239.9 3-6 ' l8 39-37 

GLEDHILL 239-8 ... 3-6 ... 1874.30 

A neat double star just over the Lion's tail ; and nearly mid-way 
between its own lucida and /3 Leonis, but preceding the imaginary line 
so produced. A 6, pearly white; B 7^, lilac tint. This is a beautiful 
object, and having been rigidly examined, is concluded to have no motion 
appreciable. 

My last measures of this star were so satisfactory, that I place the 
greatest reliance on them. The night was truly superb, and the defini- 
tion of the objects so exquisite, that they resembled two jewels fixed in 
the field.. Indeed, under the Claude Lorraine illumination, they were 
admirably sharp and tranquil ; the vision therefore might almost be styled 
perfect. Under such circumstances, with the instrument in the finest 
working order, and the eye so turned, by inclining my head, as to have 
its principal section parallel to the wires, the results could hardly fail of 
being among the best I ever obtained. 

[The coincidence of the above measures, extending as they do over 47 
years, is very remarkable.] 



760. 224 $. I. URS-ffl MAJOBIS. (H. 2707; 



h, m. . . 



K.A. 12 12 



o 



Decl. N 50 53-9 



Free. + 3*7 

// 
S 20-06 



A nebula thus described in Sir J* Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p L ; pm E ; vsb M ;" which means : " bright ; pretty large ; pretty 
much extended ; very suddenly brighter in the middle/' 



761, 206 $. I. UBS^ MAJOBIS. (H. 2708 ; 

h. m. a. . 

B.A. 12 14 Free. + 3-07 



o 



Decl. N 51 7*0 



S 20-06 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; c L ; pm E 1 35 ; Ib M ;" which means : " bright ; considerably 
large; pretty much extended in the direction of about 135 with the 
meridian ; a little brighter in the middle," , . . 



318 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



762. 207 IjJ. I, UBSJB MAJOBIS. (h. 1081; H. 2711; 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 12 24 
Bed. N 48 5'4 



Free. + 3-07 

// 
S 20-06 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" p B ; v L ; m E 32-0 ;" which means : " pretty bright ; very large ; 
much extended in the direction of 32 with the meridian." 



763. 3918 Brisb. CENTATTRI. (*h. 4495.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 12 26 



o 



Bed. 8 32 20*6 



Prec. + 3-06 

H 

S 20-06 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



HEESCHEL, J. 313-8 ... 7-1 ... 1836-21 
STONE, 0. 315-7 ... 6-7 ... 1877-11 



A double star. A 7 ; B 



764. 3921 Brisb. MUSO93. (*h. 4498.) 



h. m. 



B.A. 12 38 
Decl. S 65 5-9 



Prec. -f 3'4> 

it 
S 20-06 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 
o // 

HEESCHEL, J. 58.8 ... 15 est. ... 1835-33 

SANTIAGO OBS. 68-0 ... 9-6 ... 1850-28 



A double star, A 7 ; B 9. 



765. 225 $. I. UBS-flS MAJOBIS. (h. 1085; H. 2717; .) 



h. m. 



B.A. 12 47 



o 



Deel. N 53 19 '4 



Prec. -f 3-07 

// 
S 20-06 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p s ; R ; b MB r N ; * 1 2 sp, v, nr ;" which means : " bright ; 
pretty small; round; brighter in the middle where there is a bright 
round nucleus ; there is a I2 t]l mag. star on the sp side very near/* 



R A. I2 h ' O m ' I2 h ' 2 m - 



319 



766. 291 Dunlop CRUCIS. (h. 3377; H. 2718.) 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 12 1 
Bed. S 60 38-0 



Free, -f 3-07 

// 
8 20-06 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; p L ; p C ; i R ; st 10 . . , 14 ;" which means : " a cluster ; pretty 
large; pretty condensed; irregularly round; the component stars vary 
from the io th to the 14 th magnitude." 



767. 195 IjL I. URS^3 MAJOEIS. (h. 1088 ; H. 2723 ; &.) 

CCCCXXXIV. 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 12 1 24 



Decl. M" 43 40 '6 



Prec. + 3-07 

// 
S 20-06 



A bright-class nebula, in a poor field, behind the Greater Bear's left 
hind-leg, at rather more than one-third of the 
distance from S Ursse Majoris towards /3 Leonis, 
where it is within a degree to the E. by N. of 
67 Ursse, a star of 5~J~ magnitude. It is of a 
lucid white colour, and narrow, being elongated 
in the direction of np and sf. In the nf quadrant 
is a fine wide double star, the individuals of 
which point exactly to the centre of the nebula, 
on a line forming an angle of about 230 with T 95 J 
the meridian. The annexed was its appearance in the field of view. 




FIG. 20. 
. I. URSJ3 MAJOEIS. 



768. 33 $L I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1094; H. 2734; 



h. m. . 

B.A. 12 2 33 
Decl. N 10 59-4 



Prec. -f 3-07 

n 

S 20-06 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"pB; pL; mEi2O; bM; r;" which means: " pretty bright ; pretty 
large; much elongated in the direction of 120 with the meridian; 
brighter in the middle ; resolveable/' 



320 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

769. 1603 S. URS^E MAJORIS. 

h. m. . 9, 

Prec. -r> 3-07 

// 
S 20-06 



R.A. 12 2 38 
Decl. IS" 56 5'0 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 
o // 

STHUVE, W. 80.5 ... 22-4 ... 1832-18 

DAWES 81-4 ... 22-4 ... 1851-29 

MAIN 78-7 ... 22-9 ... 1863-25 

A double star. A 7|> white; B 8, white. About midway between 
y and d. 



770. 263 $. I. DRACONTS. (H. 2738.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 12 3 3 
Bed. 3ST 09 24 '9 



Prec. -f- 3-03 

// 
S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" c B ; IE; b M ;" which means: " considerably bright ; little extended ; 
brighter in the middle." 

771. 278 $. I. DRACONIS. (h. 1100 ; H. 2742.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 12 3 29 
Decl. N 75 30' 7 



Prec. -f- 3-00 

tt 
S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; cL; R; gmbM;" which means : tl pretty bright ; considerably 
large ; round ; gradually much brighter in the middle/' 

772. 59 B. VIRGIBTIS. (2. 1604.) 

h. m. B. n. 



R.A. 12 3 46 



o 



Bed. 8 11 14-0 



Prec. + 



S 20-05 



Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


o 


n 




JAB 93.3 ... 
( A C 96.9 


"9 } 

58-0 i 


1831.95 


IAB92-8 
(AC 95.2 


50-3! 


1856.40 


JAB 91.5 

J A f^ 


xi-6) 


1877.40 


( A C 93*1 . ff 


41*9 ) 





STBUVB, W, 
SECCHI 
FLAMMARION 
A triple star. A 7, white; B pj; C 8, In AB there seems to^ba 



R. A. I2 h ' 2 m ' 



*m. 



321 



going on a very slow decrease of angle and distance, though Duner doubte 
this. He says : " La faiblesse de F4toile B explique parfaitement 40| 
ecarts sans qu'on ait besoin de supposer qu'un changement r^el a eu lie\J 
The motion of C is rectilinear. Duner calculates that the minimup 
distance of AC, namely 10", will be attained in 2008 A. D, As a 
telescopic object this is not very interesting. 



773. 196 $. I. CANTTM VENATICORUM. (H. 2745; JR.) 



K,A. 12 3 54 

Decl. N 44 17 '4 



Free. + 3-05 
8 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B ; pL; IE; vgbM; *np;" which means: "bright; pretty large; 
little extended ; very gradually brighter in the middle ; there is a star on 
the up side." 



774. 



169 1$. I. CANUM VENATICOBUM. 
(h, 1105; H. 2750; .) 



R.A. 12 4 25 

Decl. 3ST 40 29 '4 



Free. + 3-05 

// 
S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; v L ; vglb "K ; " which means : " bright ; very large; very gradually 
less bright in the middle." 



775. 19 $. I. COM^S BERENICIS. (h. 1106 ; H. 2762 ; 



K.A. 12 4 27 
Decl. 3ST 19 9'7 



Prec. -f 3-06 

// 
8 20-05 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"; vB; pL; E; gbM; rrr;" which means: "a globular cluster; 
very bright; pretty large; round; gradually brighter in the middle; 
well resolved, so as clearly to be seen to consist of stars." 



322 
776. 73 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 
I. COiBOB BERENICES, (h. 1110; H. 2755; ,) 



R.A. 12 4 58 
Decl. 358" 31 6'9 



Free. 4- 3*06 
S 20*05 



A nebula thus described iu Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; S; R; pgmbll;" which means: "bright; small; round; pretty 
gradually much brighter in the middle." 



777. 



165 $. I. CANUM VENATICORUM. 
(h. 1111 ; H. 2758 ; .) 



B.A. 12 4 58 

Bed. N 40 6 '5 



Free, -h 3-05 
- S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; S ; R ; vsmb MEN; p of 2 ; " which means : " very bright ; 
'small ; round ; very suddenly much brighter in the middle where there 
is a bright nucleus ; the preceding of 2 nebulae/' 

The second nebula mentioned above ( = 642 ll. II. ; h. 1 1 13 ; H. 2760) 
is described as " p F ; S ; E ; vgb M ; " which means : <c pretty faint ; 
small; extended; very gradually brighter in the middle/' Both are 
engraved, Phil. Trans., 1861, PL xxvii. Fig. 2. 

778. 11 $. I. COlLffi BERENICES. (H. 2758.) 



B.A. 12 5 9 
Decl. W 18 57-9 



Free. 4- 3*06 

n 

S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; pL; E; bM;" which means: "bright; pretty large; extended; 
brighter in the middle." 



779. 



1606 2. CANUM VENATICORUM. 



B.A. 12 5 14 



Decl. 



40 30-0 



Position. 

o 

HEBBCHEL, J. 348-4 
MADLEB 349.3 

DEMBOWSKI 346-8 
BUN^R 344-8 

JEDBZBJEWICZ 337.2 



Free, -f 3* 06 

n 

S 20-05 

Distance. Epoch. 

0-89 ... 183087 
1.43 .,, 1843.21 
185646 
1869.38 

1880.48 



I- 21 
I.I7 



A double #tar. A 6|, white ; B 7 J, white. The angle is certainly 



B.A. 



323 



decreasing, and the distance may be increasing, Gledhill says : " Prob- 
ably binary." 



780. 9 #. I. VIRGmiS. (h. 1126 ; H. 2776.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 12 7 15 



Decl. 



1 54-5 



Free, -f 3-07 

n 

S 20-05 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; pS; pmE 135+ ; bMN;" which means :" pretty bright; 
pretty small; pretty much extended in the direction of about 135 with 
the meridian ; brighter in the middle where there is a nucleus." 



781. 



15 P. XII. CENTATJRI. 



h. m. s. 

K.A. 12 8 17 
Decl. S 45 7-0 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J. 247.2 



Prec. 4- 3- 10 

// 
S 20-04 



Distance. 
ft 

4 c$l. 



Epoch. 
1837-17 



A double star. A 5! ; B 7, "Both stars yellow; a very fine 
object." (Sir J. Herschd.} 



782,, 08 M. VIRGUiriS. (h,1132; H 2786; &.) CCCCXXXV. 



h. m. s. 

It. A. 12 8 34 
Decl. N 15 30-5 



Prec. -f- 3-06 


S 20-04 



A fine and large, but rather pale nebula, between Virgo's left wing 
and Leo's tail ; with the bright star, 6 Comse Berenicis, following in the 
next field exactly on the parallel. M., who discovered it in 1781, 
merely registered it as " a nebula without a star, with an extremely faint 
light ;" but on keeping a fixed gaze it brightens up towards the centre. 
It is elongated, in the direction of two stars, the one np and the other sf 
of the object ; with another star in the nf quadrant pretty close. It 
follows ft Leonis by 6f in the direction of a Bootis; it lies on the 
outskirts of the vast region of nebulae that adorns the Virgin's wing. 

[Engraved, Vogel, Nebelflecken, PL i. Pig. 7.] 

Y 2 



324 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

783. 1615 2. COMJE BERENTCIS. 

h. in, s. s. 



K.A. 12 8 35 
Bed. N 33 24 



Free. 3-05 

// 
S 20-04 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STRUVE,W. 88^3 ... 26.9 ... 1831.90 
MAIN 87-5 ... 26-9 ,., 1864-30 

A double star. A 6, yellowish ; B 9, ashy. 



784. 171 $. I. 00103 BERENICES, (h. 1140 ; H. 2796 ; .) 



h. 



B.A. 12 9 32 
Bed. 3ST 33 48 '5 



Free. + 3-04 

// 
S 20-04 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; S ; H ; psmb M ; " which means : " very bright ; small ; round ; 
pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle." 

785. 5 URS^B MAJORIS. CCCCXXXVI. 



Becl. 



5 9 58 
57 38-6 

Position, 
o 
124-1 


Free. 


+ 

S 


3* 

20 


oo 

04 

Epoch. 
1879.30 


Distance. 
188-6 



A fine star suspected of variability with a distant companion, on 
the Greater Bear's stern-frame. A 3, pale yellow; B 9, ash-coloured, 
other stars in the following part of the field. This was enrolled by 
Ptolemy, Ulugh Beigh, Hevelius, La Caille, Bradley, and Piazzi, of the 
3 rd magnitude ; but Tycho Brah4 and the Prince of Hesse designate it of 
the 2 nd . Flamsteed records it of 2^, Pigott of the 4 th , and I have, on 
careful comparison, sometimes thought it too bright for a 3 rd rank. It 
may therefore prove to be variable from the 2 nd to the 4 th lustre ; and 
that at long periods. 

This star, the N.B. one of the brilliant square, is Megrez of the 
Palmero and other Catalogues; a word abbreviated from the Arabian 
Maghrez~al-dubb~al-akbar, the root of the Great Bear's tail, since it is 
" a la naissance de la queue/' rather than " in radice caudse," a berth 
given sometimes to the neighbouring star Alioth, with its little compa- 
nion, called the Fox, to the nf c Ursse Majoris was also called Al- 
hawar, intensely bright, and Al-jaun, the black horse; but its most usual 



RA. i2 h - 8 m - I2 fe - 

name, Alioth, first appears in the Alphonsine Tables. This being aleo 
the reported site of Hevelius's nebula of t66o, and Messier' s No. 40, of 
1764, I searched for them by fishing, but found only a couple of small 
stars lying np and sf, with gleams of others. This group, however, 
resolved by my telescope, may have been the one seen by those astronomers. 
[M., though entering this place in his list as if he were actually dealing 
with a nebula entitled to be termed No. 40, admits that he could find no 
nebulous object in the place.] 



786. 95 $. I. CANTJM VEKATICORUM. (fa. 1146 ; 

H. 2804; M.) CCCCXXXVII. 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 12 10 7 
Decl. W 36 56-2 



Free, -h 3-04 
S 20-04 



A fine white nebula, between the two Hounds. It is in a very poor 
field, with two small stars preceding, one on each side of the parallel, 
and a io tlj magnitude one pretty closely sf. On attentively gazing, 
especially when the equatorial clock is applied, the nebula comes up 
very fairly defined, and is of a slightly oval shape, with its elongation 
from np to sf; but despite of all my coaxing, I was unable to see the 
two remarkable nuclei, so beautifully figured by H. in Phil. Trans., 1833, 
PL vii. Fig. 71. This object is one of a nebulous group located between 
a Canum Venaticorum and f Ursse Majoris, and bearing W.S^W. from 
the former, distant about 8. 



787. 35 $, I. VIEGINIS. (fa, 1148 ; H. 2806 ; .) 

CCCCXXXVIII, 



h. 



B.A. 12 10 10 
Decl. N 13 46-2 



Prec. 4* 3-06 

S 20-04 



A long pale-white nebula, among some telescopic stars, on the upper 
part of Virgo's left wing ; announced in the preceding verge of the field 
by a 9 th and a io th magnitude star, closely on each side of the parallel. 
It is No. 1148 of H.'s Catalogue in Phil. Trans., 1833, where it is 
erroneously synonymed as 109 1$. I. ; but it is delicately figured at 
No. 59 of the engraved illustrations. This is a very curious object, in 
shape resembling a weaver's shuttle, and lying across the parallel ; the 
upper branch is the faintest, and the centre exhibits a palpable nucleus, 
which in my instrument brightens at intervals, as the eye rallies. It is 
an outlier of the vast and wonderful nebulous region passing through 



326 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Virgo, and is one-third of the way from /3 Leonis to c Virginia. [Engraved, 
Phil Trans., 1833, PL vi. Fig. 59 ; Vogel, Nebelflecken, PL i. Fig. 7.] 
Nearly 3' following this, and i J to the N., is the nebula 99 M. 



788. 2 CANUM VENATICOBUM. (2. 1622.) CCCCXXXIX. 



h. m. 



B.A. 12 10 37 



o 



Bed. 1ST 41 16 -5 



Prec. -f 3-03 
S 20-03 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

HEBSCHEL, W. 2590 ... 12-2 ... 1782-87 

SMYTH 259.5 ... 11-3 ... 1839-31 

WILSON and SEABKOKE 260-3 ... 11-5 .,, 1874-26 

A neat double star, near Chara's mouth, and in a barren naked-eye 
spot, about 9 S.W. of a, and one-third of the distance between that star 
and 6 Leonis. A 6, golden yellow ; B 9, smalt blue. This is a very fine 
object, and notwithstanding the supposed connection between strong 
colours and motion, its fixity is fully established, for all the recorded 
observations are eminently coincident. 



789. 209 Iff.. I. UBS^S MAJOBIS. (h. 1151 ; H. 2811 ; 



h. 



B.A. 12 10 43 
Decl. W 48 29*4 



Prec. -f 3*00 

H 

8 20-03 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue, of 1864: 
"cB; p L; pm E 134.4; psbM;" which means: "considerably 
bright; pretty large; pretty much extended in the direction of 134-4 
with the meridian ; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle." 



790. 1625 2. DBACOKIS. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 12 11 28 
Bed. 1ST 80 44'0 



Prec. -|- 2-75 

// 
S 20-04 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STRUVE,W. 218-7 *4*3 1832-24 
MAIN 217-5 ,., 14-3 ... 1863-73 

A double star. A 7, very white; B 7|, very white. This star is 
sometimes considered as belonging to Camelopardus. 



B. A. I2 h ' IO m - 



I2 m - 



327 



791. 74 $. I. COIL BEBENICIS. (h. 1168 ; H. 2832 ; 



h. m. B. 

B.A. 12 12 2 
Bed. N 30 13 '0 



Free, -f 3-03 

M 

S 20-03 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"cB; pL; vlE; smbM; r;" which means: "considerably bright; 
pretty large ; very little extended ; suddenly much brighter in the 
middle ; resolveable." 



792. 264 Ijl. I. DKACONIS. (h. 1170; H. 2835.) 



B.A. 12 12 22 
Decl. N 71 24*7 



Prec. 2-86 

ff 
8 20-03 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; S; R; pgbM;" which means: " pretty bright ; small; round; 
pretty gradually brighter in the middle." 



793. 



32 P. XII. VIBGLNTS. (2. 1627.) CCCCXL. 



B.A. 12 12 30 
Decl. S 3 20-5 



Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 197-0 

SMYTH 198-6 

MAIN 196.1 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 196-1 



Prec. + 3-07 

tt 
S 20*03 



Distance. 
tt 

21-0 
20-6 

19-5 
2O. I 



Epoch. 



1836-27 
1861-30 
1878-32 



A fine double star, near the centre of Virgo's right wing, 3 due 
S. of rj Virginia, and one-third of the way from a Virginis to a Leonis. 
According to Piazzi they are both 7^ magnitudes, though I cannot but 
isay that B is certainly smaller than A. They are both of a silvery white 
tinge. 

It was under the following circumstances that my measures in 1836 
were made. In September, 1835, I received a letter from M. Caccia- 
tore, the successor of Piazzi at Palmero, of which this extract is literally 
translated : " One important thing I must communicate to you. In the 
month of May I was observing the stars that have proper motion a 
labour that has employed me several years. Near the I7 tl1 star, 12 th 



328 A Cycle of Celestial ObjecU. 

hour [not far from No. 32], of Piazzi's Catalogue, I saw another, also of 
the 78 th magnitude, and noted the approximate distance between them. 
The weather not having permitted me to observe on the two following 
nights, it was not till the third night that I saw it again, when it had 
advanced a good deal, having gone further to the eastward and towards 
the equator. But clouds obliged me to trust to the following night. 
Then, up to the end of May, the weather was horrible ; it seemed in 
Palermo as if winter had returned; heavy rains and impetuous winds 
succeeded each other, so as to leave no opportunity of attempting any- 
thing. When, at last, the weather permitted observations at the end of a 
fortnight, the star was already in the evening twilight, and all my 
attempts to recover it were fruitless : stars of that magnitude being no 
longer visible. Meanwhile the estimated movement, in three days, was 
10" in R.A., and about a minute, or rather less, towards the N. So 
slow a motion would make me suspect the situation to be beyond Uranus. 
I was exceedingly grieved at not being able to follow up so important an 
examination." 

Though this notification arrived after the apparition of Virgo had 
passed for the season, I lost no time in advising the astronomical world 
of its tenour ; and bestirred myself, on the reappearance of the constel- 
lation, by making reticle diagrams of all the y-| magnitude objects which 
I could find hereabouts. My endeavours proved fruitless; and after 
much good time lost in the search, I became convinced it would not be 
my fortune to rediscover a planet there. 

An extract from my letter being read to the Academy of Sciences at 
Paris, 15 th February, 1836, it was printed in the Comptea Rendus of 
that stance, with this sensible but severe animadversion by M. Arago : 

"II y a dans cette communication une circonstance que les astro- 
nomes auront beaucoup de peine & comprendre. Lorsque le temps rcde- 
vint favorable a Palerme, a la fin de Mai, l'6toile mobile n'^tait plus 
visible, dit M. Cacciatore, a cause de la lumiere cr^pusculaire du soir. 
I/explication est admissible lorsqu'il s'agit du passage de Tastre au 
m^ridien ; mais deux, mais trois heures apr&s le coucher du soleil, mais 
a nuit-close, rien ne pouvait emp^cher de comparer la plan&te soup- 
onne aux toiles voisines, soit avec une machine parallactique, soit, a 
son d^faut, avec le grand cercle azimuthal qui occupe le premier rang 
parmi lea instruments de I'Observatoire de Palerme. II nous parait incon- 
cevable qu'un observateur du m6rite de M. Cacciatore, contrari6 comme il 
T6tait, comme il devait l'4tre, de ne pouvoir constater de realit^ une 
d^couverte aussi capitale, ne se soit pas avis de suivre Tastre hors du 
m&ridien." 



B.A. i2 h - i2 m ia h - i3 m - 329 



794. 89 IjJ. I. COM.& BEREBTICIS. (h. 1171 ; H. 2836 ; 

h. tn. S. 8. 



B.A. 12 12 33 
Decl. N 28 47 '3 



Free. + 3-03 

// 
S 20-03 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; S ; E ; vs vmb M N ; " which means : " very bright ; small ; 
extended ; very suddenly very much brighter in the middle where there 
is a nucleus." 

795. 99 M. VIBGINIS. (h. 1173 ; H. 2838 ; .) 



h, m. s. 



B.A. 12 13 13 
Bed. JSf 15 6'9 



Free. + 3*05 

// 
S 20-02 



One of the Earl of Hosse's " spiral " nebulae. Sir J. Herschel gives 
the following summary account of it: " !! (H. h.) ; B; L; E; gbM ; 
r (L) 3 -branched spiral ;" which expands into " very remarkable (observed 
by Sir W. and Sir J. Herschel) ; bright ; large ; round ; gradually 
brighter in the middle ; resolveable (large) 3 -branched spiral." Smyth 
says : t( Though pale it is well defined in my instrument/' i sf 
6 Comae Berenicis, a 5^ mag. star and the next considerable star f 
fi Leonis, at nearly 7. 

Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1850, PL xxxv. Fig. 2 ; Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., 
vol. xxxvi. PL iv. Fig. 16 ; Vogel, Nebelflecken, PL i. Fig. 8. 

796. 43 $. V. URS^J MAJOBIS. (h. 1175 ; H. 2841 ; M.) 

CCCCXLI- 



h. 



B.A. 12 13 33 
Decl. N" 47 54 '5 



Free, -f 2-99 

// 
S 20-03 



A large white nebula, closely following the haunches of the Greater 
Bear. It is a noble-sized oval, trending rather from the vertical in a 
direction np and sf, with a brightish nucleus in its southern ^portion ; the 
lateral edges are better defined than the ends. It is preceded by two 
stars of the io ttl inag., and followed by two others; and there are also 
some minute points of light in the field, seen occasionally by glimpses. 

Its place will be indicated by running a diagonal line across the square 
of Ursa Major, from a through y, and carrying it 7-^ into the S.E., that 
is, a little less than the distance between those stars. 

[This object yields a continuous spectrum. Engraved, Phil. Trans., 
1833, PL vi. Fig. 55. 



880 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



797. 76 $. I. COMJE BERENICES, (h. 1185; H. 2851; 

h. m. ft. s. 



B.A. 12 14 17 



o 



Decl. N 30 13-7 



Prec. -f 3.02 

/t 
S 20-02 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; v L ; E 90 + ; mb M N ; " which means : " very bright ; very 
large ; extended in the direction of 90 or thereabouts ; much brighter in 
the middle where there is a nucleus." 



798. 90 $. I. COMLSS BERENICES, (h. 1186; H. 2855; 



h. 



R.A. 12 14 33 
Decl. N 29 53'6 



Prec. 4- 3-02 



S 20-02 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B j p L ; R ; nib M ; r ; p of 2 ; " which means : " very bright ; pretty 
large ; round ; much brighter in the middle ; resolveable ; the preceding 
of 2 nebulae." This is identical with 322 IL II. 

The other nebula here mentioned (=323 IjL II. ; h. n88; H. 2858) 
is described as "B; S; R; bM;" which means: "bright; small; 
round ; bright in the middle/' 

799. 20 B. CANUM VENATICORTJM. (2. 1632.) 

h. m. B. s. 



B.A. 12 14 46 



Prec. 3-01 



Decl. N 


38 31 





S 20-01 


STEUVB, W. 

BUBNHAM 


Position, 
o 

*93-4 
192-2 


Distance. 
// 

10 
10-2 


Epoch. 

1831-38 
1878-32 



A double star. A 7, yellow; B 10. 
800. 275 $. I. DBACO3STIS. (h. 1192 ; H. 2868.) 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 12 15 26 



o 



Decl. N 75 58-9 



Prec. + 2-72 
// 

S 2O-OI 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; vS; R; IbM; 3stf;" which means: "pretty bright; very 
small ; round ; a little brighter in the middle ; 3 stars follow. 11 Engraved, 
D' Arrest, Siderum Nebulosorwm, p. 207. 



E. A. i2 h - i4 m - i2 h - i6 m - 331 

801. 61 M. VIRGI3STS. (h. 1202 ; H. 2878 ; L) CCCCXLII. 

h. m. 8. s. 



B.A. 12 16 18 
Bed. N 5 5-1 



Prec. -I- 3-06 
// 

S 20-00 



A large pale-white nebula, between the Virgin's shoulders. This is 
a well-defined object, but so feeble as to excite surprise that Messier 
detected it with his 3| ft telescope in 1779. Under the best action 
of my instrument it blazes towards the middle; but in H/s reflector 
it is faintly seen to be bi-central, the nuclei 90" apart, and lying sp and 
nf. It is, preceded by 4 telescopic stars, and followed by another. 
It bears about S. by W. from, and is within a degree's distance of 
17 Virginis. 

This object is an outlier of a vast mass of discrete but neighbouring 
nebulae, the spherical forms of which are indicative of compression. 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, ^l. v ^- Fig. 69 ; and Phil. Trans., 
1861, PL xxvii. Fig. 21, where h. 1196 is a misprint for h. 1202.] 



802. 76 1$. I. CO1OB BEREKICIS. (h. 1204 ; H. 2881 ; 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 12 16 53 
Decl. 2ST 30 30 '2 



Prec. -h 3-02 

n 
S 20-00 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"cB; L; 150 + ; sbM; *np;" which means: "considerably 
bright ; large ; extended in the direction of about 1 50 with the meridian ; 
suddenly brighter in the middle ; there is a star on the np side." 



803. 276 IjjL I. DRACOEIS. (h. 1210 ; H. 2888.) 



h. m. a. s. 



E..A. 12 16 56 



o 



Beol. 1ST 75 66 '0 



Prec. + 2-68 
// 

S 2O'OO 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"pB; pS; vlE; sbM;" which means: "pretty bright; pretty 
small ; very little extended ; suddenly brighter in the middle." 



332 A Cycle of Celestial Objects, 



804. 17 VIRGINIS. (S. 1836.) CCCCXLIII, 



h. 



R.A. 12 16 57 
Decl. N 5 55'2 



Prec. + 3-06 

n 
S 2O-OO 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HEKSCHEL,W. 328.3 ... 20-1 ... 1782-10 

HEESCHEL, J., and SOUTH 339-6 ... 20-9 ... 1823-20 

STRUVE, W. 336-7 ... 19.3 ... 1829.26 

WILSON, &c. 336 ... 20-0 ... 1874-26 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 336-6 ... 19.8 ... 187870 

A neat double star, between the Virgin's shoulders ; lying at nearly 
one-third of the distance from /3 Leonis to a Virginis, and nearly N. 
of r\ Virginis. A 6, light rose tint ; B 9, dusky red. From a difference 
between the first observations and those of H. and S., the change was 
suspected to be owing to the proper motions of the large star. 

But I am inclined to suppose that an error of 10 in the angular 
position may be imputed to the original entry at Slough, as the 
measures of comparison would then be pretty coincident for a star of 
such disproportion. 



805, 12 COM^J BERENICES. CCCCXLIV. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 12 16 59 



o 



Decl. KT 26 27 '5 



Prec. + 3-03 

// 
S 20-00 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HBBBCHEL,W. 163.0 ... 58.9 ... 1783.00 

HE RSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 168*8 ... 65-9 ... 1821-39 

SMYTH 168-2 ... 66-1 ... 1831-28 

A bright star, with a distant companion, in the middle of the Tresses ; 
about i| S.W. of its lucida, and nearly mid- way between a Canum 
Venaticorum and fi Leonis. A 5, straw-coloured yellow ; B 8, rose-red ; 
a third star of the same magnitude in the sf quadrant. Eelative fixity 
is implied. 

Berenice's Hair was intruded into the constellated host many ages 
ago, but was only confirmed between the time of the old 48 asterisms, 
and the gathering together of some clustered amorpliotm in the sixteenth 
century; for Ptolemy did not include it as a distinct asterism, but 
designates it only as ir\faapos ; and Ulugh Beigh enrols it as an 
extra of Leo, under the name of al dafirah, the tresses. Niebuhr heard 
it called al-fyum& at Cairo, the which signifies a bundle of wood or 



R.A, I2 h - i6 m i2 h - 17*. 333 

corn ; but the Arabs in general termed it al-helba, and the Trica of the 
Alphonsine Tables is recognised as being from rpixes, a head of hair, 
It was anciently believed that the Tresses had been snatched into the 
heavens, because Con on the astronomer had so asserted, in order to 
console the lady for the loss of a lock of her hair, which she had 
dedicated to Venus, on account of a victory obtained by her husband, 
Ptolemy Evergetes; but it was Tycho Bralie* who first fixed it. Old 
Thomas Hill, in his Schoole of Skil, 1599, calls these sacred tresses by 
the homely designation of Berenice's Bush. It is readily found by 
running an imaginary line from rj Ursse Majoris, the outer horse of 
the wain, or tip of the Great Bear's tail, through a Canum Venaticorum, 
and thence to /3 Leonis, in the Lion's tail ; midway between which two 
last stands this fine though diffused cluster. The numbers have suc- 
cessively been : 

Tyclio Brah . . 14 stars. Flamsteed ... 43 stars. 
Hevelius ... 21 Bode 117 



806. 100 M. vmamis. (h, 1211; H. 2seo; .) CCCCXLV. 



h. m. 8. 



B.A. 12 17 24 
Decl. N 16 26-0 



Free, -f 3-04 


S 20-00 



A round nebula, pearly white, off the upper part of the Virgin's left 
wing, and certainly at a great distance from Virgo's ear of corn, where 
Messier in the Connaissance des Temps placed it : indeed, the true site will 
be hit upon one -fifth of the way from /3 Leonis towards Arcturus. This 
is a large but pale object, of little character, though it brightens from its 
attenuated edges towards the centre; and is therefore proved to be 
globular. It was discovered by M^chain in 1781, and is accompanied 
by 4 small stars, at a little distance around it; besides minute points 
of light in the field, seen by occasional gleams. 

We are now in the broad grand stratum of nebulse, which lies in a 
direction almost perpendicular to the Galaxy, and passes from the S., 
through Virgo, Berenice's Hair, Canes Venatici, and the Great Bear, to 
the Pole, and beyond. This glorious but most mysterious zone of 
diffused spots, is an indisputable memorial to all future times, of the 
unwearied industry and indomitable scientific energy of Sir "W. Herschel. 
Yet "has this unrivalled contributor to knowledge been disparagingly 
described, as a man indulging in "speculations of no great value to 
astronomy, rather than engage in computations by which the science can 
really be benefited." Save the mark ! This is said of a philosopher 
of zeal and application hitherto unequalled: one whose contributions 



334 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

to the Philosophical Transactions prove the bold but circumspect 
grandeur of his conceptions, his consummate mechanical resources, and 
the exactness of his elaborate calculations. Herschel's labours, however, 
transcended those of the age in which he was cast, although he gave 
such animation and bias to sidereal astronomy that his mantle was 
caught at. 

[Engraved, Lassell, Mem. R.A.S. vol. xxxvi. PI. iii. Fig. 17.] 

807. 292 Dunlop CRTJCIS. (h. 3389 ; H. 2912.) 



h. 



B.A. 12 18 27 
Deel. S 61 17-2 



Prec. -f- 3-26 
S 19-99 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; vB; vL; 1C; sti2...i4;" which means: "a cluster; very 
bright ; very large ; little condensed ; the component stars vary from the 
12 th to the 14 th magnitudes." 

808. 123 $. I. VIBGmiS. (h. 1228 . H. 2915 ; K.) 



h. m. 



B.A. 12 18 40 
Decl. N 5 32'5 



Prec. -f 3-06 
S 19-99 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; S; *8-9sf3';" which means: "bright; small; there is a star 
of mag. 8-| in the sf quadrant, at a distance of 3'." Dreyer states that 
the true B.A. is i*a greater than that here given. 

809. 65 #. I. GO3UE BERENICES, (h. 1231; H. 2917; .) 



h. m. 



B.A. 12 18 50 
Decl. 8 18 10-0 



Prec, -f 3-11 
S 19-99 



A nebula thus describes in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"vB; L; B; vsmbMn; r;" which means: "very bright; large; 
round; very suddenly much brighter in the middle to the north [1 n an 
error for N=nueleus]; barely resolveable." 

810. 30 1$. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1232 ; H. 2921 ; &,) 



h. in. 



B.A. 12 18 52 
Decl. N 7 55-7 



Prec. -f 3-06 

n 

S 19-92 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 



R.A. I2 h - I7 m * ish- I9 m. 335 

"cB; pL; vlE; gl [should be "b"] smb M ;" which means: 
" considerahly bright; pretty large; very little extended; at first 
gradually brighter, then suddenly much brighter in the middle." 



811. 166 $. I. CA3STUM VEHATICOBUM. (h.1234; H. 2024.) 



h. m. s. 



R.A. 12 19 



o 



Decl, N 39 58 '9 



free, -f- 2-98 
S 19-98 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; S ; R ; mb M N ; r ;" which means : " considerably bright ; small ; 
round ; much brighter in the middle where it exhibits a nucleus." 

812. 22 $. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1235 ; H. 2025.) 

h. m. s s. 



R.A. 12 10 17 
Bed. N 12 18-4 



Free. -{- 3-05 
S 19-98 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B; ps; It; gbM;" which means: " bright; pretty small; round; 
gradually brighter in the middle." 

813. 84 M. VIRGINIS. (h. 1237; H. 2030; M.) 



h. m. s, 



R.A. 12 10 20 
Becl. W 13 29*9 



Free, -f 3-04 
S 19-98 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheVs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; pL; K; psbM; r;" which means: "very bright; pretty 
large; round; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle; scarcely re- 
sol veable." 



814. 12 $. I. COHOE BERENICES, (h. 1230 ; H. 2042 ; 

h. m. 9, s. 



R.A. 12 10 38 
DeoL N 15 22 -3 



Free, -f 3-04 
S 19-98 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864:* 
"B; S; B; smb M;" which means : "bright; small; round; suddenly 
much brighter in the middle," 



336 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



$15. 85 M. COMJ3G BEBENICIS. (h. 1242; H. 2946; .) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 12 19 49 
Decl. N 18 47'9 



Free. + 3-03 
S 19-98 



A bright and rather large nebula brightening in the middle. 1 1 Comae 
Berenicis, a star of mag. 5, precedes, a little to the S. 



816. 277 $. I. DBACONIS. (h. 1247; H. 2948.) 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 12 19 55 
Decl. N 76 8'0 



Free. 4- 2-61 
S 19*98 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; c L ; 1C; psrab M ; " which means : " bright ; considerably large ; 
little compressed ; pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle." 



817. a CBUCIS. 

h. m. s. 



B.A, 12 20 28 



o 



Decl. S 62 29*3 



Prec. + 3.27 
S 19.98 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

TAB 120.6 ... 5.6 ... 1835.83 

AC 201-5 ... 90-7 ... 1836-59 

HERSCHEL, J. -s AD 147 ... 60 est. \ 

AE 119 ... 100 est. > ... 1834-22 

[_AF 105 ... 125 est. 1 

A Nautical Almanac star. A ij; B 2; C 5; D 13; E 14; F 13. 



818, 86 M. VIBQINIS. (h. 1253; H. 2961; 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 12 20 31 



o 



Decl. N 13 32*9 



Prec. -f 3-04 

S i-S 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; L ; B ; gb M N ; r ;" which means : " very bright ; large ; round; 
gradually brighter in the middle where it exhibits a nucleus; scarcely 
resolveable.." 



K. A, i2 h - i9 m -- i2 h - 22 m - 337 



819. 77 $. I. COlflLffi BEBENICIS. (h, 1258; H. 2972; &.) 

h. m. 3. s. 



B.A. 12 20 58 



o 



Bed. N 31 49-7 



Prec. -f 2*99 
8 19-91 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; L ; E ; g, vsmb M * ;" which means : " very bright ; large ; ex- 
tended; at first gradually, then very suddenly brighter in the middle 
where there is a star/* The Decl. is as corrected by Dreyer. 

820. 28 a $. I. VIBGLNIS. (h. 1274; H. 2991.) 

h. ID. 8. 



B.A. 12 22 5 

DecL N 13 40'8 



Prec. -f 3-04 
S 19-96 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogm of 1864: 
"vB; cL; R; pof2j" which means: "very bright; considerably 
large ; round ; the preceding of 2 nebulae/' 

The second object ( = 28b Ij[. I. ; h. 1275; H. 2994) is mentioned as 
" B ; c L ; vl E ; r ;" which means : " bright ; considerably large ; very 
little extended ; scarcely resolveable." 



821. 91 $. I. CO1OB BEBENICIS. (h. 128O ; H. 3001 ; 



h. 



B.A. 12 22 45 
DecL N 29 13*5 



Prec. + 3-00 

tt 
S 19*96 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; L ; E 90 ; sb M ; " which means : " bright ; large ; elongated 
in the direction of 90 with the meridian ; suddenly brighter in the 
middle." 



822. 213 13. 1. CANUM VENATICOBUM. (h. 1281; H.3002; 

h. tn. s. 



B.A. 12 22 45 
Becl. 1ST 44 41 '9 



Prec. -f 2-94 
S 19-96 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864:- 
" v B ; c L ; m E 1 5 ; rrr ; * 9, 5' ; " which means : " very bright ; 
considerably large ; much extended in the direction of 15 with the 
meridian ; well resolved, clearly seen to consist of stars ; there is a 
9*to mag. star at a distance of 5'." 





338 A Oyck of-Ctekstial .Obfecfs, 

823. 17 COMBES BERENICES. (2. 21 App. I.) 

' b. m. s. s. 



R.A. 12 23 25 
Decl. N 26 30 '4 



Prec. 4- 3*oo 
S 19-95 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STRUVE,W. 250-6 ... 145.3 ... ' 1836-43 
JEDEZEJEWICZ 250-4 ... 145*4 ... 1 877-77 

A 4^, white ; B 6, bluish white. B is 96 P. XII. Webb remarks 
that " the smaller star, by averted vision, seems more surrounded than 
the other with scattered light." 

824. 161 $. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1288 ; H. 3012.) 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 12 23 25 
Decl. N 14 35-1 



Prec. 4- 3'4 
S 19-95 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" p B ; p L ; i K ; b M ; r ; * 8 sf 2' ; " which means : " pretty bright ; 
pretty large ; irregularly round ; brighter in the middle ; scarcely re- 
solveable; there is an 8 tn mag. star in the sf quadrant at a distance 
of 2'." 



825* 49 M. VIRGtnnS. (h. 1294; H. 3021; M,) CCCCXLVII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 12 24 8 
Decl. N 8 36'3 



Prec. + 3-05 
S 19-94 



A bright, round, and well-defined nebula, on the Virgin's left 
shoulder ; exactly on the line between b Virginis and /3 Leonis, 8, or 
less than half-way, from the former star. "With an eyepiece magnifying 
93 times, there are only two telescopic stars in the field, one of which is 
in the sp and the other in the /* quadrant; and the nebula has a very 
pearly aspect. This object was discovered by Oriani in 1771, and 
registered by Messier as a "faint nebula, not seen without difficulty," 
with a telescope 3| f * in length. It is a pity that this active and 
assiduous astronomer could not have been furnished with one of the 
giant telescopes of the present day. Had he possessed efficient means, 
his useful and, in its day, unique Catalogue, for which sidereal astronomy 
must ever remain indebted to him, would no doubt have been greatly 
augmented. 

[" Inconsiderable, but beautifully situated between two 6^* mag. stars. 
Bright open pair, $>."Webb.] 



E. A. i2 h - 23^. _ : 2 i>- 25 m - 339 

826. 5 COBVI. CCCCXLVI, 

h, m. s. s. 



B.A. 12 24 11 



o 



Decl. 8 15 54-1 



Free. + 3-10 

ff 
S 19-94 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ff 

HERSCHEL,W 216-0 .., 23.5 ... 1782-87 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 213.5 ... 2 4- ... 1823-29 

SMYTH* 210-9 ... 23.5 ... 1831-34 

MAIN 213-6 ... 22.9 .,, 1862-31 

A fine double star, on the Raven's right wing. A 3, pale yellow; 
B 8|-, purple. This object was thus noticed by Piazzi, No. 101, Hora XII.: 
"Duplex. Socia summe exigua 0-5" temporis prsecedit, parumper ad 
au strum." Discordant as the angle of position seems to be, I am more 
inclined to attribute the differences to instrumental and accidental over- 
sights, than to orbital movement ; moreover, there is a minus quantity of 
proper motion imputed to the large star by Piazzi, and the observations 
at so low an altitude are teased with variable refraction. 

The Palermo and other Catalogues have dubbed this star Algorab, 
from the Arabian Al-ghordb, the raven, though the star is less brilliant 
than /3. Wherefore a, which is usually the brightest star in an asterism, has 
here less brilliance than /3, y, or 8, and is recorded as Minkdr-al-ghordb, 
the raven's beak ; and it is also called Al-Jchibd, the tent, a name given 
by some of the Arabs to Corvus. In the Alphonsine Tables the name 
Algorab is applied to y. 

The alignment of Algorab is easy. To the "W.S.W. of a Virginis two 
stars of the 3 rd magnitude, and 3 apart, will be seen prolonging the line. 
These are b and y Corvi; 8, the nearest to a Virginis, is 15 from it, and 
it forms with that star and y Virginis an exact equilateral triangle. 



827. y CBUCIS. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 12 25 3 
Deel. S 56 29 '6 



Prec. + 3-26 
S 19-93 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEKSCHEL, J. 38.0 ... 120 est. ... 1834-26 

A conspicuous star of mag. 2, with a distant companion of mag. 5. 
"The colour of y Crucis is a clear orange-yellow. Its magnitude has 
been variously estimated from 'r8 to 2*4 even by the same observer, 
and it is probable that the brightness of the star really changes by ft 
considerable amount." (Gould.) 

Z 2 



340 A Cycle of Celestial Oljects. 

828. 197 and 198 $. I. CANUM VENATICORTJM. 
(h, 1306, 1308 ; H. 3041, 3042 ; &.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 12 25 10 
Bed. N* 42 18-6 



Prec. -f 2-94 



A pair of nebulae. The preceding one is thus described in Sir J. 
Herschel's General Catalogue of 1864: "B; p S; iR;" and the 
following one: u v B; v L; m E 130; rr;" which phrases mean re- 
spectively : " bright ; pretty small ; irregularly round ; " and " very 
bright; very large; much extended in the direction of 130 with the 
meridian ; partially resolved, some stars visible." The place given above 
is D' Arrest's of the preceding nebula : the other follows at a distance of 
6 s , and lies 3' 12" to the S. The pair are engraved, Phil. Trans., 1861, 
PL xxvii. Pig. 23. 

829. 87 M. VIRGINIS. (h. 1301; H. 3035; .) 



h. 



R.A. 12 25 15 
Decl. N 12 59'4 



Prec. -f 3-04 

// 
S 19*93 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Hemjhel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; v L ; R ; mb M ; " which means : " very bright ; very large ; 
round ; much brighter in the middle." 

830. 83 $. I. CO1O3 BERENICIS. (h. 1307; H. 3043; JR.) 



h. 



R.A. 12 25 54 
Decl. N 26 23-1 



Prec. + 3-00 
S 19-93 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; p L ; R ; vsmb M N ; " which means : " very bright ; pretty 
large ; round ; very suddenly much brighter in the middle where there ii< 
a nucleus." Sir J. Herschel sets against this object the note, " Not found 
by Lord Eosse when once looked for," yet in the Bosse Catalogue of 
1880 it is given as seen on April 3, 1861, and is marked " v B ; R ; fades 
off gradually." 

831. 88 M. VIRGINIS. (h 1312; H.3049; 3S.) CCCCXLVIII. 

h. m. 8. s. 



R A. 12 26 26 
Decl. N 15 i'9 



Prec. + 3-03 

// 
S 19-92 



A long elliptical nebula, on the outer side of Virgo's left wing. It 
is pale- white, and trends iu a line bearing np and sf ; and with its 



R A. I2 h - 25- i2 h - 26 m - 341 

atteiulant stars, forms a pretty pngeant. The lower or N. part in the 
inverted field is hrighter than the S., a circumstance which, with its 
spindle figure, opens a large field for conjecture. 

This is a wonderfully nebulous region, and the diffused matter occu- 
pies an extensive space, in which several of the finest ohjects of Messier 
and the Herschels will readily he picked up hy the keen observer in 
extraordinary proximity. The following diagram exhibits the local 
disposition of the immediate nebulous neighbours N. of 88 Messier ; 
they being preceded by M. 84, and followed by M. 58, 89, 90, and 91, 
in the same zone ; thus describing a spot only 2| from N. to S., and 3 
from E. to W., as the micrometer shows it. And it will be convenient 




FIG. 21. GROUP OF NEBULA IN VIRG -. 

to keep in mind, that the situation of the extraordinary conglomerate of 
nebulae and compressed spherical clusters which crowd the Virgin's left 
wing and shoulder is pretty well pointed out to the practised naked eye 
by e, 8, y, 77, and /3 Virginia forming a semicircle to the E., whibt due 
N. of the last-mentioned star, ft Lconis marks the N.W. boundary. 
Reasoning upon the Herschelian principle, this may reverently be assumed 
as the thinnest or shallowest part of our firmament, and the vast 
laboratory of the segregating niechaniFin by which compression and 
insulation are ripened in the course of unfathomable ages. The theme, 
however imaginative, is solemn and sublime. 

[Engraved, Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., vol. xxxvi. PI. iv. Fig. 20; Vo^el, 
NeMJlecken, 1876, PL i. Fig. 9.] 



342 A Cycle of Celestial Object 

832, 31 $. I. VIRGIBTIS. (h. 1329; H. 3075.) 



h. tn. 8. 8. 



B.A. 12 28 28 
Decl. N 8 18-1 



Free, -f 3-05 

// 
S 19*90 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"vB; vL; mEi2o; psmbM; L*f; *9p;" which means: 
"very bright; very large; much extended in the direction of about 120 
with the meridian ; pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle ; a large 
star follows ; a star of mag. 9 precedes." 

833. 8 CAWUM VENATICOBUM. (h. 1332 ; H. 3079 ; J8.) 

COCCI*. 



h. m. . a. 



R.A. 12 28 34 
Becl. K" 42 57*1 



Prec. + 2*92 

// 
8 19-90 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

B0BNHAM 220-5 2 7^'2 ... 1879-26 

A bright star with a distant companion, in the eye of Chara, the 
southern dog. A 4^, but suspected of variability, pale yellow; B 10, 
bluish; and there is another star in the sp, nearly on the parallel, at 
A R.A, 2 8' 5 s , as well as a very minute one in the nf quadrant. The 
large star is involved in a nebulous photosphere, as described by H. 
(Phil. Trans., 1833, No. 1332); but the nebulosity is no further apparent 
in my instrument than in giving the object an apparent derangement of 
focal definition. 

[Dreyer says : " Is probably to be struck out. Not seen as a nebulous 
star by cmybody except h., who seems to have had some doubts on the 
subject." The Rosse observations also pronounce against the idea of 
nebulosity, and therefore Smyth's " apparent derangement " seems true in 
another sense from that in which he used it.] 

834* COBVT. CCCXLIX. 

h. M. s. 



R.A. 12 28 36 






Becl. 8 22 47*3 



Prec. -f 3-14 

// 
8 19-92 



Position. Difference of E. A* Epoch* 

O 8. 

( AB 119 ,, 27.4 

( A C 306 ... 280 

JAB 129*7 ** not stated I 18*02* 

JAC 292.0 ... not stated) "' ' 9 5 

A Nautical Almanac star of the second grade, elected in 1830. It is 
in the Haven's right claw, and lies nearly midway between the two 
distant companions, whose position and distance are here estimated. 
A 2 , ruddy yellow ; B 7, greenish yellow ; C 8, dull grey. This is a fine 



1. A. -I2 h ' 28 n ^ 12^ 29^- 

star, and has unquestionably the precedence of lustre in Corvus, which 
could hardly have been the case in Bayer's time; and what is- singular, 
it has no trivial Arabian designation. Pfcolemy gave y, or third degree 
of brightness, to a, /3, y, d, and c ; but Tycho and Hevelius both rated 
a and of the 4 th magnitude, and /3 has latterly been elevated to 2*3. 
Such discrepancies should be closely watched, for though the low altitude 
of the asterism may be against precision in this country, it must be 
recollected that Ptolemy, Ulugh Beigh, Alphonsus, and Piazzi had a 
smaller South Polar Distance. The comparative lustre of the stars in 
Corvus, in the year 1796, was ably tabulated by IjL, in Phil. Trans*, 
vol. Ixxxvi. p. 468. [Webb in various years found the order of bright- 
ness to be y 6 ft a. The question of the brightness of the bright stars in 
Corvus was examined in detail by Argelander in the Bonn Obs., vol. vii,, 
and more recently by Gould in the Uranometria Argentina, p. 314 et seq. 
The discordances in the records are such as to render the variability of 
some of the stars certain.] 

Kopa, Corvus, is one of the constellated groups of the southern 
hemisphere, and though poor, is one of the ancient 48 asterisms. It is 
immediately to the E. of Crater, and between a Virginis and a Hydrse, 
but considerably nearer to the former, where it is readily made out by a 
lozenge of four stars of the 3 rd and 4*** magnitudes. As it contains a 
part of the body of Hydra, on which the bird rests, it is sometimes 
designated Hydra et Corvus. It was piously regarded as Noah's raven ; 
but this not being quite satisfactory to the Mosaicists, Columba Noachi 
was instituted by Royer, in 1679. (See a Hydrse.) The constituent 
members of Corvus have been thus numbered : 

Ptolemy . .* . . 7 stars. Hevelius . . . . 10 stars. 
Tycho Brahe* . . 8 Flamsteed ... 9 
Kepler . . . . 7 Bode 61 

A long occult line from a Lyra through a Virginis, and carried about 
j 5 beyond, enters among the 4 principal and well-known stars of Corvus : 

Mark in the space along the sky, where Hydra's volumes are, 

And 'twixt the Cup and Virgin's spike, you'll find the Raven's square. 

835. 24 C010E BEBENICIS. (2. 1657.) CCCCLI. 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 12 29 36 







Decl. N 18 58*9 



Free. 



S 19-89 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHBL, W. 273.5 *$'4 1781-16 

SMYTH 272.1 ... 20-5 ,. % 1836.38 

DUN^B 271.1 ,., 20-3 ... 1869.41 

JEDKZBJEWICZ 271*0 .,, 20-0 ,,, 1877-35 

A neat double star, between the Trusses and Virgo's left wing j lying 



344 A Cycle of Celestial Object. 

at two-fifths of the distance from Arcturus to Regulus. A 5^, orange 
colour; B 7, emerald tint, the colours very brilliant. 



836. 160 $. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1339; H. 3092; 

h. m. . g. 



R.A. 12 29 50 
Bed. 8 3 11 



Prec. + 3-08 
S 19-89 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; c L ; pm E 63 + ; vsmb M N ;" which means : " very bright ; 
considerably large ; pretty much elongated in the direction of about 63 
with the meridian; very suddenly much brighter in the middle where 
it exhibits a nucleus/' 



837. 36 $. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1343 ; H, 3095 ; 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 12 29 54 

Deel. N 12 49 '3 



Prec. -f 3 03 
S 19-89 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
a pB; S; vlE;" which means: "pretty bright; small; very little 
extended." 

There follows this at a distance of 8 s and 2' 8" to the N. another 
nebula (=37 Ip. I; h. 1349 ; H. 3096), which is thus described : "pB ; 
S; bM;" that is to say: " pretty bright; small; brighter in the 
middle/ 1 



838. 89 M. VIRaiNIS. (h. 1348 ; H. 3097.) 

h. m. . s. 



R.A. 12 30 6 
Bed. N 13 95 



Prec. -f- 3-03 
S 19-88 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" p B ; p S ; K ; gmb M ; " which means : " pretty bright ; pretty 
small ; round ; gradually much brighter in the middle." 



839. 92 y . I. CO1OB BERENICIS. (h. 1352 ; H. 3101 ; 

h. m. 8. 8. 



R.A. 12 30 29 



o 



Deel. K 28 33*9 



Prec. -I- 2-98 
S 19-88 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 



B. A. I2 h; 29 m - I2 1 *- 31^. 345 

" v B ; v L ; m E 1 50 ; gb M ; 3 st f ; " which means : " very bright ; 
very large ; much extended in the direction of 1 50 with the meridian ; 
gradually brighter in the middle ; there are 3 stars following the 
nebula." 

Engraved, PUL Trans., 1833, PI. viii. Fig. 83. 



840, 24 $ . V. C01OS BERENICES, (h. 1357; H. 31O6 ; &.) 

CCCCI.II. 



h. 



B.A. 12 30 50 
Decl. N 26 35 '7 



Prec. + 2*99 
S i" 9 'B7 



A large white nebula, in the centre of the Tresses, and 2 S.E. of the 
lucida, or 1 6 Comse Berenicis. It is a curious, long, and streaky object, 
lying np and sf across the field, in somewhat of a weaver's shuttle shape, 
and preceded by four telescopic stars in a vertical curve. From the 
description which I received vivd voce from H., my attention was intently 
fixed upon this nebula; and, after long and patient gazing, a parallel 
patch on the following limb was rather inferred than made out, by a 
peculiar glow on that part. 

The parallel appendage to this nebula is a most extraordinary pheno- 
menon, and is very beautifully figured in the Phil. Trans., 1833, by H. ; 
who considers the two as constituting a flat annulus seen at a great 
obliquity, but having very unequal breadths and densities in its two 
opposite semicircles. " Or," asks he, " must we admit the appendage to 
be a separate and distant nebula, dependant, by some unknown physical 
relation, on its brighter neighbour "? " 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, PL iv. Fig. 37 ; Lassell, Mem. K.A.S., 
vol. xxxvi. PL v. Fig. 21.] 



841. 32 $. I. VIRGimS. (h. 1301 ; H. 3110.) 



h. 



B.A. 12 31 17 
Decl. K 7 51 '0 



Prec. -f 3-05 
S 19*87 



A nebula thtis described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; p S ; m E o + ; sb M r N ; " which means : " considerably 
bright ; pretty small ; much extended in the direction of the meridian or 
thereabouts ; suddenly brighter in the middle where there is a mottled 
nucleus, hardly resolveable," 



34 6 A Cycle of Celestial Qljects. 



842, 90 M. VIBGI3STIS. (H. 3111 ; 



h. 



B.A. 12 31 24 
Decl. 3ST 13 45 '8 



Free. + 3-03 
S 19-87 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"pL; bMN;" winch means: " pretty large ; brighter in the middle 
where it exhibits a nucleus." 



843. 58 M. VIRGIWIS. (h. 1368; H. 3121; 



h. m. s. 3. 



K.A. 12 32 8 
Decl. N 12 25 2 



Free. + 3-03 
S 19-86 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; L ; i R ; vmb M ; r ; " which means : " bright ; large ; irregularly 
round ; very much brighter in the middle ; hardly resolveable rather, 
mottled as if with stars." 



844. 143 P. XII. VIRGINIS. CCCCLIII. 

1). m. s. s. 



B.A. 12 33 4 
Decl. S 3 46 '0 



Prec. + 3-08 
8 19-84 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o ft 

SOUTH 105.4 ... 50-5 ... 1825-36 

SMYTH 104.5 ... 50-0 ... 1833-31 

A wide double star, on the centre of Virgo's right wing ; on the line 
and exactly two-thirds of the distance between Spica and 17 Virginis. A 
6 1, pale yellow; B [10], greenish; several small stars in the field. 



845. 68 M. HYDRJE. (h. 3404; H. 3128.) CCCCLIV. 



h. 



B.A. 12 33 34 



o 



Decl. S 26 7-6 



Prec. + 3-16 
S 19-84 



A large round nebula on Hydra's body, under Corvus, discovered in 
1780 by Me"chain. In 1786, Sir W. Herschel's 2o ft reflector resolved 
,it into a rich cluster of small stare, so compressed that most of the 
components are blended together. It is about 3' broad^ and 4' long; 



E. A. i2 h - 3i m i2 h - 34 



m. 



347 



and he estimated that its profundity may be of the 344^ order. It is 
nearly mid-way between two small stars, one in the np and the other in 
the sf quadrant, a line between which would bisect the nebula. It is very 
pale, but so mottled that a patient scrutiny leads to the inference that it 
has assumed a spherical figure in obedience to attractive forces. It bears 
S. by ,E. from and is within 3 distance of j3 CorvL 



846. 43 



. I. VIBGINIS. (h. 1370 ; H. 3132.) CCCCLV. 

h. m. s. s. 

K.A. 12 34 15 



Deel. S 11 0-2 



Free. + 3-10 
S 19-83 




43 



FIG. 22. 

. I. VIEGINIS. 



A lucid white elliptical nebula, between the Virgin's right elbow and 
the Raven, in an elegant field of small stars. It lies nearly parallel to 
the equatorial line of the instrument, and on intense 
attention may be seen to blaze in the middle. The 
half dozen principal stars form a great Y, with the 
nebula as the centre. But it seems a mere wisp of 
subdued light, insomuch that my telescope does not 
afford me even the doubts inspired by the 2o ft re- 
flector; for Herschel remarks that there is a faint, 
diffused oval light all about it, and that he is almost 
positive that there is a dark interval or stratum, 
separating the nucleus and the general mass of the nebula from the light 
above it. " Surely no illusion/ 1 

"The general form of elongated nebulae is elliptic," says H., "and 
their condensation towards the centre is almost invariably such as 
would arise from the superposition of luminous elliptic strata, increasing 
in density towards the centre/* This must be another of those vast flat 
rings seen very obliquely, already spoken of, and is an elegant example 
of that celestial perspective ; it bears due "W. from a Virginis, and is 1 1 
from that star, forming nearly a right angle with ft Hydra, which lies 
1 2 to the 8. 

["Beautiful low -power field." Webb. Engraved, Phil Trans., 1833, 
PI. vi. Fig. 50; Lassell, Mem. M.A.S., vol. xxxvi. PL v. Fig. 22.] 



847. 21 1. I. VIKGINIS. (h. 1378 ; H. 3134 j 



h. m. s. 
R.A. 12 34 22 

Decl. N 10 47'2 



Prec. + 3-03 
S 1*9-83 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 



348 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



" B ; p S ; R ; gmb M ; r ; 3 st f ; " which means : " bright ; pretty 
small; round ; gradually much brighter in the middle ; hardly resolveable ; 
there are 3 stars following the nebula/' 



848. 254 lij. I. URS^E MAJORIS. (h 1381; H. 3142.) 



R. A. 12 35 3 
Decl. N* 02 13-3 



Prec, -f- 2-69 
S 19-82 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; L ; vm E 1 18-6 ; gib M ; " which means : " bright ; large ; very 
much extended in the direction of 118-6; gradually less bright towards 
the middle." 



849. 



7 CENTATJRI. (*h, 4539.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 12 35 28 



Peel. 8 48 21*5 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL, J. 354.3 

A double star. A 4 ; E 4. 



Prec. + 3-28 
S 19-81 



Distance. 



Epoch. 
1835-89 



850. 



58 B. CORVI. (2. 1669.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 12 
Decl. S 

STRUVE, W. 
SMYTH 
SECCHI 
MAIN 
STONE, O. 


35 33 
12 24*8 

Position, 

o 

298-9 

298.9 

302-1 
301 5 
304.4 


Prec. + 


3-1 1 
19-81 

Epoch. 
1828-66 
1835-50 
1856-53 
1863.30 
1 879. ' 9 


Distance. 

5-4 
5-4 

5*7 
5-9 

5-7 



A double star. A 7, yellowish white; B 7, yellowish white. Smyth's 
measures as above are taken from Gledhill, but I have not found any 
such measures in his books Or in any of the papers which have come into 
xuy possession, 



E. A. 1 2 h - 34- 1 



349 



851. 



ir y VIRGINIS (2. 1670.) 

$. 
Free. + 3-07 

S 19-81 



h. in. . 

R. A. 12 36 5 
Decl. 8 60-8 



Position. 



HERSCHEL, W, 
HEKSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 
STRUVE, W. 



SMYTH 



DAWES 
STRUVE, 0, 
KNOTT 
DEMBOWSKI 
JEDRZEJEWICZ 



Distance. 
ff 

5*7 
3-79 
2-28 

1-6 

I 'O 

0.5 

round 

elongated 

1-24 

2-73 

4-05 
4*61 



CCCCLVI, 



Epoch. 

1780-06 
1822-25 
1825-42 
1831-38 
1834-20 
1835-40 
1836-15 
1836-39 
1840.38 
1850.39 
1860-44 
1870.25 
1880.45 



A fine binary star, in Virgo's right side. A 4, silvery white [or yellow] ; 
B 4, pale yellow, but though marked by Piazzi of equal magnitude with 
A, it has certainly less brilliance; and the colours are not always of the 
same intensity, but whether owing to atmospherical or other causes, 
remains undecided. They are followed by a minute star nearly on the 
parallel, [of which Burnham gives: Pos. 88-0; Dist. 102-8"; Epoch, 
1880-27.] This most instructive star bears N.W. of a Virginis, and is 
1 5 distant, in the direction between a and y Leonis. A very sensible 
proper motion has been detected in A, and there can be no doubt of B 
standing on in the same course. 

It was with much gratification that I watched this very interesting 
physical object through a considerable portion of its superb ellipse. 
It is rather singular that, brilliant as these two stars are, various 
occupations of y Virginis by the Moon have been recorded without 
allusion to its being double. So lately as the 2O th March, 1780, 
the phenomenon was watched by nine astronomers ; yet at Paris only, 
on that occasion, is mention made of one star being occulted io 8 
before the other. On the 2i 8t January, 1794, the occupation was 
observed by four astronomers ; yet no one mentions duplicity. This is 
passing strange, because Cassini had, in 1720, perceived and recorded 
the two stars, noting that the western disappeared 30" before the other, 
behind the Moon's dark limb, but they emerged nearly together. He 
could not divide them with a telescope of n ft , but with one of i6 ft 
they were well severed, and of equal magnitudes. He watched the 
immersion, which was oblique, with great care, hoping by refraction or 



350 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

discoloration to detect a lunar atmosphere; but though the circum- 
stances were favourable^ he perceived no symptom. Yet the observation 
was held to be of importance, for, by enlisting that able astronomer and 
Bradley, Sir J. Herschel corisrdered that he gained some useful points 
in the orbital departure. 

As the rigorous observations and computations of this object must be 
deemed a sort of experimentum cruets of the sidereal connected systems, 
I may be excused for entering into rather fuller details of the detection 
and establishment of so wonderful an elliptic motion, than I have yet 
indulged in among the binaries ; and it will thereby serve as an example 
of the method of procedure with those interesting objects. 

The various observations were most ably and zealously discussed by 
Sir John, and treated in a straightforward, geometrical mode, so as to 
be widely available ; as will be seen on consulting the Memoirs of the 
Royal Astronomical Society, vol. v. The method is equally novel and 
ingenious. Assuming that the motions of binary stars are governed by 
the universal law of gravitation, and that they describe conic sections 
about their common centre of gravity and about each other, he was bent 
on relieving their discussion from the analytical difficulties attending a 
rigorous solution of equations, where 'the data are uncertain, irregular, 
and embarrassing. Measures of position were to be the sheet-anchor; 
for distances, with the exception of the major semi-axis, were peremptorily 
excluded from any share of consideration in the investigation, because of 
their notorious looseness and insecurity, 

"The process (said he) by which I propose to accomplish this, is one essentially 
graphical ; by which term I understand, not a mere substitution of geometrical con- 
struction and measurement for numerical calculation, but one which has for its object 
to perform that which no system of calculation can possibly do, by bringing in the aid 
of the eye and hand to guide the judgment, in a case where judgment only, and not 
calculation, can be of any avail." 

Under the assumption, therefore, that gravitation governs, and that one 
of the components revolves, while the other, though not necessarily in 
the focus, is at rest, the curve is constructed by means of the angles 
of position and the corresponding times of observation ; and tangents to 
this curve, at stated intervals, yield the apparent distances at each angle, 
they being, by the known laws of elliptical motion, equal to the square 
roots of the apparent angular velocities. 

Thus armed, Sir John proceeded with the orbit of y Virginis. From 
the above positions and epochs, with interpolated intermediates, a set of 
polar co-ordinates were derived, and thence elliptical elements for the 
apparent ellipse. 

The next process was to obtain the elements of the real ellipse, and 
the. whole consequent investigation is so succinctly described in tlie paper 



E. A. I2. h ; 36**' 



351 



alluded to, that any zealous tyro may tread in the same steps, with a little 
attention. The results, together with a comparison of the elements and 
observations up to the period of the computation, and an ephemeris of the 
system for the years 1832, 1833, 1834, and 1835, were inserted in the 
Supplement to the Nautical Almanac for 1832. But finding a discrepancy 
between the measures then obtained and the places predicted, Herschel^ 
nothing daunted,, again took the field, and recalculated the orbit, as 
described in Memoirs E. A. S., vol. vi. 

In giving his remarkable results to the astronomical world, Sir John 
said : - 

"If they be correct, the latter end of the year 1833, or the beginning of the year 
1834, will witness one of the most striking phenomena which sidereal astronomy has 
yet afforded, viz., the perihelion passage of one star round another, with the immense 
angular velocity of between 60 and 70 per annum, that is to say, of a degree in 5 
days. As the 2 stars will then, however, be within little more than half a second 
of each other, and as they are both large, and nearly equal, none but the very finest 
telescopes will have any chance of showing this magnificent phenomenon. The 
prospect, however, of witnessing a visible and measurable change, in the state of an 
object so remote, in a time so short (for, in the mean of a very great number of 
careful measures with equal stars, a degree can hardly escape observation), may 
reasonably be expected to call into action the most powerful instrurnantal means which 
can be brought to bear on it." 

And this was Sir John's projected ellipse : 



ffi 



90 




1740' 



1720 



G. 23, OKBIT^OF ^ VIKGINIS AS FOUND BY SIK J. HERSCHEL IN 183*. 



352" A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

From the extreme delicacy of so novel a case, all the conditions were 
not yet met, so that this bold prediction was not circumstantially verified, 
although it was admirably correct in substance. Whilst rushing towards 
the nearest point of contact, or shortest distance of the revolving star 
from its primary, and the proximity became extreme, the field was left, 
as far as I know, to Sir John Herschel at the Cape of Good Hope, 
Professor Struve at Dorpat, and myself at Bedford. Our measures 
afforded unquestionable proofs of the wonderful movement under dis- 
cussion; yet they certainly exhibited greater discrepancies than might 
have been expected, from the excellence of the instruments employed. 
But the increased angular velocity which so excentric a star acquired, 
when gaining its periastre, and the closeness of its junction, rendered 
the operations extremely difficult : added to which, the brightness of two 
such stars was sufficient to call forth that disadvantage, arising from 
the inflection of light, which the wire micrometer labours under, and 
which interferes in the exact contact between the line and the luminous 
body. 

The accelerating velocity of angular change was thus vigilantly 
watched, until the commencement of the year 1836, when an unex- 
pected phenomenon took place. Instead of the appulse which a careful 
projection, drawn from the above elements, had led me to expect, I was 
astonished, on gazing at its morning apparition in January, to find it a 
single star ! In fact, whether the real discs were over each other or not, 
my whole powers, patiently worked from 240 to 1200, could only make 
the object round. I instantly announced this singular event to my astro- 
nomical friends, but the notice was received with less energy than such 
a case demanded ; none of the powerful refractors in this country were 
pointed to it in time ; and it is to be regretted, that we had not the 
benefit of the unexcelled Dorpat telescope's evidence, at the critical 
epoch in question. This state of apparent singleness may have existed 
during the latter part of 1835, for when I caught it, it was very near 
a change. At length, about the beginning of June, 1836, a letter arrived 
from Sir J. Herschel, addressed to Baily, wherein he detailed his obser- 
vations on the single state of this star, at the villa of Feldhausen, Cape of 
Good Hope, in his 2o ft reflector. Under the date of February 27 th , 
that unwearied astronomer says : 

"7 Virginia, at this time, is to all appearance a single star. I have tormented it 
under favourable circumstances, with the highest powers I can apply to my telescopes, 
consistently with seeing a well-defined disc, till my patience has been exhausted ; and 
that lately, on several occasions, whenever the definition of the stars generally, in that 
quarter of the heavens, would allow of observing with any chance of success, but I 
have not been able to procure any decisive symptom of its consisting of 2 individuals." 

The companion now took such a movement, as quite to confute a 



RA. I2 h - 36 m - 363 

large predictive diagram I had constructed, showing that the orbit was 
extremely elongated, more like a comet's than a planet's; which gave 
me a suspicion that we had been looking at the ellipse the wrong way. 
Hereupon I returned to the Herschelian process to obtain the elements 
of the apparent and the true ellipse, with my new measures, but could 
neither accommodate the period, nor arrive at any satisfactory conclusions. 
When therefore M. Madler's masterly computations appeared in the 
Astronomische Nachrichten, 363, my views were greatly countenanced; 
but with a full value for the talent and zeal of that astronomer's process, 
I was still anxious for Sir John Herschel to return to his own field, and 
meet the apparently unaccountable informalities which still remained. 
Having made a request to this effect, he replied : 

" Maugre I cannot yet send you any finalities about y Virginia, yet to prove that 
I have not been quite idle, I will state one or two general conclusions that a projec- 
tion of the observations has led me to, preparatory to exact numerical computation, 
I. We are all wrong, Madler and all of us, and it is the early observation of Bradley 
in 1718 which has misled us. That observation is totally incompatible with any 
reasonable ellipse, and must be absolutely rejected. Had it not been for my respect 
for that single observation I should have got very near the true ellipse in my first 
approximation. 2. The period is short of 150 years. My conjecture, antecedent to 
any exact calculation from my projection, is 143, which is considerably less than the 
least of Madler's, and beyond his assigned limits of error. 3. I suspect Madler's 
perihelion to be half a year too early, and that the true perihelion passage took place 
at 1 836-6, or thereabouts. We shall get on better now that we have found out the 
black sheep." 

Thus duly authorised, I attacked the orbit again, rejecting, with 
some regret, Bradley, Pound, Cassini, and Mayer, and assuming I^.'s 
observations of 1780 as the point of departure. Taking, therefore, the 
epochs from that date to 1843 for abscissae, and the observed angles fort 
ordinates, a fresh set of periods was obtained, through which the inter- 
polating curve was led, on a very large scale *. From the interpolated 
positions corresponding to the assumed dates between 1780 and 11843, 
the intervals being first decennial, then quinquennial, and afterwards 
more rapid still, the angular velocities were concluded, and by their aid 
the distances as radii vectores. These positions and distances were laid 
down from the central star as an origin of polar co-ordinates. Now, 
though this is a simple and merely graphic process of obtaining the 
elements of both the apparent and true ellipse, and is liable to shakiness, 
it undeniably shows the physical fact of a highly elongated orbit; and 

* Sir John Herschel informs me, that curve, equalising the differences on paper, 

he has disused the method of drawing and thence deducing the angular velo- 

tangents for the angular velocities. The cities by first and second differences (if 

substitute is a closer reading off of the needed) ; but first will generally suffice* 

A a 



354 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



several of the conditions prove that, notwithstanding the present anoma- 
lous differences, we are arriving near the mark. It is singular how all 
the determinations of the excentricity have agreed, thus : 



Enckc . . 
Herschelll. 



First Orbit. 
. 0-890 
. 0.887 



Second Orbit. 
0-860 I 
0-834 | 



Madler 
Myself 



First Orbit, 
. 0-864 
. 0-883 



Second Orbit, 
0-868 
0-872 



As the ellipse projected by Sir John Herschel, under all the epochs, 
has been given, the reader may like to see the figure produced by the 
Bedford observations, which yields a period of about 180 years : 




Fro. 24. OBBIT OF y VIBGINIS AS POUND BV ADMIBAL SMYTH IN 1843. 

- As the resulting elements, though better, were still unsatisfactory, I 
was about to take another point of departure, and try again, when I 
Teeeived a? letter from. Sir John Herschel, dated Collingwood, 9 th July, 
1843, of which the following is an extract : 

*' I wrote to you last, that I could not make Bradley's observations agree with any 
ellipse consistent with the later observations, and that Madler's elements, which 
assume the correctness of that observation, are inadmissible. I have now satisfied 
myself "that this- is really the case, and that 'M&dler' period admits of being yet 



R.A, i2 h - 6 m * 355 



reduced. But still it is necessary to suppose materially greater errors in one direction 
over the whole interval 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, than I quite like. The mean of 
Dawes's and my own measures, however, is on the whole exceedingly well repre- 
sented in all the critical and puzzling part of the orbit corresponding to 1830 1834 
inclusive. Your observations of 1831, 1832, and 1833, offer discordancies of 4-2, 
+ 2|, and + 3, which are, considering the then considerable closeness of the stars, 
not more than might well be committed. But Struve's are quite inexplicable ; his 
errors, supposing the orbit correct, run thus : 

1825 1828 1829 1831 1832 1833 1834 

+ 1 -- 3 +3i + 4i +5, +7 + 6 + 71 

after which the deviation ceases. 

" On the whole I consider the proofs of gravitation afforded by this star quite 
satisfactory. It is true that I am forced to admit an error of 3 J in my father's 
measure of 1781, and an error exceeding 2 in the same direction in his subsequent 
mean result for 1 803 ; but when I recollect what sort of micrometer and apparatus he 
used, I am not disposed to quarrel with these. 

" I am not satisfied with my inclination and node, and there is still a tendency in 
the curve of the star, if your measures of this year be correct, to run away from its 
proper course, to bolt ; which leads me to believe that these elements are not yet so 
well determined as I hope to get them. Your ellipse from the Bedford observations 
is a very beautiful one, but I have not yet compared -your elements with the obser- 
vations. I am somewhat surprised at the length of your period, as I find 1 26 years 
represents the mean of all the observations (including Struve's) on the whole well* 
I have been chiefly attending to improving the method as a working one, and I am 
preparing a paper on the subject, in which the orbit of y will occur in exemplifica- 
tion. What I aim at is, a direct process leading to the separate correction of each 
element, in place of a turmoil of calculus on the principle of least squares, which 
in cases of such discordant observations is, if not illusory, at least unnecessarily 
troublesome." 

[It does not appear that of late years mnch attention has been paid to 
this star by computers, and we still remain a good deal in the dark as to 
its orbit. "We can say now little more than Smyth said above, namely s 
that its period is "about 180 years." Thiele says iSsy, Adams I74 y .] 



852. 59 M. VIBGIHTS. (h. 1386 ; H. 3155 ; &<) 

fc. rru . . 



R.A. 12 36 28 
DecL 1ST 12 16 -1 



Free, -f 3*03 
S 19-80 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 ; 
" B ; p L ; IE; vsvmb M ; 2 st p ; " which means : " bright ; pretty 
large ; little extended ; very suddenly very much brighter in the middle ; 
2 stars precede." Engraved, Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., vol. xxxvi. PL v. 
Fig. 23. 

A a 2 



356 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



853. 42 $. V. COMJE BERENICES, (h.1397; H.3165; 3SU) 



B.A. 12 36 50 
Decl. N" 33 8-8 



Free. + 2-93 
S 19-79 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerschePs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"!; vB; vL; eE7o+; bMN; B*nr;" which means: "a re- 
markable object ; very bright ; very large ; extremely extended in the 
direction of about 70 with the meridian ; brighter in the middle where 
there is a nucleus ; there is a bright star near." Engraved, Phil. Trans., 
1833, PL vii. Fig. 76; Phil. Trans., 1850, PI. xxxviL Fig. 9; Lassell, 
Mem. E. A. S., vol. xxxvi. PL v. Fig. 24. 



854. 274 I#. I. DBACONIS. (h. 1410 ; H. 3181.) 



B.A. 12 37 41 
Decl. N 75 1/5 



Prec. -f 2-26 
S 19-79 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" p B ; c S ; R ; gb M ; * p ; " which means : " pretty bright ; con- 
siderably small ; round ; gradually brighter in the middle ; a double star 
precedes/' 



855. 10 $. I. VIBGINIS. (h. 1404; H. 3176; .) 



B.A. 12 37 44 
Decl. W 2 35'3 



Prec. -f 3*06 
S 19-78 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; p S ; IE; mb M ; " which means : " considerably bright ; pretty 
small ; but little extended ; much brighter in the middle." 



856. 60 M, VIBGINIS. (h. 1408 ; H. 3182 ; .) CCCCLVII. 



B.A. 12 38 4 
Decl. N 12 9-7 



Prec. + 3-02 
S 19-78 



A double nebula, in the centre of Virgo's left wing, .lying np and $/, 
about 2' or 3' from centre to centre, the preceding one being extremely 



B. A. 



i2 



h - 



357 



faint. The following, or brighter one, is that seen and imperfectly 
described by Messier in 1779, and is nearly between two telescopic stefl*s 
vertically posited. [Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, PL vii. Fig. 74.] J$L 
fine field is exhibited under the eye-piece, which magnifies 93 times, just, 
as this object enters, because the bright little nebula 59 M. is quitting 
the np verge, and another small one is seen in the upper part, H. 3171: 
in fact, four nebulae at once. 

The hypothesis of Sir J. Herschel, upon double nebulae, is new and 
attracting. They may be stellar systems each revolving round the other : 
each a universe, according to ancient notions. But as these revolutionary 
principles of those vast and distant firmamental clusters cannot for ages 
yet be established, the mind lingers in admiration, rather than compre- 
hension of such mysterious collocations. Meantime our clear duty is, 
so industriously to collect 
facts, that much of what is 
now unintelligible may be- 
come plain to our succes- 
sors, and a portion of the 
grand mechanism now be- 
yond our conception, re- 
vealed. Sir J. Herschel 
exclaims, "How much is 
escaping us ! How un- 
worthy is it in them who 
call themselves philoso- 
phers, to let these great 
phenomena of nature, these 
slow but majestic mani- 
festations of the power and the glory of GOB, glide by unnoticed, 
and drop out of memory beyond the reach of recovery, because we 
will not take the pains to note them in their unobtrusive and furtive 
passage, because we see them in their every-day dress, and mark no 
sudden change, and conclude that all is dead, because we will not look 
for signs of life; and that all is uninteresting, because we are not im- 
pressed and dazzled To say, indeed, that every individual star 

in the Milky Way, to the amount of eight or ten millions, is to have its 
place determined, and its motion watched, would be extravagant ; but at 
l^ast let samples be taken, at least let monographs of parts be made 
with powerful telescopes and refined instruments, that we may know 
what is going on in that abyss of stars, where at present imagination 
wanders without a guide 1" Such is the enthusiastic call of one, whose 
father cleared the road by which we are introduced to the grandest 
phenomena of the stellar universe. 




Fia. 25. 60 M. VIEGINIS. 4 



358 A Cyck of Celestial Objects: 

This mysterious and shadowy doublet will be found 5 W. of e Virginia, 
in the direction of a Leonis, where there is a very large and wonderful 
nebulous region. 

[Brodie describes No. I of the woodcut as "faint;" 2 and 4 "very 
faint;" and 3 "medium bright/' No. i=H. 3155; No. 2=H. 3171 ; 
No. 3 = H. 3182; No. 4 = H. 3180. Lord Rosse found No. 2. to be bi- 
nuclear.] 



857. 176 $. I. C01OB BEBENICIS. (h. 1414; H. 3180 ; .) 



K.A. 12 38 45 
Decl. N 32 48-7 



Free. + 2 -93 
S 19-77 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 
" ! ; p B 5 L ; vm E 34'3 ; sp of 2 ;" which means : " a remarkable 
object; pretty bright; large; very much extended in the direction of 
34*3 with the meridian ; this is the sp of 2 nebulae.'* The nebula which 
follows this (=177 1$. !; n - I 4 I 5> H. 3190) stands described as 
f 6 !; pF; L; 90+ ;" which means: "a remarkable object; pretty 
faint ; large ; extended in the direction of about 90 with the meridian." 
The former object is engraved, Phil Trans., 1833, PL vii. Fig. 75: and 
the latter, Phil. Trans., 1861, PL xxviii. Fig. 26. According to Lord 
Rosse these 2 nebulae form one, the joining part being faint in the 
middle. 



858. 142 $. I. VIEGINIS. (h. 1419; H. 3197.) 



h. m. 



B.A. 12 39 29 
Becl. N 3 38*9 



Prec. -f 3-05 
S 19-76 



A nebula thus described iu Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 
*<B; pL; iR; mbM; * xosp;" which means: "bright; pretty 
large; irregularly round ; much brighter in the middle; there is a 10 th 
mag. star in the sp quadrant." 



859. 15 Iff.. I. VIBCHHTS. (h. 1420 ; H. 3198.) 

b. m. ft. , 



B.A. 12 39 31 



o 



Decl. N 8-6 



Prec, -f 3-07 
S 19-76 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerecheTs Catalogue of 1864; 



K.A. 



359 



"B; vL; mE45+; psbM;*' which means: "bright; very large; 
much extended in the direction of about 45 with the meridian ; pretty 
suddenly much brighter in the middle." 



860. 



1678 2. VIBGINIS. 



h. 


m. ft. 






. 


B.A. 12 


39 58 


Free. + 


3-or 




o / 






H 


Decl. N 


14 58*2 




- S 


19-75 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


H 






SOUTH 


213.4 


33-3 


1825.30 


STRUVE, 0. 


209*1 


32- 


8 


^842-41 


MADLER 


204.8 


32 


7 


1858.36 


DOBERCK 


200.4 - 


31. 


9 


1877.29 


JEDRZEJEWICZ 


200-5 


32- 


4 


1880.37 



A double star. A 6, very white ; B ^|-, yellowish white. Gledhill 
remarks : " Rectilinear motion, The angle has diminished, but the 
distance has changed very little, if at all." I would rather say that 
the distance has certainly diminished. The amount may not be much, 
but the measures are very harmonious from first to last during a period 
of 52 years. 



861. 



CBUCIS. 



h. m. s. 
B.A. 12 41 17 

Decl. 8 59 5*2 



Free. + 3-44 
S 19-73 



A conspicuous star of mag. i. In the same field with this, but 
about i m preceding it, there is a "most intense Wood-red" star of 
mag. 8|. 



862. 510 (?) Dunlop CENTAUBI. (h. 3424; H. 3226.) 

Free, -f 3-28 
- S 19-1 



B.A. 13 42 60 



Decl. S 40 42-3 

A nebula thus described in Sir J, Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"pB; L; E; gbM; r;" which means: "pretty bright; large; 
round ; gradually brighter in the middle 5 hardly resolveable mottled as 
if with stars." 



360 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

863. 39 $. I. VIBGINIS. (h. 1436; H. 3227; 



h. 



R.A. 12 42 54 







Decl. 3 6 11*9 



Free. + 3*09 
S 19-71 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"vB; L; 1E45; srnbMrN;" which means: "very bright; large; 
a little extended in the direction of about 45 with the meridian ; suddenly 
much brighter in the middle where it exhibits a nucleus which shows 
indications of resolveability/* 

864. 129 TJL. I. ITIRGnsriS. (h. 1437, 3425 ; H. 3229 ; &.) 

h. m. s. 



R.A. 12 43 19 







Bed. 8 8 3*9 



Free. 4- 3-10 
S iQ-71 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" v B ; R ; vmb M r N ; r ;" which means : " very bright ; round ; 
very much brighter in the middle where there is a nucleus which shows 
signs of resolveability." 

865. 84 $. I. CO1OE BERENICES, (h. 1451 ; H. 3249 ; &.) 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 12 45 







Decl. N 26 59 



Free, 4- 2 '9 4 
S 19-68 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
u v B ; v L ; E ; vg, vsvmb M e B N ; " which means : " very bright ; 
very large ; extended ; at first very gradually, then very suddenly much 
brighter in the middle where it exhibits an extremely bright nucleus." 

866* 190 P. xii. vniamis. (2. ies2.) CCCCLVIII. 



h. 



K.A. 12 45 39 



o 



Decl, 8 9 44-4 



Free. + 



S 19-64 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o H 

STRUVE,W. 308-7 ... 33-6 ... 1831-61 

SMYTH 307.9 ,., 33.5 ... 1834-41 

DEMBOWBKI 306-9 ... 32.3 ... 1865-30 

A neat but wide double star, between the Virgin's right arm and 
the tail of the Kaven ; about 8 W. \ N. of a, and closely sp ^ Virginia, 
a star of the 5^ magnitude. A 6|, topaz yellow; B 9^, lucid purple, 
the colours finally contrasted. 



E.A. i2 h - 42^- I2 h - 46^* 361 

867, 94 M. CANUM VENATICOBTTM. CCCCLIX. 

(h. 1456 ; H. 3258 ; &.) 



h. 



B.A. 12 45 43 



o 



Deol. N 41 43-3 



Free. + 2-83 
8 19-66 



A [comet-like] nebula discovered by M^chain, in 1781, immediately 
preceding the crown on Charles's Heart. It is a fine pale-white object, 
with evident symptoms of being a compressed cluster of small stars. 
It brightens towards the middle, and the gradual augmentation of 
intensity from the margin to the centre of this apparently orbicular object 
is a direct proof of the real sphericity of the stellar mass. There 
are several small stars in the field, of which one in the sf quadrant is 
double. 2^ N.W. of a Canum Venaticorum. 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, PL v. Fig. 4* ; Lassell, Mem. R. A. S., 
vol. xxxvi. PL v. Fig. 25.] 

868. 202 P. XII. COMjE BEBEKTCIS. (2. 1685.) CCCCLX. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 12 46 29 



o 



Bed. 1ST 20 46*2 



Free, -f 2-98 
8 19-64 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, W. 202-0 ... 15.8 ... 1782.30 

STEUVE, W. 200*8 ... 15.8 ,.. 1829-87 

SMYTH 201-9 ... 16-2 ... 1838-28 

MAIN 200-2 ... 15-7 ... 1863-20 

A neat double star, between Berenice's Hair and Virgo's left wing : 
it lies due W. of a Bootis, or on its parallel, at the distance of 22, where 
a line dropped S. from a Canum Venaticorum will intercept it. A Y, 
and B 8, both white ; other stars in the field, but small and distant. A 
comparison of the measures affords presumptive proof of fixity. 

[2 S. of 35 Comae Berenieis.j 

869. 25 $. I. VIRGDS1S. (h. 1462; H. 3274.) 

h. TO, s. . 



B.A. 12 46 45 



o 



Bed. N 11 54*6 



Prec. -f 3oi 
S 19-65 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 
"B; pL; B; psbM; pofa;" which means: "bright; pretty large; 
round; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle; the preceding of 2 
nebula." The other nebula here mentioned is 75 1$. II. (see post). 
About 2 J preceding c Virginia, a 3 rd mag, star. 



362 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

870. K CRUCIS. (h. 3435 ; H. 3275.) 



h. 



R.A. 12 47 7 







Decl. 8 59 45*2 



Free. 4- 3'53 
S 19-62 



A fine cluster of bright stars. This was described by Sir J. He-rschel 
as one of the most beautiful objects of the kind in the heavens. It 
consists of about no stars from the 7 th magnitude downwards, 8 
of the more conspicuous of them being coloured various shades 
of red, green, and blue. "No nebula is perceptible in any- part 
of the extent of this cluster, which though neither a large nor a 
rich one is yet an extremely brilliant and beautiful object when viewed 
through an instrument of sufficient aperture to show distinctly the 
very different colours of its constituent stars, which give it the effect 
of a superb piece of fancy jewellery." (Cape Obs. p. 17.) This 
cluster was very carefully examined and its constituent stars mapped in 
1872 by Mr. W. C. Russell of the Sydney Observatory. His paper will 
be found in Month. Not. R. A. ., vol. xxxiii. p. 66. Russell found 25 stars 
not mentioned by Herschel ; on the other hand, he could not find 5 stars 
noted by Herschel. He adds: "Many of the stars have drifted con- 
siderably since the Cape drawing was made." 

Engraved, Cape Obs., PL i. Fig. 2 ; [in which the ST. and S. points are 
erroneously reversed] ; and Russell, Month. Not., ubi supra* 

871. 75 I. II. VIBGINIS. (h.1466; H. 3278; ft*) CCCCLXI. 



h. m. 0. 



B.A. 12 47 20 
Decl. N 12 49-5 



Free, -f 3-01 

// 
S 19-63 



A pale elliptical nebula, in the middle of Virgo's left wing. This is a 

fine object trending sp and nf t nearly 
in the vertical, but from its superior 
brightness at the S., or upper end, it 
rises while gazing from the dumpy 
egg-shape to that of a paper kite : 
over it is an arch formed by three 
telescopic stars, the symmetry of which 
is so peculiar as to add to that appear- 
ance. These stars trend, by two very 
faint ones, to a round nebula [H. 3274] 
FIG. 26. 75 # . II. VIBOIKW. in tbe ^quadrant, preceded by two stars 

of the i o^ 1 magnitude. 2|- distant from e Virginis on the western parallel. 
["The above sketch is very unlike the originals." Brodie. H. 3278 

is engraved, Phil. Trans., 183% PL viii. Fig. 84.] 




E.A. i2 h - 47 m - 12^- 48 m - "363 

872. 35 COKLS! SEREMICIS. (2. 1687.) CCCCLXII. 



B.A. 12 47 63 



o 



Becl. N 21 50-6 



Prec. -f 2*96 
S 19-63 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

a llSi, ::: L\ - i8 ^ 8 

MORTON J A ** 45 ' 4 '" l' 4 i I ... 1857-28 
(AC 124.2 ... 28-16 ) D4 

DOBERCK J A * 6l '5 - ''jo ... I8 7 7 .2 7 
(AC 124-1 ... 28-68 i " ' 

A delicate triple star, between the Tresses and the Virgin's northern 
wing, about 7 S.S.E. of its own Itwida, and 20 W. of a Bootis. A 5, 
pale yellow ; B, indistinct ; C i o, cobalt blue. Of this object A and C 
were classed as a double star, and registered 130 Ip . V. ; but S. detected 
B, and rendered it a fine but extremely difficult triple. Indeed, the 
latter was so involved in the moulds and twirls of the primary, that but 
for A and B pointing directly upon a 12 th magnitude star in the nf 
quadrant, the estimation of angle and distance would have been hardly 
possible. 

[The close pair are clearly in motion, but there is no evidence of 
change in the distant star.] 



873. 5317 Lao. CENTAITBI. 

h. m. . I. 



B.A. 12 48 7 



o 



Bed. 8 56 34*6 



Free. + 3.46 
S iV 6 " 2 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

HERSCHEL, J. 16-0 ,,, 42 eatf. .,, 1834.25 
A double star, AS; B 6. 

874. 32 Hev. CAMELOPARDI. (2. 1694.) CCCCLXV. 

h. m. 8, I. 



B.A. 12 48 16 
Decl. N 84 6*7 



Prec. 4- 0-29 
S 19-61 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o u , 

HEESOHEL, J., and SOUTH 327.0 ... ai-o ... 1822.28 

DUN&I 326.7 ... M6 ... 1872-0,9 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 326.4 4 .. j6 ... 1877.62 

A neat double star, near the animal's ear; it is nearly 7 S* by E, front 



864 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Polaris, and forms the vertex of a nearly isosceles triangle with that star 
and 8 Ursse Minoris. A 6 and B 6^, both bright white ; a third star in 
the sp, but only of the n th magnitude. It appears to have no motion 
either in angle or distance. 

[Colours "not quite a match," 1863. Webb. Dun4r terms both 
"jaune/'J 

[A is 232 P. XII. In the B. A.C. the star marked 232 P. XII. is 
ascribed to Ursa Minor.] 



875. 134 $. I. VIRGINIS. (H. 3202.) 

h. tn. g. i. 



B.A. 12 48 38 



o 



Decl. 8 9 56*4 



Prec. + 3-12 
S 19-61 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; v L ; m E ; " which means ; " considerably bright ; very large ; 
much extended." 



876. 221 P. XII. VIRGIHIS. (2. 1689.) CCCCLXIII. 

h. m. 8. *. 



B.A. 12 49 59 
Decl. N 12 5 '7 



Prec. -f 3*0 1 
S 19-58 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH- 196-3 ... 29-17 ... 1823-40 

SMYTH *97*9 2 9* 1 1831-38 

A neat double star, near the middle of Virgo's northern wing ; pre- 
ceding c on the parallel by only 2 [and a little N.], and therefore 
readily fished up by the out-door gazer. A 7^, pale white? B 9, sky 
blue. This object is thus described by Piazzi: "Duplex. Socia io fe 
magnit. 0-6" temporis preecedit, 20" circiter ad austrum." 



877. 243 $. I. URS^J MAJOBJS. (h. 1483; H. 3315.) 

h. m. s. 



B.A, 12 50 28 
Decl. K 58 55*9 



Prec. + 2-59 
S 19-58 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel'e Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; p 8 ; vl E ; vgb M ; * which means : " bright ; pretty small ; very 
little extended ; very gradually brighter in the middle," 



R A. I2 h - 48 m ' I2 h - o m - 365 



b. 

R.A. 12 


m. 8. 

50 53 


Free. + 


Becl. N 


38 54-7 


S 




Position. 


Distance. 


HEKSCHEL, W. 
SMYTH 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 




228-5 .. 
227.0 
227.7 . 


n 

2OOO+ . 

. 19-8 "" 
19-8 
2O-O 



878. a CANUM VENATICOBUM, (S. 1092.) CCCCLXVI. 

2.84 

19-57 
Epoch. 

1780-60 
- 1837.39 
., 1869.44 
.. 187773 

A fine double star, the lucida of the heart placed between Asterion 
aud Chara. A 2-J-, flushed white; B 6^, pale lilac; a third star at a 
distance on the N. vertical. This is a Nautical Almanac star, and a fine 
object. There has been no appreciable alteration in position or distance. 
This star is the leader of Ptolemy's a/iop<o>Tot to the Great Bear, 
and it appears on the Borgian globe. Ulugh Beigh records it by the 
Arabian designation Kdbd-al-asad, liver of the lion, and there is 
abundance of evidence to prove that it was pretty notorious among 
astronomers. But it came to pass that it was named Cor Caroli by 
Halley, at the suggestion of Sir C. Scarborough, after a worthless man's 
heart. The popular story, or rather the vulgar one, runs, how Scar- 
borough, the court physician, gazed upon a star the very evening before 
the return of King Charles II. to London, the which, as in duty bound, 
appeared more visible and refulgent than heretofore; so the said star, 
which Hevelius had already made the lucida of Chara's colkr, was 
thereupon extra-constellated within a sort of Valentine figure of a heart, 
with a royal crown upon it ; and so the monarch, it would seem, by this 
extraction, remained heartless. Though this pretty symbol appears as a 
tail-piece to the preface of the Atlas Ccelestis, Flamsteed has not 
honoured it with a place on the plate of the Hounds, 

Cor Caroli is readily found by alignment. With the three stars of 
the Greater Bear's tail as the head of a paper kite, it forms the tail end ; 
or a line from the Pole-star over Ursse Majoris will point upon the 
heart. Another clue is obtained in the galley-rhyme : 

When clear .aloft, Bootes seek, his brilliance leads the gaze, 

And on each side its glitt'ring gems the spacious arch displays; 

Arcturus east to Wega join, the Northern Crown you'll spy; 

But west, to Ursa's second star, he marks Cor Caroli. 

The Canes Venatici form a new constellation, intruded into the heavens 
in recent times. Tycho Brah6, unfortunately less known by his excellence 
as a practical astronomer than as the author of an unmechanical system, 
had observed a couple of stars here ; but Hevelius scraped together the 
sporades between the stern of the Bear and Bootes^ and figured two 
Hounds, for the latter to chase the Bear with ; that nearest the Pole he 



366 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

named Asterion, because the appellation is poetical, and it pleased him, 
and the southern one Chara : " Asterionis sociam, Charam appellavi, 
quod forte Booti, more venaticorum, canis ilia foemina, ob celeriorem 
ejus cursum, fuerit admodum grata et chara." These dogs first appeared 
in the Prodromus of Hevelius, published by his widow, at Dantzig, in 
1690. Since then, the number of its constituents has swelled very con- 
siderably, although, except Cor Caroli, the asterism offers little remarkable 
to the unassisted eye j they are thus registered : 

Hevelius ... 23 stars. Piazzi 45 stars. 

Flamsteed . , . 25 Bode 139 

879. 64 M. COM^S BEEENICIS. CCCCLXVII. 

(h.1486; H. 3321; .) 



h. 



B.A. 12 51 19 
Decl. N 22 16 '9 



Free. 4- 2-95 
S 19-55 



A conspicuous nebula, between Berenice's Hair and the Virgin's left 
arm ; discovered by M. in 1780, who, however, only saw it very faintly. 

Yet it is magnificent both in size and 
brightness, being elongated in a line 
np and sf t and blazing to a nucleus, 

Sir J. Herschel examined this nebula 
very minutely. He considered it to be 
resolveable, though not resolved; and 
adds, "I am much mistaken if the 
nucleus be not a double star, in the 
general direction of the nebula; 320 
much increases this suspicion ; 240 
shows well a vacuity below the nucleus/' 

My utmost endeavours only show it as 

FIG. 27. 64 M. COMJS BEBENICIS. . J . . , , , J 

in the sketch annexed. 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, PL ii. Fig. 27; Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., 
vol. xxxvi. PI. vi. Pig 26.] 

880. 417 B. TJB&&: MAJORIS. (S. 1695.) 

h. m. a. s. 




B.A, 12 51 29 
Decl. N 54 41 -4 



Free. + 2-67 
S 19-55 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 289.1 ,.. 3-2 ... 1832.13 

DUN^B 287.0 ... 3-2 ... 1871-30 

A double star. A 6^, white; B 9, ash. DuneYs colours arc 
** Blanche ; Azur clair," and his mags. 6|~, 8, 



R, A. I2* 1 ' 5o m * i2^ f 53 m * 36T 

881. 164 Dunlop MUSO5E. (h. 3440 ; H. 3325.) 

h. m. s. a. 



B.4, 12 52 5 



o 



Decl. 8 70 16-7 



Free, -f 3-90 
S 19-54 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ; B ; L ; B ; g, vsb M ; st 1 2 ; " which means : " a globular cluster ; 
bright ; large ; round ; at first gradually, then very suddenly brighter in 
the middle; the component stars are chiefly of mag. 12." 

882. 311 Dunlop CEUCIS. (h. 3440 ; H. 3335.) 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 12 53 32 
Bed. 8 59 6*3 



Prec. -f 3-57 
S 19-51 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; L; pBi; iR; st 10;" which means: "a cluster; large; pretty 
rich ; irregularly round ; the component stars are chiefly of the io tl1 
magnitude." 

883. 61 $. I. CORVI. (h. 1497; H. 3337.) 



s. 



B.A. 12 53 34 
Decl. 8 14 27'2 



Prec. -f 

S 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; E ; psmb M ; * 1 3 np ; " which means : ** bright ; round ; pretty 
suddenly much brighter in the middle ; there, is a 1 3 th mag. star in the 
np quadrant." 

884. 162 $. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1498; H. 3342; &.) 

h, m. s. & 



B.A, 12 53 58 



o 



Decl. K 14 45*9 



Prec, 4- 2 '99 
S 19-50 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerschePs Catalogue of 1 864 : 
"B; pL; mE9O; sbMN"; S*inv.;" which means :^^ bright; pretty 
large ; much extended in the direction of 90 with the meridian ; suddenly 
brighter in the middle where it exhibits a nucleus ; there is a small star 
involved in the nebula." Engraved, Vogel, Jfebelflecken 9 1876, PI. i< 
Fig. 10, 



368 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



885. 



44 VIRQINIS. (2. 1704.) CCCCLXVIII. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 12 54 
Decl. S 3 13-6 



Position. 

o 
HERSOHEL, W. 57.5 

STKUVE, W. 53.0 

WILSON and SEABBOKB 53-0 



Prec. + 3-08 
S 19-50 



Distance. 
// 
22.3 

21-3 
ai-9 



Epoch. 

1782-10 
1830-63 
1874-30 



A delicate double star, on the lower part of Virgo's right or southern 
wing ; lying 10 N."W. of a Virginia, in the direction of /3 Leonis. A 6, 
bright white ; B 13, blue. This object is very difficult. 

The discrepancies above are such as must be rather attributed to 
the errors of observation incident to so delicate a test, than to any per- 
ceptible motion in the individuals as to angle of position or alteration of 
distance. 



886. 



5360 Lac. CENTAURI. (*h. 4563.) 





R.A. 


h. 

12 


tn. a. 

54 1 


Prec. + 


i. 
3-26 








o / 




// 




Decl. 


8 


33 1*8 




I9'50 










Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 








o 


n 






HBRSCHEL, 


J. 


236-8 


. 6.5 ... 


I837-35 


A 


double star. A 


ji 


; B8. 







887. 143 $. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1509; H. 3360; 



h. m. t. 

B.A. 12 55 5 
Decl. N 3 5 3 



Prec. + 3-05 

n 

S 19-48 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 ; 
"cB; cE; *ioatt 135 ;" which means: "considerably bright; 
considerably extended ; there is a io th mag. star attached at an angle of 
about 135 with the meridian," Engraved, Phil Trans., 1833, ^- vi - 
Fig. 67. 



E. A. 1 2 h - 54 m i z h - 56 ra - 369 



888. 9 DBACONIS. 

h. m. a. 



B.A. 12 55 46 
Decl. N 67 11 5 



Free, -I- 2-32 
S 19-46 



Webb describes this as a triple star. Mags. 6~|, 6f, and 8. Two 
yellow, one bluish. I have been unable to find any measures of it. 



889. VIBGIKTS. CCCCLXIX. 



VIBGI3STS. C 


R.A. 
Peel. 


h. m. s. 

12 56 42 
3ST 11 33-0 


Free. 


8. 

+ 3 

H 

S 19 


oo 
45 


BURNHAM 


Position, 
o 
120.3 


Distance. 

n 
241.3 




Epoch, 
1879-34 



A star with a minute distant companion, on the upper extreme of 
the Virgin's left wing. A 3^, bright yellow; B [12], intense blue. This 
last colour on so small an object is very striking, and an astronomical 
friend, who examined it at my request, with powerful means, confirms 
both the tint and its intensity. The large star I suspect to be slightly 
variable. 

This star appears, in various treatises on astronomy, as symbolizing 
the gatherer of grapes ; but Vindemiatrix, in the Alphonsine Tables, 
is an adaptation of the longer word Provindemiator (Vitruv. ix. 4), 
a translation of irpoTpvyrjrrjp, given to Virginis, because it rises in 
the morning, just before the vintage. (ScJiol. in Arat. 138.) Hence it 
became Mukdim-al-kitdf, the forerunner of the vintage, among the 
Arabians. 

On completing my examination of this star, I made a second search, at 
Baily's request, for 42 Virginis, which was missed by H. in 1828; but 
could find nothing in the place indicated in the Astronomical Society's 
Catalogue, No. 1490, except a star of the icA magnitude. This answers 
to the II. A. pretty well, and differs in declination only within blundering 
distance : it may, therefore, be the lost 7 th magnitude one retiring, and 
such retreats should be well watched. It is, however, singular that 
Baily could find no observation of 42 Virginia of the British Catalogue in 
Flamsteed's Historia Ccelestis; "nor," adds he, " can I discover that such 
a star exists/' That fixed upon by Baron de Zach, an*d enrolled in his 
Tabulce Speciales as 42, differs 3' in E.A., and, what is remarkable, it is 
now also missing. Neither Piazzi, Lalande, nor Bessel has any star that 
can be mistaken for it. It may often happen that such anomalies arise 
from erroneous entries, but here at least De Zaeh's star was regularly 

Bb 



370 A Cycle of Celestial Objects, 

observed and registered, and yet has probably disappeared from the 
visible heavens, for an indefinite period. 

In star-gazing, Vindemiatrix may be identified by drawing an ideal 
line from a Ursae Majoris to a Virginia, which will pass it at about one- 
quarter of the distance between those fine stars. Or it may be found 
nearly midway between a Bootis and /3 Virginia, a Virginis forms a 
remarkable triangle with a Bootis and /3 Leonis ; and of the bright stars 
in this triangle, Vindemiatrix is the one nearest to the line joining 
a Bootis and the Lion's tail. Though only a secondary kind of star, it 
has been deemed of sufficient importance to meet the notice of the galley 
rhymster : 

Would you the star of Bacchus find, on noble Virgo's wing, 

A lengthy ray from Hydra's heart unto Arcturus bring; 

Two- thirds along that fancied line direct th' inquiring eye, 

And there the jewel will be seen south of Cor Caroli. 

890. 411 Dunlop CENTAUBI. (h. 3459 ; H. 3386.) 



h. 



B.A. 12 58 57 
Decl. S 48 4T8 



Free. + 3-45 

// 
S 19-40 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; v L ; vm 38-7 ;" which means : " bright ; very large ; very 
much extended in the direction of 38.7 with the meridian." 

891. 130 $. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 3465; H. 3397; 3&.) 



h. 



B.A. 13 5 
Bed. S 7 25-5 



Prec. -f 3' 1 1 
S 19-37 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"vB; pS; Eo; b MEN f which means: "very bright; pretty 
small ; extended in the direction of the meridian or thereabouts ; brighter 
towards the middle where it exhibits a bright nucleus." 



892. 0'MTTSOffi. 

h. m. s, 



B.A. 13 67 
Decl. S 64 43-2 



Prec. + 373 

// 
S 19-36 



Position. Distance. Eposh. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J. 187.5 ,., 5.3 ... 1836-38 
A double star. A 6\ ; B 9. 



B.A. 



f 3 < 4 



m ' 



893. 



3468 h, CENTAITBI. (H. 3413.) 



B.A, 13 2 24 
Decl. S 48 55'0 



Free. + 3-48 
8 19-32 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; p L ; E, ; gmb M ;" which means : " bright ; pretty large ; round ; 
gradually much brighter in the middle/' 



894. 



VIBQI3STIS. (2. 1724.) 



CCCCLXX. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 13 4 15 
Decl. S 4 57'0 

Position. 

o 

MAIN AB 347-8 

STONE, O. A B 346.4 

BURNHAM J AB 344-6 
(AC 297-1 



Prec. -f 3-10 
S 19-32 

Distance. Epoch. 

6-7 ... 1862-31 

7.1 ... 1879.30 

70 7 :s! - I88 --" 



A triple star on the lower part of the Virgin's southern wing; and 7 
to the N.W. of a. A 4^, pale white; B 9, violet ; C 10, dusky. 



895. 



42 COM^B BEBENICIS. (2. 1728.) CCCCLXXI. 



39 
6*6 

Position 
o 

9-5 
11.4 
185.6 
: 186-4 
192-2 
14-3 


Prec. -f 2- 
// 

Srn. 


95 
26 

Epoch. 

1827-83 
^850-39 
1861-42 
187636 
1879.37 
1880.41 


Distance. 

0-64 
0-48 

0*4- "5 

... o * 5 
... 0.68 ... 
oblong 



B.A. 13 4 
Decl. N 18 



STRUVE, W. 
STRUVE, O. 
STROVE, O. 
WILSON and SBAI 
BURNHAM 
JEDRZBJBWICZ 

A binary star, between Berenice's hair and the Virgin's left hand. 
A 4^, and B 5, both pale yellow. It was discovered by 2., and recorded 
as a high class " vicinissimse." 

When I first attacked this object in 1832, it appeared quite round ; 
and I several times returned to it with similar results. In 1839, how- 
ever, though I could not raise a vacancy between the individuals, or even 

B b 2 



372 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

palpably notch them, the elongation was so distinct, under a power 
magnifying 850 times, as to be capable of a tolerable estimation. 

42 Comae is placed fortunately for the out-door gazer, being mid-way 
between a Bootis and /3 Leonis on the parallel, and vertically half-way 
from a Virginis to a Canum Venaticorum. 

[This binary is as remarkable for the closeness of its components, even 
when at their maximum distance, as for the shortness of its period, which 
is certainly no more than about 2$$. Observations of it are at all times 
very difficult, hence different observers often take different stars for their 
A and so get position angles varying by 180.] 



896. ee $. i. CANUM VENATICOBTTM. 

(h. 1547; H.3437; 3&.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 13 5 51 
Decl. N 37 39 2 



Prec. + 2-78 

n 

S 19-23 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"vB; vL; vmE25; vsbMN;" which means: "very bright; very 
large ; very much extended in the direction of 2 5 with the meridian ; 
very suddenly brighter in the middle where it exhibits a nucleus." 



897. 53 M. CO3ML BEBBNICIS. CCCCLXXIV. 

(h. 1558 : H. 3453 ; 3&.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 13 7 30 



o 



Dec! N 18 45 '3 



Prec. 4- 2-94 

rt 

S 19-19 



A globular cluster, between Berenice's tresses and the Virgin's left 
hand, with a coarse pair of telescopic stars in the sf quadrant, and a 
single one in the sp. This is a mass of minute stars, from the n th to 
the 15 th magnitudes, and from thence to gleams of star-dust, with 
stragglers to the np, and pretty diffused edges. From the blaze at 
the centre, it is evidently a highly compressed ball of stars, whose law of 
aggregation into so dense and compact a mass is utterly hidden from our 
imperfect senses. ' It was resolved into stars by Sir W. HerscheL 

["Not compressed to one point, but apparently to 4 or 5 different 
points within a small area." Parsomtown Obs.] 

The contemplation of so beautiful an object cannot but set imagination 
to work, though the mind may be soon lost in astonishment at the 



B. A. I3 h - 4^' I3 h - S m - 373 

stellar dispositions of the great CEEATOB and MAINTAINEB. Thus, in 
reasoning by analogy, these compressed globes of stars confound con- 
jecture as to the modes in which the mutual attractions are prevented 
from causing the universal destruction of their system. Sir J. Herschel 
thinks that no pressure can be propagated through a cluster of discrete 
stars; whence it would follow that the permanence of its form must 
be maintained in a way totally different from that which our reasonings 
suggest. 

Before quitting this interesting ball of innumerable worlds, I may 
mention that it was examined by Sir J. Herschel, with Mr. Baily, in the 
2o ft reflector; and that powerful instrument showed the cluster with 
curved appendages of stars, like the short claws of a crab running out 
from the main body. It is easily found by its being about i N.E. of 
42 Comae Berenicis, the alignment of which has already been given. 



898. 54 VIRGmiS. CCCCLXXIII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B,A. 13 7 33 
Bed. S 18 14-5 



Free, -f 3* J 9 

// 
S 19*19 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 33.7 ... 6-7 ... 1823.28 

SMYTH 33.5 ... 5-7 ... 1839.30 

MAIN 31-8 ,., 5.4 ... 1862-31 

STONE, 0. 33.9 ... 5-3 ... 1877.30 

A neat double star, between the Virgin's right hand and Hydra ; where 

a line from a Bootis carried through a Virginis, and 8 beyond, will hit 
it. A 7, and B 7^, both white. 



899. 07 $. I. CANUM VENATICORUM. 

(h. 1564; H. 3459; .)" 



R.A. 13 8 23 
Decl. JST 37 10 '8 



Prec. -f 277 
S 19-17 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerschePs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ; pi ; E 1 66-8 ; smb M v BN ; * np ;" which means : - " very 
bright; pretty large [? large]; extended in the direction of 1 66-8 with 
the meridian ; suddenly much brighter in the middle where there is a 
very bright nucleus ; there is a star on the north preceding 

Engraved, Eosse, Dublin Trans., 1879, PL iii. Fig. 3459. 



374 A Cycl$ of Celestial Objects. 



900. 25 P. XIII. VIBG-INIS. CCCCLXXV. 



h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 13 9 11 
Decl, S 10 46*4 



Free. + 3-14 
S 19-15 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o rr 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 61-6 ... 44-8 .,, 1823.35 
SMYTH 62-8 ... 42.4 ... 1831-38 

A wide double star, preceding the Virgin's right hand, 2^ p a. A 7^, 
and B 8-|, both bluish. This object though coarse is not without interest, 
especially in a moderate telescope. 



901. 63 M. CANUM VENATICORUM. CCCCLXXVI. 

(h.1570; H.3474; &.) 

h. m. s. s. 



RA. 13 10 53 
Decl. N 42 36' 7 



Prec. -J- 2-70 

// 
S 19-11 



An oval nebula, on the chest of Asterion, the northern dog; dis- 
covered by Mechain in 1779. This object is of a milky- white tint, and 
brightens in the centre, where the nucleus resembles a small star, It is 
placed between two telescopic stars which cross the parallel vertically, 
while closer to it in the sp is a third. Sir W. Herschel figured this 
object in Phil. Tfans. 1811, and described it as very bright, extending 
from np to sf, 9' or 10' long, and near 4' broad, with a very brilliant 
nucleus. It bears N.N.E. 5| from a Canura Venaticorum, on the line 
indicated from /3 Leonis through Charles's Heart. 

[The Earl of Eosse found indications of a spiral structure, and Huggins 
a continuous spectrum.] 



902. 138 $. I. HYDE-ffl. (h. 3480 ; H. 3477.) 



b. 



B.A. 13 12 5 
Bed. 8 26 16*3 



Prec. -f 3*27 
8 19-08 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"vB; S; E; vsmbM; *iof;" which means :" very bright; small; 
round; very suddenly much brighter in the middle; a 10 th mag, star 
follows." 



E. A, i3 h< 9 m - i3 h< i8 m - 375 



903. 3483 h. CENTAURI. (H. 3480.) 

h. m. 8. 8. 



R,A. 13 12 31 
Decl. S 47 19-9 



Prec. + 3-52 

// 
S 19-06 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue- of 1864 : 
"B; S; R; pslbM;" which means: "bright; small; round; pretty 
suddenly less bright in the middle." 



904. 63 P. XIII. CO1VLE BERENICES. CCCCLXXVIII. 

(S. 1737.) 

h. m. B. s. 



R.A. 13 16 27 



o 



Decl. N 18 20-6 



Prec. + 2-93 
S 18-95 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



STRUVE, W, 220-4 ... 15-1 ... 1829.30 

BURNHAM 22O-2 ... 15. 1 ... 1878-27 

A delicate double star, preceding the right foot of Bootes. A 8, 
white; B 13, blue; and a line through them passes near a brightieh dis- 
tant star in the w/ quadrant. 2., in the Catalogue of 1827, mistook 
his No. 1736 for 63 P. XIII., which he has therefore since rejected; but 
it is, no doubt, his No. 1737, though the identity of the apparent place is 
not quite exact. It lies 14 W. by S. from a Bootis, in the line projected 
from that star towards /3 and a Leonis; or rather less than half-way 
between the first two. This pair is identical with the pair 57 J$L IV., 
there being an error of + 43' in Sir W. Herschel's declination. 



905, 482 Dunlop CENTAURI. (h. 3501 ; H. 3535.) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 13 18 59 



o 



Decl. S 42 26*6 



Prec. + 3-48 
g 18-88 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"!!; vB; vL; vmEi225; bifid;" which means: " a very remarkable 
object ; very bright ; very large ; very much extended in the direction of 
122-5 with the meridian; bifid, i.e. with a channel running through it." 

Engraved, Cape Obs,, PI iv. Fig. 2. 



376 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

006. a VIEGINIS, CCCCLXXIX. 



h. in. s. *. 



R.A, 13 19 24 



o 



Beel. 8 10 35*2 



Prec. + 3-15 
S 18-86 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

BUKNHAM 61-9 ,,, 359.8 ... i879'35 

A Nautical Almanac star, in the Virgin's right hand. A r , brilliant 
flushed white; B 10, bluish tinge. This beautiful bright star is in a 
clear dark field, and, in a manner, insulated, for it has no companion 
nearer than the one here described. 

a Virginis is the Sra^ur, Spica, As-Sumbuleh, or ear of corn, of the 
Greeks, Latins, and Arabians. It is also designated As-Simdk-al-a'zal, 
the unarmed or defenceless Simak ; and Chrysococcas calls it, in reference 
to Arcturus, Mucpbs Kovraparos, the little lance-bearer. The meaning of 
Simak is uncertain. 

This fctar has -strong claims to regard, as affording presumptive 
evidence that Hipparchus, the first astronomer on record who really 
made systematic observations, was acquainted with the fact of the pre- 
cession of the stars, or rather the retrogradation of the equinoctial points. 
The argument which supports this opinion, is the comparison which this 
celebrated philosopher made of the places of Spica, determined by 
himself, with those assigned to it by Aristyllus and Timocharis, about 
170 years previously. This lover of truth, as Ptolemy styles him, 
bestowed intense application to both the theoretical and practical 
branches of astronomy. From a difference which he detected between 
some early observations of this star, and the place which he determined 
for it by two lunar eclipses, he entertained a suspicion that there existed 
an inequality in the length of the solar year. It is therefore probable 
that, in order to ascertain this point, he made comparisons with the 
ancient registers of celestial phenomena, especially that of a solstice 
which had been made by Aristarchus, or Archimedes, at the end of the 
5O 111 year of the first Calippic period, B.C. 281, or 145 years before 
his own observation. The latter circumstance was decisive, for there 
appeared a difference of I2 h between the calculation and the ob- 
servation, on the supposition that the year consisted of 36 5| days ; 
but YO * s = '345? or Dearly -3^, therefore that supposition seemed 
to be in excess about ^ of a day, and Hipparchus concluded that the 
number of days in a tropical year was = 365 + J ihr> = 365-24655. 
This value is greater than the truth by 6 m 13 only; since, according to 
La Place, the length of the tropical year at that time must have been 
equal to 365-242215 days, or about 4- 2 s shorter than in the present age. 
By such a result much was gained, but Hipparchus, conscious of the 



KA. i'3 h - i9 m - 877 

uncertainty attending the observations of the solstices, from the small- 
ness of the variations in the lengths of the shadows cast by the gnomon, 
employed the method of the equinoxes, by observations made with the 
equatorial armillfe. Under these means, with the lapse-epoch of 3$y 
afforded by his own results, his expanded mind approximated to the exact 
length of the tropical year ; a grand step in the solar theory, not only 
on account of its utility in the regulation of the calendar, but also because 
upon it depend the elements of the apparent solar orbit. See a Leonis. 

Virgo, irapdevos, is one of the old 48 constellations ; being the sixth 
sign in zodiacal order, and the last of the summer signs. According to 
mythology, the lady represents Ceres, or Isis, or Parthenos, or Erigone, 
or the Singing Sibyl, or some one else, who wore a stern but majestic 
countenance ; though the scales at her feet seemed to fix her as Astrea or 
Justitia. She is considered as symbolising the Earth, the producer of 
fruits and animals. 

We are told, that in Ogygian ages and among the Orientals she was 
represented as a sun-burnt damsel, with an ear of corn in her hand, like 
a gleaner of the fields ; but the Greeks, Romans, and moderns have 
concurred in depicting her as a winged angel, holding wheat7ears, typical 
of the harvest, which came on in the time of the Greeks as the sun 
approached this star. She forms a conspicuous and extensive asterism 
replete with astronomical interest ; but astrologers, nothing daunted by 
classic attributes, stigmatised it as a barren sign, and the illuminated 
manuscript Almanack of 1 386 tells us that whoever is born under the 
dominance of its earthy triplicity, he shall " wythowten gylt be blamed/' 
The constituents have been thus numbered : 

Ptolemy .... 32 stars. Bullialdus ... 43 stars. 

Copernicus . . . 32 Hevelius .... 50 

Tycho Brah . . 39 Flatnsteed . . . no v 

Bayer .... 42 Bode 411 

and there were moreover 323 nebulae enrolled within its boundaries, by 
the unrivalled scrutiny of the elder Herschel. 

To find the lucida of this constellation by alignment is easy enough. 
A long line through the conspicuous stars a and y Urse Majoris will 
pass close to Spica, which makes nearly an equilateral triangle with 
a Bootis and /3 Leonis, in the Lion's tail. Or a line from Polaris 
through f Ursse Majoris, the 6 1 of the large stars, or middle of the tail, 
passes, at 70 distance, through Spica: 

From the Pole-star through Mizar glide with long and rapid flight, 

Descend, and see the Virgin's spike diffuse its vernal light. 

And mark what glorious forms are made by the gold harvest's ears, 

With Deneb west, Arcturus north, a triangle appears; 

While to the East a larger still, th* observant eye will start, 

From Virgo's spike to Gemma bright, and then to Scorpio's heart. 



78 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



907. <T URS^J MAJORIS. (2. 1744.) CCCCLXXX. 



h. 



B.A. 13 19 29 
Decl. N 55 30 '1 



Prec. + 2-42 
S 18-86 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

BRADLEY 143-1 ... 13-88 ... 1755-00 

HERSCHEL.W. 146-8 ... 14-50 ... 1779-63 

STHUVE, W. 145-3 J 4' 2 4 1819.70 

SMYTH 147-4 ... 14-4 ... 1839-32 

DEMBOWSKI 148-0 ... 14-24 ... 1852-14 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 148-6 ... 14-57 1878-01 

A splendid double star, conspicuous in the middle of Ursa Major's tail, 
but rejected from the Nautical Almanac list in 1830. AS, brilliant 
white ; B 5, pale emerald ; a distant bluish star of the 8 th magnitude, 
with minute companions, in the sf quadrant ; and Alcor, of the 5^ 
away down in the nf } at a A of K. A. = 77'5 8 , [or n' 47" of a great 
circle]. 

As a proper motion has been pronounced to be peculiar to both stars, 
they would appear to be connected, or their apparent motion is paral- 
lactic; but IjL thought he detected a retrograde change of position 
= 5 32' in 2oy 319^, on which he remarks: "this cannot be accounted 
for by a parallactic motion of f, which would have occasioned a contrary 
change of the angle." His earlier observations suggested to him an idea 
that the distance was also rapidly increasing ; but both these opinions 
were dissipated by the later observations. 

"W. Struve made some elaborate observations on these stars, in 1814 
and 1815, for the investigation of their parallax arid the aberration of 
light. The results, however, effected little more than disproving the 
hypothesis of Fuss and Soldner, in the Berlin Ephemerides for 1785 
and 1803. 

In 1723, & German astronomer thought he had discovered a new 
Wandering star near f, and not remarking that it was a strange location 
for a planet, immediately dubbed it Sidus Ludovicianum, in honour of 
his sovereign, Louis V., Landgrave of Hesse Darmstadt. This was 
probably the 8 th magnitude star to the southward of Alcor, which was 
first noticed by D. Einmart, the Nuremberg astronomer, in 1691. About 
60 years afterwards, M. Flaugergues was wont to try his telescopes 
on f, without ever noticing its being double; but in August, 1787, he 
was astonished to find that it was composed of two stars. On continuing 
to observe them closely, he found a continual augmentation in the distance, 
and that the smaller component had increased in size and brightness: 



RA. i3 h - i9 m - 879 

" Ce progres est actuellement bien sensible, et il y a au moins quinze 
secondes de distance entre elles, c'est-a-dire, trois ou quatre fois plus 
que lorsque je fis cette observation/' This must have been merely the 
effect of becoming better acquainted with the object before him. 

But there is no end of mistakes respecting f Ursee Majoris, for it 
has since been frequently observed by continental astronomers as a 
single star. Hence it is the supposed cause of several discrepancies, in 
results of movement, more especially in those of M&hain, at Barcelona, 
in 1792. Nicollet, in discussing the operations of the French meridian, 
states that -the telescopes attached to the repeating-circles used by 
Delambre and M^chain were unable to separate Mizar. This was so 
limited a performance for instruments on such an important service for 
it requires but little optical aid to divorce the components that I was 
not at all surprised on receiving a letter from Mr. Airy, our Astronomer 
Royal, in which he says: "About seeing f Ursee Majoris with the 
telescope of M6chain's circle, I can only tell you that I saw it in the 
beginning of September, 1829, at Milan, and that I made it double 
perfectly well, but of course rather close, the power of the telescope 
being low. I did not inquire for Delambre's telescope. I asked for 
La Caille's sector, but could not hear of it." 

Ursae Majoris is familiarly known as Mizdr, which means .a waist 
cloth or apron, a name unknown to the Arabians. Mizar occurs as a 
proper name in the 42^ Psalm. 

Mizar must not be quitted without a notice of Alcor, its more distant 
companion, usually called the 
Rider, since it gave rise to the 
Arabic proverb, applied to oi>e 
who in searching for a mote 
overlooks a beam : "Thou canst 
see Alcor, yet canst not per- 
ceive the full Moon." But they 
are wrong who pronounce the 
name to be an Arabian word 
importing sharp -sigh ted ness : it 

is a supposed corruption of al- ,_ >IT .. 

ir x . FIG. 28. (J&&M MAJOBJS. 

jaun, a courser, incorrectly writ- 
ten al-jat, whence probably the Alioth of the Alphonsine Tables came in, 
and was assigned to e Ursee Majoris, the "thill-horse" of Charles's Wain. 
From a presumed identity of proper motion, Mizar and Alcor, though 
upwards of 700" apart, have been suspected of having a physical con- 
nexion, albeit under an annus magnus of 190,000 of our years; but this 
may only prove an additional error. However, to assist a watch upon 
them, I will add their position and distance from each other, and from 




380 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

a third star the Sidus Ludovicianum at a vertex between them, as 

above shown ; 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ' // 

Mizar and Alcor 71-7 ,., ir 30 ,,, ) 

Mizar and third star 102-6 ... 845 ... ) 

908. G) CEN TAUBJ. (h. 3504 ; H. 3531.) 

h. m. s. a. 



R,A, 13 20 10 

Decl. 8 46 44 '3 



Free, + 3-55 
S 18-85 



A very large globular cluster. Sir J. Herschel says that "it is 
visible to the naked eye as a dim, round, cometic object about equal to a 
star of 4^ mag., though probably if concentrated in a single point the 
impression on the eye would be much greater. Viewed in a powerful 
telescope it appears as a globe of fully 20' in diameter, very gradually 
increasing in brightness to the centre, and composed of innumerable stars 
of the 13 th and 15^ magnitudes, the former probably being two or more 
of the latter closely juxtaposed." (Outlines of Ast. p. 637.) 

Elsewhere Sir John says that this cluster is " beyond all comparison 
the richest and largest object of the kind in the heavens. The stars are 
literally innumerable, and as their total light when received by the naked 
eye affects it hardly more than a star of the 5 th or 5-4 magnitude, the 
minuteness of each may be imagined: it must however be recollected 
that as the total area over which the stars are diffused is very considerable 
(not less than J of a square degree), the resultant impression on the 
Bensorium is doubtless thereby much enfeebled, and that the same quantity 
of light concentred on a single point of the retina would very probably 
exceed in effect a star of the 3 rd magnitude. On a consideration of all the 
sweeping descriptions [= descriptions noted in "sweeps"], as well as 
from a great many occasional inspections of this superb object, I incline 
to attribute the appearance of two sizes of stars of which mention is 
made to little groups and knots of stars of the smaller size lying so nearly 
in the same visual line as to run together by the aberrations of the eye 
and telescope, and not to a real inequality. This explanation of an 
appearance often noticed in the descriptions of such clusters is corrobo- 
rated in this instance by the distribution of these apparently larger stars 
in rings or mesh-like patterns, chiefly about the centre where the stars 
are most crowded. An attempt has been made to imitate this appearance 
in the drawing, but partly from the difficulty of its execution, partly 
from defect of engraving, the plate fails to convey a just idea of it. 
Two such rings on an oval crossed by a kind of bridge is especially 
conspicuous in the central part." (Gape Ols., p. 21.) Engraved, Cafe 
Obs., PL v. Fig. 7* 



RA. i h - i m i h - 2 m - 381 



909. 312 (?) Dunlop CBNTAUBI. (h 3503 ; H. 3530.) 



h. 



B.A. 13 20 13 
Bed. 8 58 26 '2 



Free. 4- 3-81 
S 18-85 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; Hi; 1C; stn;" which means: "a cluster; rich; little com- 
pressed; consists of stars of the n th magnitude/' 



910* U [94 P. XIII.] HYDBJE. CCCCIiXXXI. 



h. m. 



B.A. 13 23 42 



o 



Decl. S 22 42-7 



Free, -f 3*26 
S 18-73 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O H 

BURNHAM 94-1 ... 1387 ... 1879-28 

A variable star [B, Hydrse of the Variable Star Catalogues], in the 
caudine portion of Hydra, with a distant companion : it is about 12 S., 
a little easterly, from a Virginis, in the line towards a Canum Venaticorum, 
and is the third of three equidistant stars, ^, y, and jut, on the same 
parallel. A, at the time of observation, was 5f, pale orange -yellow ; 
B 8, greenish, with a small one sp it, near .the vertical, both companions 
being the preceding outliers of a following group. Both the magnitude 
and colour of the primary here given are liable to the uncertainty created 
by low altitude, refraction, and vapours, Piazzi remarked it in May, 
1805, as "5 {e magnitudinis, et rubei coloris." 

Montanari had called attention to the changes of this star in 1670, 
and in 1704 Maraldi closely observed it, continuing to examine it at 
intervals till 1712, when he concluded it variable under a period of 
about two years. The conditions were investigated by Pigott, who 
made the time of the star's passing through all its gradations of light and 
magnitude to be 494 days, by a mean of Maraldi's best observations ; 
but only 487 by his own, under the following conditions ; 

1. When at its full brightness it is of the 4 th magnitude, and has no perceptible 

change for a^out a fortnight. 

2. It is about 6 months in increasing from the io th magnitude, and returning to 

the same. 

3. Therefore it may be considered as invisible also during 6 months. 

4. It is considerably quicker in increasing than decreasing, perhaps by half. 

[The period, now assigned to this star is 436 days.] 

In several publications, this star has been designated y Hydrse, which 



S82 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

is the adjacent greenish-yellow star with a minute purple conies follovying 
by about ii 8 . But though y, from its low altitude, has been variously 
rated, it has never been indistinct, let alone invisible. Ptolemy marked 
it d, or 4 ; Ulugh Beigh and Hevelius, 3 ; Flamsteed, 3-4 ; Mayer, 4 ; 
and Piazzi, 4-5. I certainly saw it considerably brighter than its neigh- 
bour \l/j which is also rated 4-5 in the Palermo Catalogue. 

Mr. Samuel Dunn, of Chelsea, in a paper read to the Royal Society 
in February, 1762, thinks there may be a gross atmosphere interposed 
between us and the variable stars : such an ethereal medium he deems 
sufficient to account for the appearance of new stars and the disappear- 
ance of others. 

911. 72 VIBGINIS. (2. 1750.) CCCCLXXXII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 13 24 41 
Decl. 8 5 54 2 



Prec. -f 3-11 
S 18-77 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 16-1 ... 30*0 ... 1831-53 
BURNHAM 15-6 .,, 29-3 ... 1879.34 

A very delicate double star, on the right side of Virgo's lower 
garment ; and about 4^- N, by E. of a, just preceding the line produced 
between that star and a Bootis. A 7^, yellowish white; B 13, violet 
tint; a third star in the sp quadrant. Noted thus by Ijl. in 1785 : 
** Large white. Small red/' 

912. 113 P. XIII. URS^! MAJOBIS. CCCCLXXXIII. 

(2. 1752.) 



h. m. 



\ 24 51 


Prec. 


+ 


2' 


22 


00 29'9 


, , 


S 


// 

18 


70 


Position. Distance, 
o // 
149-4 I-63 
143.2 ... 1.42 






Epoch, 

1832-17 
1879.32 



Decl. 



STBUVB,W. 
STONE, 0. 

A close double star between the Dragon's and the Bear's tails, 5 
N. by E. of f Ursse Majoris, and exactly in midway of e Ursae Majoris 
and a Draconis. A 8J, and B 1 1, both bluish ; with three stars stretching 
across the S. part of the field, in a line E, and W. ; the whole seen 
during a lively Aurora Borealis. This fine object was discovered by 2. 
It is the distant companion of 426 Ursse Majoris observed by South 
(=go. 649), who gave Pos. 111*0; Dist. i8i5"; Epoch 1824*3; but he 
failed to notice tie duplicity of his smaller star. 



R.A. i3 h - 23 m i3 h - 25 m - 383 

913. 51 M. CANUM VENATICOETJM. CCCCLXXXIV. 

(h. 1622 ;H. 3572 ;.) 



h. 



B.A. 13 25 13 
Becl. N 47 45 2 



Free. + 



S 18-68 



A pair of lucid white nebulae, each with an apparent nucleus, with 
their nebulosities running into each other, as if under the influence of a 
condensing power. They are near the ear of Asterion, the northern 
hound ; and the smaller nebula, or northern one, having the brightest 
nucleus, was differentiated by the wire micrometer ; they are 3 S. W. of 
i] Ursae Majoris, where the place is indicated by a line from a Ursse 
Majoris through 6, extended nearly twice that distance into the S.E. 
beyond. There are three telescopic stars following, and a bright 7 th 
magnitude about as far beyond them as they are from the nebulae, but 
the preceding part of the field is quite clear. Sir J. Herschel has given 
a very beautiful representation of this extraordinary object, No. 25, in the 
illustrations to his Catalogue of 1830. [But the Earl.of Rosse in 1843 
failed to identify HerscheFs rings, or at least the uniformity which 
Herschel indicated.] 

This fine field was discovered by Messier in 1772, and described as a 
faint double nebula whose centres are 4' 35" apart, but with " the 
borders in contact/' The southern object is truly singular, having a 
bright centre surrounded with luminosity, resembling a ghost of Saturn, 
with his ring in a vertical position. H. terms the southern, or halo 
nebula, a most astonishing object, probably a similar system to our own, 
the halo representing the Galaxy. " Supposing it," he remarks, " to 
consist of stars, the appearance it would present to a spectator placed on 
a planet attendant on one of them, excentrically situated towards 4 the n$ 
quarter of the central mass, would be exactly similar to that of our 
Milky Way, traversing, in a manner precisely analogous, the firmament 
of large stars, into which the central cluster would be seen projected, and 
(owing to its greater distance) appearing, like it, to consist of stars much 
smaller than those in other parts of the heavens. Can it then be that 
we have here a brother^system, bearing a real physical resemblance and 
strong analogy of structure to our own V 

We have then an object presenting an amazing display of the uncon- 
trollable energies of OMNIPOTENCE, the contemplation of which compels 
reason and admiration to yield to awe. On the outermost verge of 
telescopic reach we perceive a stellar universe similar to that to which 
we belong, whose vast amplitudes no doubt are peopled with countless 
numbers of percipient beings; for those beautiful orbs cannot be con- 
sidered as mere masses of inert matter. And it is interesting to know 



384 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

that, if there be intelligent existence, an astronomer gazing at our distant 
universe will see it, with a good telescope, precisely under the lateral 
aspect which theirs presents to us. But after all what do we see ? 
Both that wonderful universe, our own, and all which optical assistance 
has revealed to us, may be only the outliers of a cluster immensely more 
numerous. The millions of suns we perceive cannot comprise the Creator's 
Universe. There are no bounds to infinitude ; and the boldest views of 
the elder Herschel only placed us as commanding a ken whose radius is 
some 35,oop times longer than the distance of Sirius from us. "Well 
might the dying Laplace exclaim : " That which we know is little ; that 
which we know not is immense/ 

[One of the Earl of Rosse's most celebrated "spiral" nebulas. Huggins 
finds the spectrum to be non-gaseous. Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, 
PI. ii. Fig. 25; Phil. Trans., 1850, PI. xxxv. Fig. r; Rosse, woodcut, 
game vol.; Lassell, Mem. JR.A.S., vol. xxxvi. PI. vi. Fig. 27; Rosse, 
Dublin Trans., 1879, PI. iv. Fig. 3572.] 

014. 252 (?) Dunlop CENTAUBL (h. 3514; H. 3570.) 



h. 



R.A. 13 25 44 
Deel. S 65 24-5 



Prcc. -f 4*13 
S 18-67 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864 : 
"!; B; pL; cE; b M curved axis ; 4 si involved ;" which means : 
" a remarkable object ; bright ; pretty large ; considerably extended 
brighter in the middle with a curved axis : there are 4 stars involved in 
the nebula." 

015. 127 P. XIII. VIRGINIS. (S. 1757.) CCCCLXXXVI. 



h. 


m. B. 




s. 




B.A. 13 


28 40. 


Free. + 


3-06 






o t 




ff 




Deed. I^- 


O 14-9 


S 


18-57 






Position . 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


ft 






STJRUVE, W. 


10*0 


i -60 


1825. 


37 


SMYTH 


24-1 


i-5 


1833. 


39 


SMYTH 


37-9 


i-7 


1842- 


52 


STRUVE, 0. 


48-8 


1-85 ... 


1850.38 


DAWES 


54'3 


2-31 


1860-34 


DEMBOWSKI 


63-5 ... 


2-03 


1870- 


15 


DOBERCK 


64*2 ... 


2'33 


*377- 


23 



A close binary star in Virgo's lower garment; it is 11 N. by E. of a, 
just preceding the line between that lucida and a Bob'tis, and close to 
f Virginis, a star of the 4^ magnitude. A 8, pale white ; B 9, yellowish ; 



B. A. 



385 



and the two point to a telescopic star at a distance in the nf quadrant. 
A direct angular motion is evident. Period about 240 years. 

[The angle is changing less rapidly than it did some years ago. The 
distance is no doubt increasing, but very slowly.] 



916, 



6598 Lac. CE3STTAURL (*h. 4590.) 



R.A. 13 29 42 



Bed. 8 65 12*6 

Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL, J. 94-5 
A double star. A 8 J ; B 8 J. 



Free. + 4*07 

S 18-54 

Distance. Epoch. 

I est. ... 1835.34 



917. 



135 P. XIII. (f) HYDROS. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 13 30 42 
Decl. S 25 56-0 

Position. 

o 

SOUTH I 9 2> 5 

HEESCHEL, J. 191-5 
STONE, 0. " 192.4 



A double star. A 6 ; B 7. 



Free. + 3-31 
S 18-50 

Distance. Epoch. 

1825.34 
1834-71 
1879*42 



10-3 
10 

lO'I 



918. 83 M. CENTATJRI. (h. 3523 ; H. 3600.) 

s. 

Free. + 3-36 
S 18-50 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 13 30 49 
Bed. 8 29 18 '8 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" ! ! (H, h); v B ; v L ; E 55- 1 ; esb M N ; (L) 3-branched spiral ;" which 
means: "a very remarkable object; both Sir W. and Sir J. Herschel 
agree as to this; very bright; very large; extended in the direction of 
55 i with the meridian; extremely suddenly brighter in the middle 
where there is a nucleus ; Lassell notes it to be a 3-branched spiral," 
Engraved, Gape Obs., PL iv. Fig. 5; Lassell, Mem. -R..4.&, vol. xxxvi. 
PL vil Fig. 28, 

cc 



386 A Cycl& of Celestial Objects. 

919. 81 VIRQINIS. (S. 1763.) CCCCLXXXVII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 13 31 49 
Decl. S 7 18'7 



Free, + 3-13 
S 18-54 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 39-0 ... 2-69 ... 1830*34 

SMYTH 39-8 ... -2-S ... 1832-36 

MAIN 42-5 ... 278 ... 1862-32 

STONE, 0. 40-9 ... 2.63 ... 1879.24 

A close double star, on the right side of the lower garment, and just 

4| N.N.E. of a. A 7^ (rated 6 by Flamsteed), bright white; B 8, 
yellowish ; a minute blue star in the tip quadrant. 



920. 34 lit. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1650; H. 3615; 38.) 



h. m. 



B.A. 13 32 4 






Decl. N 9 27-2 



Prec. + 2-98 
S i's-46 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; L ; E 150 ; psb M r N ; " which means : " bright ; large ; ex- 
tended in the direction of 150 with the meridian ; pretty suddenly 
brighter in the middle where there is a nucleus w.hich gives indications 
of being resolveable." Engraved, Phil. TranS., 1861, PI. xxviii. Fig. 29; 
Vogel, ftfbelfleckm, 1876, PI. i. Fig. u. 



921. 297 $. II. VIRGINIS. (h, 1649; H. 3614; JR.) 

h. m. s. *. 



B,A. 13 32 7 







Decl, S 17 19 3 



Prec. + 3-23 
S 18-46 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" ! ! (H, h) ; c F ; v L ; vg, psmb M L N ; (L) 2-branched spiral ;" which 
means : r" a very remarkable object, as to which fact both Sir W. and 
Sir J. Herschel agree; considerably faint; very large; at first very 
gradually, then pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle where there 
is a large nucleus ; Lassell found this object to be a 2-branched spiral." 

Engraved, Phil Trans., 1833, PI, v. Fig. 39; Laseell, Mem. M.A.S., 
vol. xxxyi. PI. vii. Fig. 29. 



B. A. 13^- 31* 13^- 32 



m. 



387 



922. 



25 CANUM 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 13 32 34 



Bed. N 

STRUVE, W. 
STRUVE, 0. 
MADLER 

3D A WES 
DlINEft 
SCHIAPARELLI 
BURNHAM 


36 51-5 

Position. 
o 
79-5 
72-6 

56*5 . 
io or 15 
186-0 

155-0 



Free. 



(2. 176$.) 



-f 2-68 
S 18-45 



Distance. 

1-05 
i.oi 



0-15 

elongated 
0-42 
0-60 



Epoch. 

1829-89 
1841-17 
1851.29 
1860-36 
1870-43 
1876.45 
1880-46 



A very close and difficult binary star. A 6, white ; B 8, blue. Doberck 
lias assigned a period of 



923. 3341 *H. CAN. VENATICORUM. CCCCLXXXVIII. 



B.A. 


13 32 


47 


Free. 


+ 2-78 




o 






// 


Decl. 


N 29 


53-2 


. 


S 18-43 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch* 




o 








SMYTH 


191. 


5 


i 


1835-48 


SMYTH 


195-0 


i 


1851.37 


BURNHAM 191. 


2 


1-83 ... 


1 880-01 



A close double star, on the flank of Chara, the southern Hound; 
lying nearly in , mid-distance between a Bowtis and a Canum, and a 
little to the W. of the large cluster, 3 M. A 9 , and B io, both white, 
with a pale blue telescopic companion in the ^quadrant. I first noticed 
this beautiful object while viewing the outliers of that gorgeous mass of 
stars, 3 M, with Sir J. Herschel, at Slough, in his ao ft reflector ; and it 
is thus entered in his Catalogue, No. 1663 : 

"Observed with Captain Smyth, who 'saw something remarkable * in a small, star 
2' or 3' preceding the cluster, which proved on closer examination to be a fine first- 
class double star." 

This entry is here copied to show that my teleecope, with its 5^0 
aperture, had no small task inflicted upon it, to attack an object which 
had been thus picked up with an instrument of i8 in aperture. It 
accordingly required much attention and coaxing to gain a fair division 
in its elongation r and the result of my several estimations is drawn from 
fitful gleams. 

C C 2 



388 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



924. 



166 P. XIII. UES-ffi MAJOBIS. 
(S. 1770.) 



CCCCLXXXIX. 



B.A. 13 33 19 
Decl. N 51 16-5 

Position. 

o 
STRUVE, W. 120-9 

1 20- 1 



Free, -f 2-42 

S 18-42 



Distance. 
// 
1.79 

'7 



Epoch. 

1831-80 
1870-88 



A close double star, towards the tip of the Bear's tail. A 6, topaz 
yellow ; B 8, livid, followed within 2 s by a third star similar in lustre 
with B; and they precede another pair in the nf quadrant, probably 
Piazzi's 157. This exquisite object is one of S/s "aurese vicinse." 

156 P. is easily found, lying but 2 to the N.N.W. of TJ Ursas Majoris, 
in the direction of S Ursae Majoris. 



925. 638 $. II. CENTAUBI. (h. 3526; H. 3620 ; &.) 

s. 

Prec. 4- 3-39 
S 18-41 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 13 33 41 



Decl. 3 31 4-8 

A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p L ; E^45+ ; psmb M ;" which means : " bright ; pretty large ; 
extended in the direction of about 45 with the meridian ; pretty suddenly 
much brighter in the middle." 



926. 



I 


BOOTIS. 


(2. 1772.) 


h. 


m. 


s. 




s. 


B. A. 13 


35 


25 


Prec. + 


2-86 




o 


f 




ff 


Decl. N 


20 


30'6 


Cj 


18-34 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 




ff 




STRUVE, W, 


148 


7 


4-84 ... 


1^31-23 


SMYTH 


M7 


i 


4-9 


1832.23 


SECCBI 


144 


i 


4-60 ... 


1856-93 


FLAMMARION 


137 




4-68 


1877-43 



ccccxc. 



A fine double star, preceding the right shin of Bootes, where it is 
8^ preceding a on a W. -| N. line, which prolonged 33 would pass 
between b and Leonis. A 6, sapphire blue; B 10, smalt blue; and 
this beautiful object is the more remarkable not only in these stars being 



B.A. 



i3 t 37 



389 



thus coloured, but in there being two others in the field, one up and the 
other sp, which are also bluish. 
[The angle seems to be decreasing.] 



927. 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; p L ; vl E ; vglb M ; 3 st nr ;" which means : " bright ; pretty 
large; very little extended; very gradually less bright in the middle; 
there are 3 stars near." 



3529 h. CENTAUHI. (H. 3631.) 




h. 


m. 


s. 


s. 




K.A. 


13 


36 


18 


Free. + 


3 


66 






o 


/ 




// 




TlAftl 


R 


4.7 


at** a 


q 


T? 





928. 



3 M. CANUM VENATICORUM. 
(h.1663; H.3636; .) 



CCCCXCII. 



B.A 13 37 3 
Decl. N 28 55 3 



Free, -f 2-77 
S 18-28 



A brilliant and beautiful globular congregation of not less than 1000 
small stars, between the southern Hound and the knee of Bootes ; it 
blazes splendidly towards the centre, and 
has outliers in all directions, except the s/, 
where it is so compressed that, with its 
stragglers, it has something of the figure 
of the luminous oceanic creature called 
Medusa pellucens. This noble object is 
situated in a triangle formed by three small 
stars in the np, nf t and sf quadrants, which, 
by their comparative brightness, add to the 
beauty of the field. It is nearly in mid- 
distance between a Bootis and a Canum 
Venaticorum, n N.W. of the former. 

This mass is one of those balls of compact 
and wedged stars, whose laws of aggrega- 
tion it is so impossible to assign; but the 
rotundity of figure gives full indication of 
some general attractive bond of union. It was discovered in 1764 by 
Messier, who described it as "a nebula without a star, brilliant and 
round:" his instrument must have been rather moderate not to resolve 
this object, and it is' matter of regret that the exertions of such a man 




ifiG. 29. 
3 M. CANUM VENATICOEUM. 



390 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

were straitened to such means. It was next pronounced to be a "mottled 
nebulosity;" but in 1784, Sir W. Herschel attacked it with his 2O ft re- 
flector, and resolved it into a " beautiful cluster of stars, about 5' or 6' in 
diameter." 



929. 98 $. I. BOOTIS. (h. 1664; H. 3637; 

h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 13 37 16 



o 



Decl. N 36 13-1 



Prec. -h 2-67 

S 18-27 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; p L ; R ; g, psmb M ;" which means : " considerably bright ; 
pretty large ; round ; at first gradually, then pretty suddenly much 
brighter in the middle." 



930. 84 VIRGINIS. (2. 1777.) CCCCXCIII. 



h. 



R.A. 13 37 33 







N 4 5-8 



Prec. + 3-03 
S 18*26 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 227-8 ... 3-91 ... 1821-37 

; SMYTH 233.4 3-5 ... ^39.37 

SECCHI 231.6 ... 3-26 ... 1857.03 

PLUMMEB 230-1 ... 3-25 .,, 1877 51 

A close double star, on the tip of Virgo's left wing; it is distant io^ 
N. by E. from a, and points from that star towards a Bootis. A 6, 
yellowish ; B 9, smalt blue ; there is a third star of the 9 th magnitude in 
the sf quadrant. 

The registered observations, previous to my measures, had led to the 
suspicion of a considerable orbital change, which my own operations did 
not confirm. 

["The colour. of B probably changes. A beautiful pair: binary.'* 
GledhilL '? Change by no means certain, though there may be a physical 
connection, from common proper motion." 1 



93L 171 P. XIII. VIBGI3STIS. (2. 1775.) CCCCXCIV. 



h. 



B.A. 13 37 49 







Decl. 8 3 43*2 



Prec. + 3-12 
S 18.26 



- E. A. i3 h - 37 fn - 13*- 40*- 391 

Position. Distance.^ Epoch, 

o n 

STROVE, W. 335.6 ... 27.7 ,., 1829.35 

BUENHAM 335.4 ... 27^9 ... 1878-25 

A delicate double star, on the middle of the lower garment; and 
about 8 N.N.E. of a. A [7], light orange-tint; B ID}, pale lilac. 

It may be here noticed, that in Sir J. Herschel's observations with 
the 7 ft equatorial he has mistaken the synonyme of the star, which 
he measured as 171 P. XIII. ; that being 1776 of 2., which is not in 
Piazzi's Catalogue. 



932. 273 Dunlop CENTATJBI. (h. 3531 ; H. 3040.) 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 13 38 58 
Peel. 8 62 20-9 



Free, -f 4-13 
S 18-22 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; B ; S ; p C ; i 11 ; st i o . . . 1 2 ;" which means : " a cluster ; bright ; 
small ; pretty condensed ; irregularly round ; the component stars vary 
from the io tli to the i2 tlx magnitudes." 



933. 388 Dunlop CENTAUBI. (h. 3533 ; H. 3642.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 13 39 29 
Bed. S 50 49-2 



Free. + 3-75 
S 18.20 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogw of 1864-: 
"; vB; pL; R; rrr; stis; 1 ' which means: -"a globular cluster; 
very bright ; pretty large ; round ; well resolved clearly seen to consist 
of stars which are chiefly of the 15 th magnitude." 



934. 170 Ip. I. BOOTIS. (H. 3645.) 



B.A. 13 40 35 



o 



Decl. K 42 17*0 



Prec. + 2-56 
S 18-15 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; p L ; E 90 ; b M N ;" which means : " considerably bright ; 
pretty large ; extended in the direction of about 90 with the meridian ; 
brighter in the middle where it exhibits a nucleus." 



S92 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

935. 180 1$. I. BOOTIS. (h. 1668 ; H. 3652 ; 

h. m. s. * 

Prec. -f 2-51 
S 18-16 



R.A. 13 41 57 



Bed. 3* 44 23 -4 

A nebula thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864; 
" c B ; L ; pm E 142 ; gb M ;" which means : " considerably bright ; 
large; pretty much extended in the direction of 142 with the meridian; 
gradually brighter in the middle/' 



936. 3537 h.. CENTAURI. (H. 3654.) 

h. m. . . 



R.A. 13 42 53 
Decl. 8 59 23*8 



Prec. 4- 4-06 
S 18-07 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; vL; vRi;" which means: "a cluster; very large; very rich." 



937. 7? URS^E MAJOBIS. CCCCXCVI. 

h. m. . . 



B.A. 13 43 12 
Bed. H 49 61- 7 



Prec. -f- 2-38 
S iVos 



Position. Difference of R. A. Epoch. 

o s. 

SMYTH 323-0 ... 29.3 ... 1835-37 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, at the tip of 
the Greater Bear's tail ; and that animal being itself the very corner- 
stone of alignment, it need only be added, that the worst time for 
observing 77 is when the constellation is sub-polar, in autumn, for the tail 
then, in these latitudes, almost trails along the horizon, A 2^, brilliant 
white ; B 9, dusky. 

In Baron De Zach's Corres^>ondance A stronomiqwe, vol. viii. p. 516, it 
is remarked : " M. Struve observe que le P. Piazzi marque dans son 
dernier Catalogue plusieurs e*toiles doubles, qui ne le sont pas, comme, 
par exemple, l'6toile 77 de la Grande Ourse." I have myself examined 
most of the stars to which Piazzi assigns companions, as herein often 
instanced, and have invariably found him accurate. In the case before 
us, among the Notse, Hora XIII., p. 94 and No. 209, are these words : 
" Duplex. Comes 9 ae magnitud. in eodem vertical! paullisper ad boream ;" 
and I will venture to assert, that the A and.B I have here given thirty- 



R. A. i3 h * 



I3 h - 44 m - 



393 



five years afterwards, were as fairly described as the notes to such a 
meridian Catalogue required. 

This star is designated Alkaid, or Beuetnasch, both of which are 
taken from its Arabian denomination, Al kdyid-al bendt-al-na'sh, the 
governor of the mourners, in allusion to the fancied figure of a bier: 
the stadtholder of Ideler. It forms a fine termination to the Bear's 
long tail, which queer appendage is thus accounted for by old Thomas 
Hood, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who wrote on the 
celestial globe in 1590 : 

" Scholar. I marvell why (seeing she hath the forme of a beare) her taile should 
be so long. 

" Master. Imagine that Jupiter, fearing to come too nigh unto her teeth, layde 
holde on her tayle, and thereby drewe her up into the heaven ; so that shee of herself 
being very weightie, and the distance from the earth to the heavens very great, there 
was great likelihood that her taile must stretch. Other reason know I none." 



938- 255 $. I. DBACONIS. (h. 1674 ; H. 3662.) 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 13 43 20 



Decl. 



61 32-0 



Prec. -f 2-00 
S 18-09 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; pL; mE57'4; psbMBEN;" which means: "bright; pretty 
large; much extended in the direction of 57*4 with the meridian; 
pretty suddenly brighter in the middle where there is a bright ex- 
tended nucleus." 



939. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 13 44 6 



1785 2. BOOTIS. 
Prec. 



Decl. N. 27 31-9 

Position. 

o 

SOUTH 1 60-4 

MADLEB 172-1 
SECCHI 185.9 

DEMBOWSKI 197.5 
DOBEBCK ao68 
JEDBZEJEWICZ 215.4 



+ 2-77 
S 18-02 



Distance. 



3-4 
3-2 
2-5 

2-21 
2-l8 



Epoch, 

1823.40 
1840.85 
1856.36 

1869.30 

1877.32 
1880.46 



A binary star. A 7^ white, or yellowish ; B 8, bluish. 



394 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



940. 



5700 Lao. CENTAITBI. 



B.A. 13 44 59 
Peel. 3 52 15 8 

Position, 
o 

HERSCHEL, J. 288.9 
A double star. A 6 ; B 8. 



Prec. + 3-80 

8 17-99 

Distance. Epoch. 

18.2 ... 1837-32 



941. 



220 P. XIII. BOOTIS. 



CCCCXCVII. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 13 45 12 
DecL 1ST 21 49 '4 

Position. 

o 

208-2 



Prec. + 2-83 
S 17-98 



Distance. 



Epoch. 
1825-20 



SOUTH 208-2 ... 86-0 

SMYTH 208.5 - 8 5- 8 1831-14 

DEMBOWSKI 208-5 $5-8 J $ 73'4 

A wide pair of stars, on the right shin of Bootes, 6 W. by N. of 
a Bootis, in the direction of the lucida of Coma Berenices. A 7^, 
and B 8, .both flushed white, between two stars nearly on the parallel. 
B is Piazzi's 219. 

["Some difference in colour, 1852; yellowish, bluish white? But 
very little in magnitude, each about 7 ; 220 rather the larger. In the 
same field with 6 Bootis, a fine yellow 5 th mag. star, marked only 6 th 
mag. on map of 8. D. U. K., but very visible to naked eye/' Webb.] 



942. 



Jc CENTATJBI. 



B.A. 13 45 28 
Decl. 8 32 26 '5 

Position. 



HERSCHEL, J". 112.7 
STOKE, 0. 109.1 



Prec. + 3-43 

S 17-97 

Distance. Epoch. 

8.8 

7-9 -. 



183^57 
1877-42 



A double star. A 6 ; 



943. 256 $. I. DBACONIS. (h. 1684 : H. 3671 ; 

8. 

Prec. + 2 -or 



h. m. e. 

B. A. 13 45 33 



Bed. 



44*8 



S 17-96 



A nebula thus described in Sir J, Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 ; 



B.A. 



44 ra -~ 



49" 



395 



" v B ; p L ; i R ; psmb M ; " which means : " very bright ; pretty large ; 
irregularly round ; pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle/' 



944. 282 Dunlop CENTAUBI. (h. 3542 ; H. 3666.) 

h. m. . 

B.A. 13 46 11 



Decl. S 61 18-6 



Free. 



4-15 

* 

17-94 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"01; pL; pC; stu;" which means: "a cluster; pretty large; 
pretty condensed ; the component stars are chiefly of the i I th magnitude/' 



945.* 



h CENTAURI. 



R.A. 13 46 52 
Decl. S 31 23'5 



Free. -J- 3-42 
S 17-91 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

HERSCHEL, J. 185.6 ... 13.7 ... 1837.47 

A double star. A 6 ; B 9. Or 5^ ; 7^, according to Gould. About 
20' N. of this object is a fine pair discovered by Burnham in 1875 
(=/* 343)- O* Stone gives : Fos. 130-2; Disi 1-37"; Epoch 1877-41. 
Mags. 6 and 8^-. This star is 2 1 9 Gentauri. 



946. 



238 P. XIII. VIEQINIS. (2. 1788.) CCCCXCVIII. 

a. 

Free. 4- 3-14 
S 17-82 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 13 49 12 



Decl. S 7 31-1 



SOUTH 
SMYTH 
SEOCHI 
DOBEKCK 
STONE, 0. 



Position. 



51-7 

55-o 
62.6 
67-5 
69-5 



Distance* 
// 

276 

2-5 
2.46 
2-68 
2.62 



Epoch. 

1825.39 
1834-29 
1856-39 

1877-31 
1878-92 



A close double star, nearly in the middle of the lower garment. 
A ray from a Corvi to the E.N.E., through a Virginia, and prolonged 
8 beyond that star, catches it up ; or another from /3 in the Lion's tail, 
passed close under b Virginis, and carried as far again into the S.E., also 
hits it. A 7, and B 8J, both white, and they are preceded by two small 
dusky stars, one in the sp quadrant, and the other in the np. 

[The angle is evidently increasing.] 



396 A Cycle of Celestial 0bj#et8. 

947. 6 $. I. VIBGINIS. (h. 1703 ; H. 3702 ; .) 



h. 



B.A. 13 50 35 
Decl. N 5 47'6 



Free, -h 3 -oi 
S i"7-77 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; pL; R; psbM; *8nf;" which means: "bright; pretty large; 
round ; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle ; there is an 8 th mag. 
star in the nf quadrant." 



948. 3548 h. CENTAUBI. (H. 3706.) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 13 51 8 
Decl. 3 39 26*6 



Free. + 3-58 
8 17-75 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"!; vB; vL; vl, vsmbMj;" which means: "a remarkable object; 
very bright ; very large ; at first very little, then very suddenly much 
brighter in the middle where there is a double star." Engraved, Gape 
Obs., PL vi. Fig. 10. 



940. 187 #. I. CANITM VENATICOBTJM. D. 

(h. 1712 ; H. 3716 ; .) 



h. m. 



B.A. 13 51 54 
Decl. N 47 47 '3 



Free. + 2-39 

S 17-71 



A small round nebula, of an oval shape and pale-white tint, preceding 
the right arm of Bootes. Its major-axis trends sp and nf, and there 
are several small stars in the field, of which three form a triangle near 
the 1ST. vertical. It lies a couple of degrees to the S.S.E. of rj Ursae 
Majoris, in the direction of y on the right shoulder of Bootes. 



950. 240 $. I DBACONIS. (h. 1719 ; H. 3726.) 



h. 



B.A. 13 52 29 







Decl. 3tf 60 17 '7 



Free, -f i '97 
S 17-69 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"pB; pL; E; mbMN;" which means: "pretty bright; pretty 
large ; extended ; much brighter in the middle where there is a- nucleus." 



E. A. 13*. so m - i3 h - 591*- 397 

951. 181 $. I. BOOTIS. (h. 1717; H. 3723.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 13 52 32 
Decl. N 42 22 '8 



Prec. -f 2-49 
S 17-68 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; cL; E; gb M j" which means : " considerably bright ; con- 
siderably large ; round ; gradually brighter in the middle." 

952. 51 B. BOOTIS. (2. 1793.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B,A. 13 54 2 
Decl. N 26 21-3 



Prec. -h 2-76 
S 17-62 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STROVE, W. 242.2 ... 4-4 ... i8}i-o8 

DUNER 242-5 ... 4-5 ... 187^.93 

A double star. A 7|, white; B 8^, bluish. Components evidently 
fixed. 



953. 277 P. XIII. URS-ffl MAJOEIS. (2. 1795.) DI. 



h, m. 



K.A. 13 54 53 
Decl. N 53 38 '5 



Prec. -f 2 -20 
S 17-69 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O H 

STRUVE, W. 3-2 ... 7-6 ... 1832-13 
SMYTH 4-9 ... 7-0 ... 1835-36 

BURNHAM 2-8 ... 7-6 ... 1879-26 

A neat but very delicate double star, between the Bear's tail and the 
right hand of Bootes. A 7^, bright white ; B 12, pale blue, and, for its 
magnitude, singularly distinct, hence forming a fine test object. 

This object is easily fished up by alignment, since it is but 4 N.N.B. 
of t) TJrsae Majoris, and in the line with , , and 8 Ursee Majoris. 



954. 101 M. BOOTIS. (h 1744 ; H. 3770 ; M.) Dili* 

h. m. s. *. 



B.A. 13 59 17 







JDacl. 3ST 52 53 '8 



Prec. H- 2-13 
S /7-40 



A pale white nebula, in the nebulous field np the right band of Bootes ; 



898 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

it is 5 N.N.E. of rj Ursse Majoris, and a similar distance E. half S. from 
, This object was discovered by M6chain iti 1781, in whose instrument 
it was very obscure ; and it only exhibited a mottled nebulosity to IJjL 
Under a favourable view it is large and well spread though somewhat 
faint except towards the centre, where it brightens. There are several 
telescopic stars in the field, one of which is very close to the nebula. 

From the nature of this neighbourhood, and a trifling uncertainty in 
the earlier data, this object may be 314 IjjL I. It is one of those globular 
nebulae that seem to be caused by a vast agglomeration of stars, rather 
than by a mass of diffused luminous matter ; and though the idea of too 
dense a crowd may intrude, yet the paleness tells of its inconceivable 
distance and probable discreteness. 

["Very large but very faint." Brodie. "Large, spiral, faintish ; several 
arms and knots; 14' across at least." Parsonstown Obs. Engraved, 
Phil Trans. 1861, PL xxix. Fig. 35.] 



955. CENTAUKI. (*h. 4640.) 

h. m. 8. s. 



B.A. 14 1 18 
Decl. S 59 11-9 



Prec. + 4-15 
S 17-31 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HERSCHEL, J. 69-4 ... 11 at. ... 1835.34 

A double star. A 8; B 8|. " Both stars are of a full scarlet colour. 
Two small stars sp and a large one preceding are white. A very interest- 
ing and remarkable object." Sir J. Herschel, whose words have just been 
quoted, adds that as measures separated by two years, each of them the 
means of 3 measures, show an increase in the angle of 5', " there can be 
very little doubt of a rotatory movement." 



950. a DEACOKIS, DIV. 



B.A. 14 1 24 

Decl. K 64 541 



Prec. -f 
S 



Position, Difference of K. A. Epoch. 
SMYTH 45.8 .,, 23.9 ,,. 1834-41 

A bright .star .with a distant companion, in the middle of Draco's body. 



B.A. I3 h - 59 m / I4 h - i m - 399 

A 3 J, pale yellow ; B 8, dusky ; two other telescopic stars in the following 
part of the field. The primary is suspected of variability, for Ptolemy, 
Ulugh Beigh, and La Caille mark it as of 3 rd magnitude ; and Pigott as 
a bright 4 th ; Tycho Brah6, Hevelius, and Bradley rank it of the 2 nd ; 
and though marked of the latter size in the British Catalogue, Baily 
found that in the original entries it is designated once of the 3 rd and once 
of the 4*k. I have had it in view many times, and always looking 
like a small 3 rd ; though Baron De Zach, but shortly before, classed 
it 2-3. 

This star, though not the lucida of the asterism, unless we admit its 
variability, has been lettered a, and was once rated of the 2 nd magnitude : 
it is named Thuban, from the Arabian al-Tkubdn, the dragon. Upwards 
of 4600 years ago it was the pole-star of the Chaldeans, being then 
within 10' of the polar point; a point which will not be approached by 
a Ursse Mil) on" s nearer tban 26' 30". a Draconis, in that remote age, 
must have seemed stationary during the apparent revolution of the 
celestial sphere about the northern extremity of the polar axis ; though 
now it has, by the slow movement to which the stellar host is subject, 
deviated from the pole nearly 25. 

ApaKwi/, Draco, is figured as a strange bird-headed reptile meandering 
around the N. pole of the ecliptic, passing its. tail between the two 
Bears and its head under the right foot of Hercules, and extending 
over so many hours of RA. as to be quite confusing. Virgil and other 
old writers constantly place the constellation between the two Bears ; 
which location hardly suits its present place, since the principal stars 
are between Ursa Minor, Cepheus, Cygnus, and Hercules. In a rare 
volume, printed at Venice, anno salutifere incarnationis 1448, an 
edition which escaped the industrious gleaning of La Lande, are some 
very taking figures of the constellations, and among others the two 
Bears are regularly enfolded in the embrace of Draco; while Virgil, 
vid Dryden, says : 

Around our Poles the spiry Dragon glides, 
And like a wand'ring stream the Bears divides. 

This extensive and convoluted Maorimus Anguis was, however, one of 
the original 48 asterisms, and has thus gradually increased its components, 
as practical optics have advanced : 

Ptolemy . , , 31 stars. Hevelius ... 40 stars. 

Tycho Brane* . . 32 Flamsteed ... go 

Bayer .... 33 Bode . . . . -255 

An imaginary line projected northward from Cor Caroli through 
Ursse Majoris passes by Thuban ; or it may be looked for about mid- 
way between Urgse Majoris and y Ursse Minoris. 



400 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



957. 431 Dunlop CENTAUBJ. (h. 3555 ; H. 3772.) 

8. 

Free. + 3-80 



B.A. 
Decl. 



h. 

14 



m. 
1 



34 

13 47 47*5 



s 17-35 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; vL; vlC; st8;" which means: "a cluster; very large; very 
little condensed ; it comprises stars of the 8 tn magnitude." 



958. 



K BOOTIS. (S. 1821.) 



DV. 



K.A. 14 9 31 
Decl. N 52 18 '1 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, W. 240-0 

STROVE, W. 237.7 

M ABLER 236-1 

DUNE~R 236.3 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 236-7 



Prec. -f 2-15 

// 
S 16-94 



Distance. 
n 

12-5 
12-4 
12-4 
12-9 

12.9 



Epoch. 

177974 

1828-77 

1855-37 
1872-90 
1879-68 



A neat double star in the herdsman's right hand, where, with 6 and t, 
and A. on the upper arm, it forms Auldd al-dhiba\ the young of the 
hyaena. A 5^-, pale white ; B 8, bluish. This is a fine object. 

K Bootis may be discerned as forming the N.W. point of a little 
triangle with its own t and ; or carrying a line from Ursse Majoris 
through , the two inner stars of the tail, and 6 further to the E., will 
show it. 



959. 



R.A. 14 10 39 



a BOOTIS. 

Prec. + 2-81 



Decl, W 19 45-7 



S 16-89 



Position. 
SMYTH 49-3 

BURNHAM 44-7 



Difference of R. A. Epoch. 

i S 5'i - i 8 35-47 
... not stated ... 1879 25 



DVI. 



Arcturus, a Nautical A Imanac star, between the legs of Bootes, with a 
distant companion in the nf quadrant. A i, reddish yellow; B n, lilac; 
and at the extreme verge of the field, under moderate magnifying power, 
is the star infra Arcturum, noticed by Flamsteed on the 14 th of February, 
1690, then preceding the primary, but now, from the large proper 
motions of Arcturus, following it. These motions have been well 



R. A. i h - i m - I h - io m - 401 



watched, and the best registers of their quantity and direction give 
the following values : in K.A. ii8" ; in Decl. 1*96" (Argelander). 

Mayer of Mannheim, who had some odd notions in astrognosy, con- 
sidered Arcturus as a cluster ; in the which he was mistaken. Various 
crotchets have been started respecting its insulation, while from its 
brilliance and proper motions a conclusion was drawn that it was the 
nearest star to our system, but this has been abandoned since the still 
greater motion of 61 Cygni, /u, Cassiopeiae, and other stars, has been 
ascertained. Dr. Hornsby pronounced upon its proximity, because the 
variation of its place seemed more remarkable than that of any other of 
the stars; and by comparing a variety of observations respecting its 
motions, he inferred that the obliquity of the ecliptic decreases at the 
rate of 58" in one hundred years ; a quantity, he observes, " which will 
be found nearly at a mean of the computations framed by Mr. Euler and 
M. de la Lande, upon the principles of attraction." Sanguine hopes of 
arriving at its distance were entertained, but every exertion met with 
disappointment ; and Piazzi dismissed the case thus : " Pluries inquisi- 
vimus in hujus stellae parallaxim, sed nihil profecimus." The star 
has, however, been extensively useful in modern astronomy; and it is 
remarkable as being the body by which the fine discovery was made, 
that stars and planets may be advantageously observed during the Sun's 
presence. The Abbe* Picard imagined himself to be the discoverer of 
the feasibility of so doing, from observing the meridional altitude of this 
star on the 13 th of July, 1669, while the sun was elevated 17; but 
he who observes should also read, or he may " make many inventions," 
for the fact of the principal stars being visible in broad day-light had been 
announced by Ihe enthusiastic M. Morin, in 1635, and, curiously enough, 
his first star was also Arcturus. 

Arcturus is compounded of apwov, and ovpa, bear's tail, from its 
proximity to the latter, being somewhat in a direction pointed by a 
line drawn through the two hinder stars, f and 17, of the tail. Being 
one of the most brilliant of the stellar bodies, it was noticed by very 
early star-gazers ; but though, as I have said under r? Tauri, the name 
is dragged into our translation of Job as a synonyme of 'Aish, it must be 
inferred that the Seventy wished rather to express a brilliant emblem 
of Majesty, than to be critically exact: like the exclamation of Job, 
" Oh that my words were printed in a book !" It is first mentioned by 
Hesiod, whose aera is nearly approximated by the passage in the Works 
and Days, in which the star is mentioned. From this passage it appears 
that there is a difference of 40 days in the achronical rising of that 
lucida, since the time of the poet ; whence, by allowing 50^" annually 
as the recession of the equinoxes, we obtain about 2850 years since the 
days of Hesiod. 

Dd 



402 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Aratus -of course from Eudoxus and Hyginus place Arcturus in 
the herdsman's girdle : " In zona una clarius cseteris lucente, haec stella 
Arcturus appellatur ;" but it is now usually marked between the calves 
of his legs, or as others have it, infiiribrid, and on the "skirts of his 
coat." Vitruvius, lib. ix., expressly says of it, " stella media genuorum 
custodis Arcti." The Arabians call it 8imdk-al-rdmih, the prop or leg 
of the lancer, but the true meaning of sinidk is very uncertain, as was 
noticed under a Yirginis, the other simdk. Ulugh Beigh, in his 
Catalogue, places Arcturus " extra hanc figuram," expressly noting its 
position, " inter femora figures:" whence probably R. Recorde, in 1556, 
derived his description, "Bootes hath 22 starres, beside one very bryghte 
starre called Arcturus, which standeth between Bootes his legges." From 
the clays of Evander it was a noted star among ancient mariners, but its 
influences were reckoned ungenial ; aad the change between the summer 
and autumnal Etesian winds, being preceded by eight or ten days of 
squally weather, the firodromi of old, they were ascribed to the direct 
power of Arcturus, instead of the alteration consequent upon the solar 
march. We learn from Demosthenes that a sum of money was lent at 
Athens on bottomry, on a vessel going to the Crimea and back, at 22|- per 
cent, on the voyage out and home ; but unless they returned before the 
rising of Arcturus, 30 per cent, was to be paid. Virgil repeatedly spurns 
this paranatellon of Virgo, as a cold star; while Horace shows that a con- 
tented man is neither anxious about the tempestuous sea, nor the malign 
aspects of stars, thus : 

Nee ssevus Arcturi cadentis 

Impetus, aut orientis Hsedi. 

Arcturus opens the Rudens of Plautus in person, by delivering the 
prologue ; and the act is curious, inasmuch as it is one of the early 
opinions of the presence of invisible agents amongst mankind. This 
fine introduction has long been admired for its train of beautiful and 
religious sentiments; while Bonnel Thornton's English version of it 
may be cited as one of the very rare instances of a translation even 
exceeding the original. 

To pick up Arcturus by alignment is very easy. A ray from the 
Pole-star through 77 TTrsas Majoris, the first horse of the wain, and carried 
about 30 beyond it to the southward, will pass a Bootis ; which bright 
object may be further identified by forming an equilateral triangle with 
a Virginis and a Cygni. Arcturus and Polaris also make nearly a right 
angle with a Lyrse ; whence the galley rhymes : 

$Yom staid Polaris cast a glance, to beauteous Lyra's lines, 

'Twill guide, rectangular from these, to where Arcturus shines: 

Or lead a line from two bright stars, in Ursa's tail the last, 

The same prolonged thrice ten degrees, will on that gem be cast. 



E. A. I h - io m * I h - ii m - 403 



Bootes is one of the old 48 constellations, and the name appears 
to be from /8oy, an ox, alluding to the herdsman; but the ancients as 
frequently called it Arctopliylax, or bear-keeper. Aratus designates it 
by both names, as shown by his translators, Cicero and Festus Avienus; 
while Germanicns, in common with several others, called it Icarus, and 
the translators of Ptolemy rendered it Vociferator. The asterism is 
usually figured as a robust man walking, with one hand upraised, and the 
other holding a club, spear, pastoral staff (jpedum), or sickle (merga\ for 
he is represented at various epochs with each of these symbols. The 
attitude, especially in early representations, well countenanced the title of 
Clamator; but Hevelius having introduced the two hounds in 1690, they 
were given as attributes to Bootes, and the cords which held them passed 
into his upraised hand. The figure was adopted from elsewhere by the 
Greeks, no doubt, since they give no certain account of its origin ; their 
stories making a yaw between Icarius, the father of Virgo of the zodiac, 
and the farming son of Calisto. Those who considered Ursa as an animal 
dubbed Bootes the bear-keeper ; but numbers who saw in the disposition 
of those stars a waggon, or wain, made him the driver. Hence 

Claudian's 

Bootes with his Wain the noi th unfolds ; 
The southern gate Orion holds. 

Among the several offices assigned him, however, the majority are for 
that of herdsman. 

This constellation has some remarkable stars besides Arcturus, though 
of inferior brilliance ; and Izar (e Bob'tis) was a great favourite, ages before 
its beauty and delicacy had been revealed to man by the telescope. The 
components have been thus successively enumerated in the best Cata- 
logues : 

Ptolemy ... 23 stars. Bullialdus ... 29 stars. 

Tycho Brahe* . . 28 Hevelius. ... 52 

Kepler ... 29 Flamsteed ... 54 

Bayer .... 34 Bode ..... 319 

Of these upwards of 30 are double stars, some exceedingly fine and 
interesting; and there are several clusters, and fully 100 nebulae, of 
various classes. So that Bootes is a truly rich asterism. 



960. 418 $. II. BOOTIS. (h. 1766; H. 3826; ,) DVII. 

h. m. a. a. 



B.A. 14 11 25 



o 



Decl. N" 35 51 '7 



Free, -f 2-52 
S 16-85 



A faint nebula preceding the right side of Bootes. This object is 

D d 2 



404 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

small, round, and pale, but perfectly distinct. It has a nucleus, or at 
least is brightest at the centre, and its edges are so attenuated as to give 
it the appearance of a star in a burr. It is attended by a coarse group of 
small stars in the nf quadrant, followed by a conspicuous one of the 6-7 
magnitude. Uniting a Canum Venaticorum to a Bobtis as the base of a 
triangle, the spot now treated of will form the N.E. apex, at an equal 
distance, 16 from each. 

[" Very faint and very small in 8| in refractor." JBrodie.] 

961, 121 B. BOOTIS. (2. 1825.) 

h. m. 9. 



B.A. 14 11 27 
Decl. N 20 38'1 



Prec. 4- 2-80 
S 16-84 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STEUVE,W. 1857 3'4 1830.66 

MADLBB 184.5 ... 4-0' ... 1841.52 

SEOOHI 182-2 ... 3.7 ... 185777 

DEMBOWSKI 178-8 ... 3-9 ... 1864-5 

DOBEKCK 1747 ... 4-0 ... 1877.39 

A double star. A 7 J, white ; B 9, white. A diminution of angle seems 
certain, and an increase of distance probable. i N. of and a little / 
a Bootis. 

962. 3563 h. CENTAHRI. (H. 3823.) 

h. m. B. . 



B.A. 14 11 34 



o 



Decl. 8 42 52*0 



Prec. -f 3' 74 4 
S i"6-8 S 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" ! ; v F ; pm E ; esvmb M * 1 2 ;" which means : " a remarkable object ; 
very faint ; pretty much extended ; it becomes extremely suddenly very 
much brighter in the middle where there is a i2* h mag. star." 



963, i BOOTIS. (2. 3124 rej. ; 2. 26 App. L) DVIII. 

B.A. 14 12 17 | Prec. + 2-14 

Decl. N 51 62*5 | S 16-81 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o u 

STEUVE 33.9 ... 38.06 ... 1836.28 

MAIN 33.9 ... 377 ... 186576 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 33.6 ... 38.5 ... 1877*60 

A double star, in the herdsman's right hand. A 4^ pale yellow; 



R. A. i4 h * n m ' 



405 



B 8, creamy white ; and they will be picked up by the alignment already 
given at K, being the southern vertex of the triangle there mentioned. 
2. suspected A to be a close double. 

[Dunr states that the notion of A being double must be abandoned, 
and that 0. Struve concurs in this ! Yet Smyth after the " stimulus " he 
received from Poulkova in 1837 saw the companion! "Wilson in 1874 
" fancied" he saw A B elongated in the direction 55.] 



964. 99 $ I- BOOTIS. (h. 1776 ; H. 3843 ; 



DIX. 



h. m. 8. 

B.A. 14 13 50 
Decl. N 37 0'5 



. 

Prec. -f- 2-52 
- S 16-73 



A white round nebula, preceding the right shoulder of Bootes. It is 
very pale except in the centre, and is amidst some scattered telescopic 
stars, of which the closest is one of the io th magnitude np. It lies 10 
to the N.N.W. of Bootis, in the direction of 17 Ursae Majoris, at the tip 
of the Bear's tail. 



965. 



Seel. 3 57 57*0 

Position, 
o 

HEBSOHEL, J. \ ~, l $'* 

(AC i-6 .. 

A triple star. A 6 ; B 8J ; On. 



5893 Lao. (y) CENTATTBI. 

s. 

Prec. -f 4- 21 
S 16-69 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 14 14 44 



Distance. 
n 
9.6 

35 



Epoch. 
1836-65 



966. 144 $. I. VIRGINTS. (h. 1779; H. 3846; ft.) 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 14 14 45 
Bed. N 4 26*5 



Prec. + 3 oi 
S 16-69 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p L ; R ; psb M ; r ; * 1 2 nf ;" which means : " bright j pretty 
large ; round ; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle ; hardly resolve- 
able ; there is a 12 th mag. star in the nf quadrant." 



406 



A. Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



967. 146 $. I. VIBGINIS. (h. 1783; H. 3851; .) 



K,A. 14 15 31 
Bed. N" 3 46-5 



Prec. -f 3 '02 
S 16-68 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864 : 
" B ; S ; B ; vsmb M ; f of 2 ;" which means : " bright ; small ; round ; 
very suddenly much brighter in the middle ; the following of two nebulae." 
The other nebula here mentioned (=145 !$. I.; h. 1782; H. 3850) is 
described as : " p F ; p S ; IE;" which means : " pretty faint ; pretty 
small ; little extended." 



968. 



B.A. 

Decl. 



h. 

14 



62 P. XIV. LIBELS. (2. 1833.) 

S. 

Prec. -f 3* 1 6 

16-59 

Epoch. 



DX. 



16 49 
S 7 15'5 

Position. 



S 



SMYTH 
DUNEE 
STONE, 0. 



1 66-8 
167.4 
168-2 



Distance. 
// 

5-2 
5-2 

5-4 



1836.44 
1872.35 
1879.17 



A fine double star, in a strange boundary nook of Libra, but on Virgo's 
garment, 1 5 E. by N. of a Virginia. A and B, both 8^ magnitude, and 
both silvery white ; a line led through them into the np quadrant leads 
close to an ash-coloured telescopic star. This is an easy object, which bears 
illumination well, and is of considerable brightness. Theft 1 relative fixity 
is established, but there is a sensible proper motion brought home to A, 
which in time will prove whether it is in connexion with B or not. 

[2^ sf t Virginia.] 



069. 



60 P. XIV. BOOTIS. (2. 1835.) 

8. 

Free, -f 2-95 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 14 17 58 



Decl. INT 8 56*0 



S 



DXI. 



Position, Distance. Epoch, 

STBUVE.W. 186.0 ... 6.2 ... 1825.40 
SMYTH 186-2 ... 6.3 ... 1835-44 
DUN^B 1877 ... 6-0 ... 1869-41 

A very neat double star, on Mons Msenalus, between the left foot of 
Bootes and Virgo; it is 11 S. | E. from a Bootis, and on the line 
between a Virginia and Bootis. A 6, flushed white ; B 7^, smalfc blue. 



E.A. 



407 



This pretty pair was first classed by Piazzi: "Duplex. Comes 8-9 fie 
magn. et in eodem verticali." Here that excellent astronomer has cer- 
tainly under-rated the brightness of the companion, unless it be variable ; 
the observations prove its fixity. 



970. 357 Dunlop CENTAUBI. (h. 3566 ; H. 3862.) 



R.A. 14 18 16 
Decl. S 54 18*1 



Prec. -f 4-12 

// 
S 16-53 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; vl Ri ; vl C ; st 10 ; " which means : " a cluster ; not very rich ; 
very little condensed; the stars are chiefly of the io th magnitude," 



971. 



70 P. XIV. LIBE^B. (2, 1837.) 



DXII. 



R.A. 


14 18 


46 


Prec. + 


3-21 




o 


r 




// 


Decl. 


S 11 10-1 


c 


16-49 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 




H 




STRUVE, W 


. 326.8 


.,. 


I-4I 


1829-83 


SMYTH 


325-8 




1-6 


1833-3 6 


M XDLER 


323.4 




.55 


1848.38 


SfORER 


309-8 




1-26 


1875-87 


STONE, 0. 


306-8 




1-36 ... 


I879-35 



A close double star, in the precincts of Libra, but hard upon Virgo's 
right heel: it is 15 E. of a Virginia, where it is preceded by a star of 
the 6 ft* magnitude. A 7^, pale yellow ; B 9!, greenish. This is a very 
beautiful but difficult object. 



972. 302 Dunlop CENTAUEI. (h, 3570 ; H. 3885.) 



B,A. 14 21 35 
Decl. S 60 13-5 



Prec. 4- 
- S 



4*42 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; L; pKi; pCM; st8;" which means: "a cluster; large; 
pretty rich ; pretty condensed in the middle ; there are some 8 th mag, 
stars in it," 



408 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



973. 



<f) VIRGINIS. (2. 1848.) 

h. m. a. 

Free. 4- 3-09 
S 16-30 

Epoch. 

1829.74 
1874.41 

1878-73 



DXIII. 



R.A. 14 22 32 
Decl. S 1 44-0 



Position. 

o 
STRUVE, W. 108.3 

WILSON, ETC. 115-7 
STONI, 0. 108.5 



Distance. 

3-73 

37 

4.1 



A most delicate double star in the nf corner of Virgo's skirt : it will be 
found about 18 N.E. by E. of a Virginis, where it is the apex of a 
triangle of which a and /3 Librse form the base. A 5, pale yellow; 
B 13, fine blue. 

This star forms a kind of vertical curve with t and K, and is the skirt 
of the garment. 



974. 



I860 2. BOOTIS. 



h. m, s. 

R.A. 14 23 42 
Decl. N 28 46*7 

Position. 

o 
STEUVE, W. 262-2 

DA WES 262-2 

MAIN 263.2 



Prec. -f- 2-64 

S 16-24 

Distance. Epoch. 

25-6 ... 1832.00 



2 5-4 
25.2 



1851.52 
1864.31 



A double star, A 6| , very white ; B 7, very white. 



975. 70 #. I. VIRGINIS. (h. 1813; H. 3000; .) DXIV. 



R.A, 14 23 50 
Bed. 8 5 28*7 



Free. + 3'M 

// 
S 16-24 



A pale white nebula, over Virgo's left ancle, in a line between a 
9 th magnitude star in the sf quadrant and an 1 1 tb a little nearer in the 
np ; it is 4 S. and a little E. of </> Virginis. This object though small 
is very distinct, and its candied aspect betokens a wonderfully remote 
globular cluster. Indeed the powerful instrument of H. resolved it ; and 
he described it as being composed of stars of the 19 th magnitude. So 
that here we find another universe in the plenitude of space ! 



KA. I h - 22. I 4 h. 2' 409 



976. 85 P. XIV. VIBGINIS. (2. 1852 rej.) DXV. 

h. m. ft. 8. 



B.A. 14 24 17 



o 



Decl. 8 3 45*2 



Free. + 3-12 
S 16-21 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



BURNHAM 267.9 3 4'8 . 

A wide double star, on the lower left side of Virgo's skirt, where a 
ray from a Virginis, carried about 18 into the E.N.E., will pick it up a 
little to the S. of $. A 7-|, and B [10], both bluish. 2. entered this 
upon his list, but did not measure it. The small star is best seen on 
averting the eye to another part of the field. 



977. 469 Dunlop CENTAUBI. (h. 3572 ; H. 3000.) 

h. m. s. g. 



B.A. 14 25 34 



o 



Decl. S 43 42-6 



Free. + 3-82 
S 16.14 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"pB; L; R; vglb M ; st inv ;" which means : " pretty bright ; large; 
round ; very gradually less bright in the middle ; there are stars involved 
in the nebula." 



978. 5 UBS-SE MINOBIS. DXVI. 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 14 27 43 
Decl. K 76 11' 2 



Free. 0-27 

n 

S 16*03 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

BUBNHAM 129.4 ... 56-4 ... 1879.30 

A wide double star, under the Lesser Bear. A 4, fine yellow; 
B n, plum colour; and the two point precisely to a distant telescopic 
star in the sf quadrant : it may easily be found, since a ray through the 
Guards, carried about two-thirds as far again into the N.W., will 
reach it, 



410 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

979. 237 $. I. DBACCXNTS. (h. 1843 ; H. 3934; ,) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 14 28 43 

Decl. 1ST 58 24- 2 



Prec. -f- 1-76 
S 15-99 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; L: !Eo; vgmbM;" winch means: "bright; large; a little 
extended in the direction of the meridian ; very gradually much brighter 
in the middle." 



980. 189 Ip. I. BOOTIS. (h. 1842; H. 3935; 



h. 



B.A. 14 28 54 
Decl. N 49 56 '8 



Prec, -f 2- 1 1 
S 15.97 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; L; E 45+ ; pgbM; r;" which means: "bright; large; ex- 
tended in the direction of about 45 with the meridian ; pretty gradually 
brighter in the middle ; hardly resolveable mottled as if with stars. 



981. a CENTAUBI. 

h. m. st. 



B.A. 14 32 7 



o 



Decl. S 60 23-0 



Prec. + 4*00 
S 1579 



Position. Distance, Epoch, 

o // 

HEKSCHEL, J. 219-6 ... 16-5 .,, 1836-27 
SANTIAGO OBS. 280.5 ... 7-6 .,, 1851-28 

A Nautical Almanac and double star, A i, yellow; B 2, yellow; 
both stars being nearly of the same shade of yellow. Gould puts the 
magnitude of B at 3 J. 

982. a OIBOINI. 



h. m. 



B.A. 14 33 37 



o 



Decl. 8 64 29*6 



Prec. + 4-79 
S 15-72 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEBSOHEL, J. 243.8 ... 15.6 ,., 1837.08 

A double star. A 4, white ; B 8 J, yellow. 



E. A. 14*1- 28^. _ I4 h. 35 m. 
983. 182 $. I. VIBGIWIS. (h. 1867; H. 3064; 38.) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 14 34 32 
Decl. N 11-4 



Prec. -f 3-07 
S 15-67 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerseheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; p L ; K, ; psnib M ; r ; " which means : *' considerably bright ; 
pretty large ; round ; pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle ; 
hardly resolveable mottled." 



984. 333 Dunlop CENTATJBJ. (h. 3577; H. 3960.) 



h. 



R.A. 14 35 26 



o 



Decl. S 57 4-0 



Prec. + 4-35 
S 15-62 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; L ; p Bi ; CM; st 1 1 . . . 13 ;" which means : " a cluster ; large ; 
pretty rich; condensed in the middle; the stars vary from the n fcjl to 
the 13 th magnitudes." 



985. IT BOOTIS. (2. 1804.) DXVII. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 14 35 33 
Decl. 3ST 10 53*5 



Prec. 4- 2 -8 1 
S 15-61 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HERSOHEL,W. 96-5 ... 6-17 ... 1779-72 

HERSOHEL, J., and SOUTH 97.9 ... 6-90 ... 1822-05 

STBUVE, W. 99.2 ... 5-8 ... 1830.30 

MA'DLEB 101-0 ... 6oi ... 1852.36 

ROMBEKG 101-8 ... 6-01 ... 1863.27 

DOBEECK loi-o ... 6-16 ... 1877-31 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 102-3 5 "9^ 1880.46 

A. neat double star, on the herdsman's left leg, being one of four 
bright stars in that limb, and the nearest to a, lying E.S.E. of that 
splendid gem, 7 distant. A 3%, and B 6, both white. This is a fine 
object. 

[The above measures seem to imply a movement in angle.] 



412 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



986. 



BOOTIS. (S. 1865.) 



DXVIII. 



B.A. 14 


35 53 


Prec. + 


2-85 




o / 






ft 


Decl. N 


14 12*1 




S 


15-59 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


i 






STRUVE, W. 


129.3 .. 


i 


'19 ... 


1830.47 


SMYTH 


127.3 .. 


I 


2 


1842.43 


FLETCHER 


305-8 .. 


I 


I 


1851-75 


STRUVE, 0. 


304-0 .. 


i 


oo 


1861-12 


DOBERCK 


300-6 


. 0.88 ... 


1877-33 


HALL, A. 


299.4 






1878-42 



A close double star on the herdsman's left heel, being the southern- 
most of the four stars above mentioned, and bearing from Arcturus 
E.S.E., 8 distant. A 3$, bright white; B 4^, bluish white, and 
supposed to be variable. This is a fine object, and not difficult of mea- 
surement, for T have operated upon it in full day-light. 

It has been stated that each constituent presents, alternately, a clear 
and a dim face to us ; but though I frequently examined them in a dark 
field, it is a point which I cannot confirm. 

[The earlier of the above measures in angle must be augmented by 
1 80 to make them comparable with the others. Gledhill remarks : 
"The angle was unchanged from 1796 to 1841: a slow retrograde 
motion then began, accompanied by a diminution in distance."] 



987. 126 $. I. VIBGtnilS. (h. 1874; H. 3987; &.) 

h. m. s. s. 

B.A. 14 39 19 Prec. + 3-03 
Decl. N 2 25'3 S 15-41 

A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"B; L; vmE; bUf BN;" which means: "bright; large; very much 
extended ; brighter in the middle where there is a bright nucleus/' 



988. 



10 HYDBJE. 



B.A. 14 39 39 

Decl. 8 24 58 '4 



HEBSCHEL,W. 128-2 
STONE, 0. 130.2 



Position. Distance. 



Prec. + 3-46 

- S 15-39 

Epoch. 



9.0 



1879-24 



DXIX. 



A neat double star, about 9 S. by W. of a Libra, and 5 due W. of 



B.A. i4 h * 35 m - i4 h - 40. 413 

20 Librae, a star of the 3! magnitude. It is close to the boundary of Turdus 
Solitarius, an insignificant asterism intruded by Le Monnier, in 1776, to 
commemorate the Hermit-bird of India, between Hydra, Virgo, and 
Libra. A 5 J, pale orange ; B 7^, violet tint. This is a very beautiful 
object for a moderate telescope ; but its identity has been jeopardised by 
its synonyms, being 54 Hydrse of IgL, 30 Turdi Solitarii of H. and S.> 
and 73 Hydrae of Bode. 



989. BOOTIS. (2. 1877.) DXX. 



R.A. 14 40 11 



o 



Decl. N 27 32 2 



Prec. -t- 2-62 
S ijS'35 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HERSCHEL, J , and SOUTH 323.0 ... 3-93 ... 1822.55 

STBUVE,W. 320-9 ... 2-64 ... 1829.39 

SMYTH 321-2 ... 2.9 ... 1838.68 

FLETCHEB 322-7 ... 277 ... 1850-95 

DA WES 3 2 4-4 ... 2> 83 ... 1860-05 

DUNEB 327-6 ,,. 2-67 ... 1870-49 

PLUMMEB 329-1 ,,. 2-92 .,, 1876-70 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 328-0 ... 2-77 ... 1877.49 

A Nautical Almanac star, on the herdsman's left hip; where it is 
readily shown by a line from in the Great Bear's tail through TJ at 
its tip, carried away into the S.S.E. till it meets a bright star in mid- 
distance between a Bo5tis and a Coronse Borealis. A 3, pale orange ; 
B 7, sea green ; the colours being distinct and strongly contrasted. This 
lovely object, which 2. calls " pulcherrima," is I 1$. I., or par excellence 
A 1 , as they would say at Lloyd's; and being in a manner insulated, 
afforded grounds to its discoverer's concluding the comes to be a binary 
partner, and not merely a star at a vast distance nearly in a line behind 
it, as may be the case in those parts of the heavens where small stars 
are profusely scattered. Subsequent observations appear to confirm this, 
[and it is now generally agreed that a small increase in the angle has 
occurred, the distance remaining unchanged. " Colour of B, emerald 
green." Brodie. ] 

e Bootis is the 7repio>/Lia of Ptolemy ; but appears as Iz&r, in various 
Catalogues, from the Arabian word signifying a zone or girdle. It is 
also designated Mfadr, a waist-cloth, or apron ; and when ill-written in 
the Arabic, Mir&r, whence the Merer and Meirer of the Alphonsine 
Tables, subsequently changed into Mirac and Micar. 



414 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

990. 350 Dunlop LUPI. (h. 3580 ; H. 3989.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 14 41 4 
Decl. S 54 3'8 



Prec. + 4'26 
S 1*5-30 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; p L ; p Ri ; 1C; st 10 . . . 1 1 ; " which means : " a cluster ; pretty 
large; pretty rich ; but little condensed ; the stars are of about the io th 
and n t]l magnitudes." 



991. 286 B BOOTIS. (S. 1884.) 



B.A. 14 43 31 Prec. 


+ 2-67 


Decl. E 


o / 
r *%A 40-ft 


s r s .i6 

Epoch. 


Position. Distance. 


STKUVE, W. 
SECCHI 


o // 

52-2 ... 1.23 

55-9 ..- 1-48 


1829-^8 
1865-50 



A close double star. A 6|, yellowish ; B 8|, bluish. 
992. a 2 LIBELS. DXXI. 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 14 44 47 



o 



Decl. 8 15 35-0 



Prec. + 3-31 
S 15-24 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

1 O H 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 314.5 ... 230-8 ... 1823.5 

A Nautical Almanac star with a distant companion. A 3, pale 
yellow; B 6, light grey. Though this object is the leader of Libra, and 
one of its two lucidce, it is located on the southern chelate hand- claw of 
Scorpio ; yet it is called Kiffa Australia, from the Arabian al kiffah-al- 
jentibiyah, the southern scale. It may be found by carrying an occult 
line from a Bob'tis to a Virginis, and from thence a rectangular one, led 
about 22 to the E., passes nearly over a 2 Librae. Or a readier reference 
is found in the galley rhymes : 

Where yon gaunt Bear disports a tail, seek Alkaid at its tip, 

From thence a ray athwart the space to south-south-east must dip; 

And when Arcturus has been pass'd, prolong th* imagin'd line, 

'Twill mark a star, as far again, the first in Libra's sign. 



E.A. I4 h ' 4i m - I4 h ' 44 m - 415 

B is a 1 of Bayer ; and the two form a fine though wide object, which 
was measured in full twilight without artificial illumination. 

Libra, the Balance, is the 7 th in order of the 12 signs of the 
zodiac, and the first of the autumnal ones. The integrity of its boun- 
daries has been largely encroached upon by Scorpio ; but the numbers of 
its component stars have thus progressively increased, with the improve- 
ment of optical means : 

Ptolemy ... 17 stars. Hevelius .... 21 stars. 
Tycho Brahc* . . 18 Flamsteed ... 51 
Griemberger . . 20 Bode 180 

Servius assures us, that the original Chaldean zodiac consisted of but 
eleven constellations ; and this may be explained by assuming that the 
body of Scorpio occupies one sign, and the pincers, or xfa ai > another ; 
for Aratus mentions them as being distinct. Libra is supposed to have 
been introduced by the astronomers of Alexandria, though another story 
says that the Roman savans added it in honour of Julius Caesar; and, 
in either case, its being met with on the famous zodiac of Denderah, 
destroys the claim of remote antiquity set up for that performance. 
Vitruvius, Pliny, and Columella recognise the sign Libra, while Ovid 
and Germanicus hoist the colours of Chelae ; and others attempted to 
smooth the matter over by a mezzo-termine varnish, as on the Farnese 
globe, where Scorpio's claws carry the Scales. But Ruseus is in error 
when he accuses Virgil, in common with other ancients, of being ignorant 
of Libra; for though in flattering Augustus in the first Georgia he 
makes mention of the Ckelce, yet, in the very same book, he distinctly 
says, 

Libra die somnique pares ubi fecerit horaR. 

It is true, that a century afterwards Ptolemy describes the Chelse as 
an asterism in his Sidereal Catalogue, giving it 8 regular stars and 
9 amorphotce ; but he mentions Libra in his text. Petavius has shown 
that Servius mistook his author, when he pulled in Virgil to certify that 
Libra was of Augustus's day ; and some set no bounds to its antiquity, 
telling us that it is mentioned in the sacred books of India, 1 200 years 
before that time, nay, even the 15 th verse of the xl th chapter of Isaiah 
has been pressed into its service. 

Libra is considered as typifying the equality of the days and nights 
in autumn, as well as the uniform temperature of the air at that season. 
Some astrologers, not keeping the proximity of the accursed Scorpion 
before their eyes, considered it a happy sign, and represented it, as 
indicative of abundance, by " vir utraque manu spiculum tenons :" yet 
this aerial trigon is harshly denounced in the illuminated Almanack for 
1386, for it is there asserted that " whoso es born in yat syne sal be an 



416 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

ille doar and a traytor." But notwithstanding the struggle made by 
Dupuis for its Ogygian antiquity, Libra is often deemed an interloper 
upon the Scorpionis forceps; and since that intrusion, Le Monnier, in 
1776, formed some stars between the southern saucer of the Balance, 
and the tail of Hydra, into the Turdus Solitaries ; the property having 
belonged to those asterisms. 



993. 6071 Brisb. CIRCINI. (*h. 4707.) 



h. 



B.A. 14 44 53 
Decl. S 65 57*8 



Prec. + 4-98 
S 15-08 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEKSCHEL, J, 225-2 ... 1-50 ... 1837-51 

A double star. A 7; B 8. 
994. 39 BOOTIS. (S. 1800.) DXXIII. 

h. m. s. i. 



B.A. 14 45 57 
Decl. N 48 10 "3 



Prec. -f- 2-04 

// 
S 15-02 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 45-1 ... 4-6 ... 1822-93 

STBUVB, W. 44.2 ... 3.7 ... 1836.50 

DUNER 43.7 ... 3.4 ... 1870.48 

JEDBZEJEWIOZ 44.3 ... 3-7 ... 1877-74 

A neat double star, following the herdsman's right wrist ; and it may 
be seen by running a line from Polaris through , the preceding guard, 
and prolonging it just as far again. A [6], white ; B 6|>, lilac. This 
is a pretty object, and may, from a comparison of the several results, have 
a slow retrograde motion. 

This double star is an outlier of the 32 sporades which La Lande 
scraped together in 1795 to form the new asterism Quadrans Muralis, 
in commemoration of his nephew's Histoire Celeste Frangaise ; which 
work enrolled no fewer than 50,000 stars, and constitutes, as Gibers 
justly remarked, one of the most important productions of the eighteenth 
century. The instrument with which the observations were made was 
therefore placed aloft, as a candidate for immortality; and it certainly 
merited celestial honours, more than some of the recent intruders. The 
little star about 2^- directly S. of it, 38 Bob'tis, is the Merga, or corn- 
fork, of Bayer. [44 Bootis follows it, a little to the S. ] 



E. A. 



14 



**' 



417 



995. BOOTIS. 

h. m. . 
B.A. 14 46 18 

Bed. H 19 33'6 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, W. 24. i 

HERSCHEL, W. 353-9 

STRUVE, W. 334.2 

SMYTH 332-1 

SMYTH 322-9 

FLETCHER 3*7*4 

DKMBOWSKI 303-1 

DOBERCK 282.9 

JEDRZE.TEWICZ 275.9 

A binary star, in the left knee of 
the four stars forming his leg, and 
purple ; the colours in fine contrast. 

[The period of this object is not 
would seem to be from 120? to 140?. 



(2. 1888.) 




Prec. + 


2'75 




/ 


g 


15-00 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


tt 




$-4* 


1780-28 


6oo 


1804.25 


7-32 


1829.46 


7-3 


1831-53 


6.9 


1842.42 


6-56 ... 


1851-11 


5-65 


1862-55 


4-70 


1877-24 


4-19 


1880-48 



PXXTI> 



Bootes ; being the northernmost of 
10 E. of a. A 3^, orange; B 6^, 

certainly known at present, but it 
Doberck gives 127-3^.] 



996. 



5112 Brisb. LTTPI. (* h. 4715.) 



B.A. 14 48 58 

o / 

Decl. S 47 2tf'9 

Position. ] 


Prec. + 


4-01 

n 
14-85 
Epoch. 


Distance. 


o 




ft 




HERSCHEL, J. 277.8 


... 


3-o 


I835-07 


A double star. A 6^; B 7. 








997. 212 P. 


XIV. 


LIBRAE. 


D: 


h. m. s. 






B. 


B.A. 14 50 55 




Prec. + 


3-40 


o / 






n 


Bed. 8 20 53* 


2 


C! 


14-74 


O 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 






HERSCHEL, J.,and SOUTH AB 


270-1 


IQ.8 


1823.32 


MAIN A B 


283-9 


... 13-5 


1862.38 


rAB 


289.6 


... 15-1 


1880-41 


AC 322.2 


I2O-6 \ 




BURNHAM } AD 
| AE 


171.0 

52-5 


... 52-5 f 

... 69.4 f 


... 187832 


LAF 


166.5 


... 105.5 / 





DXXIV. 



A multiple star nearly in mid-distance between a and Flamsteed's 

Ee 



418 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

20 Librae. A 6, straw-coloured; B 8, orpiment yellow; C 16, pale red ; 
and several minute stars in the field. 

[" One of the most interesting systems in the heavens, second only to 
6 1 Cygni, from the very large but unequal proper motion of the two 
principal components. The distant stars are all faint, and do not 
participate in this movement. The changes are due to the proper motion 
of the large stars. This system is well worthy of the attention of 
observers for the determination of parallax/' BurnhamJ] 



998. $ URS^ MXNTOBIS. DXXVI. 



h. 



R.A. 14 51 2 
Decl. K 74 36 'B 



Free. 0-23 



Position. Distance, Epoch. 

o // 

BURNHAM 342-8 ... 207.8 ... 1879-30 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant comes on the Lesser Bear's 
left shoulder. A 3, reddish ; B n, pale grey; several small stars in the 
field. 

This star is designated Kocab, from the Arabian Jcaukab-al-shemdli, 
the North star, it having been nearer to the Pole than a, in Ptolemy's 
time. It is within the Arctic Circle, which has been through all ages 
esteemed the vertex of the heavens, arid Anciently was a variable distance 
from the polar point, always equal to the latitude of the place. The 
first person who fixed the polar circles to a constant distance was our 
countryman Sacro-bosco, anglice Holywood. From such circumstances 
Kocab, which is still a useful star, had its day ; and a line from a Bootis 
through 17 Ursse Majoris, and by a Draconis, will identify it; or re- 
sorting to the rhymester, its vicinity to the present Polaris may be thus 
stated : 

Kocab, one bright, and two faint stars, grace Lesser Ursa's side, 
In oblong square; trace her bent tail, and to the Pole you'll glide. 

ft Ursse Minoris and y were stars of no small utility and renown 
among those who craved the use of a natural and never-failing nocturnal 
clock ; and if in our day navigators are indebted to lunar observations, 
so the old mariners were beholden to the heavens for various professional 
facilities. Thus they shifted their tides by the Moon's bearing, and told 
the hour by the Sun's rhumb. It was also readily seen how smoothly 
the Little Bear was every day swung round the Pole-star as about an 
axis ; and as it never sets to Europe, the circle described is universally 



R.A. 



50 



- 



419 




FIG. 30. UKSA MINOK. 



available in these latitudes. The two southernmost of the stars making 
nearly a right line to the direction of the Pointers with Polaris, are the 
most conspicuous objects of the 
constellation, though all the 
principal constituents are clearly 
traceable by the naked eye, form- 
ing a miniature of the Great 
Bear, only with the tail more 
curved. /3, on the animal's 
bhoulder, and y, in its ear, are 
designated the Guards " of the 
Spanish word guardare" saitli 
Hood, " which is to behokle, 
because they are diligently to be 
looked unto, in regard of the 
singular use which they have in 
navigation." Tn that rare old 
work, the Safegard of Saylers, 
there is a chapter " Howe to knowe the houre of the night by the Guards, 
by knowing on what point of the compass they shall be at midnight, 
every fifteenth day throughout the whole yeare." * * " Now, when you 
know on what point of the compasse the Guardes are alwaies at mid- 
night, then may yee by it also knowe the houres before or after mid- 
night, alway reckoning for every point that they shall lack of the midnight 
point three quarters of an houre." But Richard Eden, the worthy friend 
of Sebastian Cabot, bestirred himself beyond most of his competitors in 
the improvement of hydrography, and was the cause of much attention 
to nautical objects. In the Arte of Navigation which he " Englished 
out of the Spanyshe," in 1561, the xvii tl1 chapter treats of the "com- 
position and use of an instrument generall for the houres of the niht," 
by the circle which the "two starres called the Guardians, or the mouth 
of the home," describe. The base-work being : 

19 th April. Guard perpendicular over the Pole-star ) . . , . ,, 
12 th October. Guard perpendicular under the Pole-star ) 

This instrument consisted of a fixed circle, and a moveahle one ; 
" When you desire to know the houre, you shall turn the index of the 
less rundcll in which is written tmc, to that part of the great rundell 
where is marked the day in which you desire to know the houre, and 
directing your face toward the north you shall turn the head toward the 
height of heaven/' You are then directed to look at the Pole-&tar 
through the centre, and turn the concentric circle till the two Guards 
are been in their respective hole?, "and all three with one eye/' and the 

E e 2 



420 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

hour shall be shown on the smaller circle. There is still more upon 
the Guards in Tap's Seaman's Grammar, 1609 ; all tending to show the 
important utility of the asterism. " How often," meditates Hervey, 
" has this star beamed bright intelligence on the sailor, and conducted 
the keel to its destined haven/' In the preceding diagram the changes 
visible to the eye are shown when the Bear is on the meridian, and at 
six hours, midnight, and eighteen hours. 



999. 18 IiIBB-aS. (2. 1894.) BXXV. 



h. 



R.A. 14 52 57 
Becl. 8 10 42-0 



Prec. -f 3-24 
S 14-61 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HERSCHEL,W. 45.3 ... 17.9 ... 1782-26 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 35-9 ... 26-6 ... 1823.30 

STRUVE,W. 38.7 ... 19.4 ... 1831-09 

WILSON, &c. 39-6 ... 20-1 ... 1874-44 

A delicate double star, under the centre of the Balance beam ; where 
it is nearly the last of a little group, at about 5 N.N.E. of a Librae. 
A 7, straw colour; B n, grape-red; and an occult line through the 
two leads to a third star in the nf quadrant, of the 12 th magnitude, 
and ruddy. The measures show larger discrepancies than are merely 
attributable to its difficulty. 



1000. 3585 h. LUPI. (H. 4018.) 



h. 



B.A. 14 54 12 
Becl. S 51 28-8 



Prec. -f 4- 2 2 
S 14-53 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"01; pL; pRi; 1 C ;" which means : " a cluster; pretty large; pretty 
rich ; little condensed." 



JOOL 



b. 



R.A. 14 55 5 
Bed. 8 8 4-0 



Prec. 4- 3' 20 
8 14-48 



A variable star, discovered to be such by Schmidt in 1859. The 
range is from about the 5 th to the 6 th magnitude, and the period very 
short, only 2*32^. 



B.A. i4 h - 5i m -- i4 h - 57 m - 421 



1002. 756 $. II. BOOTIS. (h. 1898; H. 4029; .)DXXVII. 

h. m. 8. 0. 



It. A. 14 55 23 
Decl. N 54 20 '7 



Free, -f 1-78 

tt 
8 14-46 



A small pale-white nebula, with a bright centre, in the space between 
the right hand of Bootes and Draco's belly. It precedes a fine though 
wide double star, of the 7^ and 8 th magnitudes, from the following of 
which, four equidistant very minute stars extend in a line 5/= 150. 
If a curved line is drawn from Draconis to rj Ursse Majoris, at the tip 
of the Great Bear's tail, passing through the three stars in the hand of 
Bootes, it will pass the nebula's site in mid-distance. 

[" Very faint and very small in 8^ in refractor." Brodie. Webb 
remarks that from the double star " a straight line of smaller stars 
extends/' The double star alluded to is South 191, for which Dem- 
bowski gives Pos. 342-2; Dist. 40-2"; Epoch 1874-20. 



1003. 127 Iff. I. LIBRJE. (h. 1896; H. 4026.) 



h. 



B.A. 14 55 36 
Decl. N 2 8*3 



Free. 4- 3-05 

// 
8 14.46 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" B ; p S ; B, ; psrab M ;" which means : " bright ; pretty small ; round ; 
pretty suddenly much brighter in the middle." 

1004. 3588 h. LUPI. (H. 4031.) 

h. m. a. s. 



B.A. 14 57 12 
Decl. 8 53 54 '6 



Free, -f 4-34 
S /4. 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; v L ; Ri ; 1C; st 9 . . . 1 2 ;" which means : " a cluster ; very 
large ; rich ; little condensed ; the component stars vary from the 9 th to 
the 12 th magnitudes." 

1005. 3589 h. LUPI. (H. 4032.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 14 57 32 



o 



Decl. 8 55 9*5 



Free, -f 4-41 

S u-33 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 :- 



422 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



"Cl; cLj Ri; 1CM; sti3...X4;" winch means: "a cluster; con- 
siderably large ; rich ; but little compressed in the middle ; the com- 
ponent stars are of the 13 th and 14 th magnitudes." 



1006. 

K.A. 14 57 36 
Decl. S 46 37 '6 

Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL, J. ui-i 
A double star. A 5$; B 5^. 



7T LUPI. (*h. 4728.) 



Prec. -f 4-04 

S 14-33 

Distance. Epoch. 

o-75 ... 1835-68 



1007. 



44 BOOTIS. (2. 1909.) 



DXXIX. 



E.A. 



h. 

15 



11 



Bed. ET 48 5-0 



Prec. 



2-OI 



S 14-17 



Position. 



Distance. 



Epoch. 



HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 

STRUVE, W. 

DAWES 

POWELL 

DUNER 

FLAMMABION 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 



229-1 ... 2-28 ... 1821.33 

234-0 ... 286 ... 1832-24 

236.7 ... 4.49 ... 1851-52 

238-8 ... 5-04 ... 1861-29 

241-0 ... 4-79 ... 1871-28 

241-8 ... 4-61 ... 1877-56 

241-3 ... 4-99 ... 1880.65 

A binary star, in the space following the right arm of Bootes ; 
where a line from the Pole-star, carried between the two Guards, and 
continued nearly as far again to the southward, will meet it about 7 to 
the N. of /3 Bootis. A 5, pale white; B 6, lucid grey; a distant star in 
the np quadrant. This fine physical object was discovered by IjL, and is, 
as he remarked, a miniature of Castor. 

44 Bootis is a remarkable and highly interesting star. It is quite 
palpable that the distance has augmented since 1781 ; and that the stars 
are still separating, though it is difficult to establish the exact animal 
increase of such increment. There is also strong presumptive evidence of a 
slow orbital change in the same period ; but, except there exist some 
conspiring errors in the angles or readings, the case is beset with diffi- 
culties. The angles show that the apparent path is not entirely recti- 
linear, and if all the observations be retained, that the orbital plane of 
this system is very nearly parallel with that of our own, since the 
companion first appeared in a direction opposite to the present one. 



RA. i4>- 57- i-5 h - 2 m - 423 

" It is true," says Sir J. Herschel, " that an orbit passing neai ly through 
the eye, arid so situated that the longer axis of the ellipse into which it 
is projected shall form an angle of about 6 with the meridian, would 
account for the remarkable jump the small star seems to have made fiom 
one side to the other of the large one." 

[A period of i8iy was assigned by Madler, but Doberck puts it at 



1008. 128 1$. I. SERPENTIS. (h. 1901; H. 4045 ; ) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 15 54 
Decl. N 2 2'2 



Free, -f 3*04 

// 
S 14-13 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" v B ] p L ; II ; psb M N ; f of 2 ; " which means : " very bright ; pretty 
large ; round ; pretty suddenly brighter in the middle where there is a 
nucleus ; the following one of 2 nebulae." The other nebula here men- 
tioned ( = 511 1$. 111. j H. 4042) is "vF; 11;" or "very faint and 
round." 



1009. 279 P. XIV. BOOTIS. (S, 1910.) DXXX. 



h. 



B.A. 15 2 14 
Decl, NT 9 38 '9 



Prec. + 2-90 

// 
S 14.04 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ft 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 209-2 ... 4-78 ... 1823-42 

STKUVE, N W. 209-1 ... 3-80 ... 1832-08 

SMYTH 209-7 ... 4-0 ... 1835-39 

STBUVE, 0. 210-5 4' 22 1851-00 

JEJWIZEJEWICZ 212-1 ... 4-27 ... 1877-48 

A very neat double star, in the space between the left foot of Bootes 
and the snake of Ophiuchus. A and B, each 7|, and each pale white. 

This star is preceded at a quarter of a minute's time by 277 P. XIV., 
by which it may be identified mjishiny ; and it may be readily picked up 
by running an imaginary line from a Bootis over , and continuing it 
rather more than as far again into the S.E. region. 

[Probably endued with a very slow direct motion.] 



424 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1010. 216 $. I. DEACONIS. (h. 1909 ; H. 4058; $L) DXXXI. 

B.A. 15 8 2*4 Prec. + 1-63 
Bed. 1ST 56 11'4 S 13-96 

A bright-class oval nebula, under the body of Draco, with its major 
axis trending towards the vertical of the np and sf quadrants. It is 
rather faint at the edges, though not so as to obscure the form. There 
is a small star nearly above it, and three larger more distant, of which 
the preceding is coarsely double. It lies about 7 to the W.S.W. of 
6 Draconis, or one-third of the distance towards ry Ursse Majoris. 

[Engraved, Phil Trans., 1850, PL xxxvii. Fig. 8. On April 27, 1848, 
Lord Eosse perceived a longitudinal division in this object, but this was 
not clearly confirmed in subsequent years.] 



1011. . K 

h. m. s. 

B.A. 15 4 10 
Decl. 8 48 19*3 

Position, 
o 

HBRSCHEL, J. 144-1 
A double star. A 5^ ; B 7. 



LTJPI. 

. 

Prec. -f 4. 1 2 

S 13-92 

Distance. Epoch. 

27*2 -. 1837.09 



1012. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 15 5 53 
Decl. 8 19 22'4 



HEBSCHEL, W. 
BURNHAM 



Position. 
o 
112-5 

110-5 



DXXXII. 



Prec. -f- 3*4 
S 13-82 



Distance. 
// 
59- 

57-5 



Epoch. 

1781-40 
1878.30 



A wide double star, on the southern claw of Scorpio, preceding the 
group of which /3 Scorpii is the principal, by 15 on the parallel. A 5 J-, 
pale yellow; B pf, purple; there is a third star of the 10^ magnitude 
in the sf quadrant, which in 1822 was noted by H. and 8. as "precisely 
in a line/' but the angles at my epoch were from A to B 1 10-5, and from 
A to C 107-4. [B has been found by Burnham to be a close double 
(=13 618). Pos. 24-3; Dist. 1-86"; Eptch 1878.30; mags. 10, io|.] 



, A. i h - 3 m i h - m - 425 



1013. CIBCINI. (*h. 4746.) 



h. 



B.A. 15 6 47 
Decl. 8 58 39 '6 



Prec. + 4' 6 3 
S 13-75 



" Curiously multiple. One of its companions is close double, pointing 
to the large star, which is 8 mag. The smaller stars are 12 or 13 mag. 
Such multiple stars are rare. It is a close group, not above i^' diameter. 
In the diagram 10 companions are laid down." (Sir J, Herschel.) 



1014. 102 M. (?) DRACOES, (h. 1910; H, 4064 ; .) DXXXIII. 

h. m. . s. 



R.A. 15 6 55 
Decl. N 57 25*6 



Prec. + 1-55 
S 13.78 



A small but brightish nebula, on the belly of Draco, with four small 
stars spreading across the field, N. of it. There may be a doubt as to 
whether this is the nebula discovered by Me* chain in 1781, since Messier 
merely describes it as " very faint," and situated between o Bootis and 
i Dracouis. But there must be some mistake; the one being on the 
herdsman's leg, and the other in the coil of the Dragon far above the 
head of Bootes, having 22 of declination and 44 of time between 
them, a space full of all descriptions of celestial objects. But as the 
in the raised right hand of Bootes, if badly made, might be mistaken for 
an omicron, this is probably the object seen by Me" chain, and h/s 1910; 
it being the brightest nebula of 5 in that vicinity. A line from K in 
Draco's tail, led to the S.E. through a Draconis, and prolonged as far 
again, strikes upon its site. 

[In view of Smyth's doubts as stated above I have taken Sir J. 
Herschel's place and not Smyth's. The difference is -f 42 8 in K. A., 
and -f i' in Decl.] 

1015. 1919 2. BOOTIS. 



h. 



K.A. 15 7 51 



o 



Decl. H 19 41*2 



Prec. -f 2.72 
S 13-69 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STBUVE.W. 10-2 .,, 24-8 ... 1832-21 
MAIN 8-7 ... 23-8 ... 1863.30 

A double star. A 6, yellowish white; B 7^, white. 



426 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1016. 



h. m. s. 

K.A. 15 8 15 



14 P. XV. LIBB-ffl. 

Free. + 



3-38 



Decl. 8 18 0*8 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 141-0 

STONE, O. I 39-7 



S 13-66 
Distance. 



47-4 



DXXXIV. 



Epoch. 

1823.30 
1879-39 



A coarse double star, on the lower hand-claw of Scorpio ; it is N.N.E, 
of i 1 Librae, and 9 S. of /3, in the same aaterism. A 8, silvery white ; 
B 9, pale grey ; a third star follows in the N. 

[Alias 97 B Librae.] 

1017. 3504 h. LUPI. (H. 4066.) 

R.A. 15 9 20 Free, -f 406 
Decl. S 45 14*3 S 13-59 

A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"O; vS; B,; quite sharp;" which means: "a planetary nebula; 
very small ; round ; quite sharp." Engraved, Cape Obs., PL vi. Fig. 8. 



1018. 



R.A. 16 10 46 
Decl. N 38 42 '7 

Position. 



1926 2. BOOTIS. 

m. a. 

Free. 



2-28 



S 13*49 



Distance. 



Epoch. 



STRUVE, W. 


260-6 


i-59 


1830-60 


MADLEK 


261.0 


... 1.46 .. 


1842-69 


DUNER 


264.9 


i-37 


1871-42 


BUKNHAM 


259.1 


i-43 


1878.44 



A close double star. A 6, yellowish ; B 9, blue. Duner notes A as 
"Blanche;" and B sometimes as "Azur" and sometimes as "Cendree." 



1019. 



h. m. s. 

K.A. 15 10 52 
Decl. S 47 28'9 

Position. 



LUPI. 

8. 

Free, -f 4-12 

S 13-49 

Distance. Epoch. 



HEBSCHEL,J. 



A C 



(AB 173-6 ... 
A triple star. A 5 ; B 6 ; C 8. A is 



22-9 
2-08 



1836-68 
1846.55 



Lupi and *h. 4753. 



R.A. is 11 ' 8- is 11 ' io m - 427 



1020. 10 $. VI. LIBBJE. (h. 3596 ; H, 4075.) PXXXV. 



h. 



B.A. 15 10 57 
Decl. S 20 38-0 



Prec. + 3*43 
S 13.49 



A large compressed cluster of very minute stars, in the Scorpion's 
southern pincer, with 8 brightish stars vertically curved in the follow- 
ing part of the field, and half a dozen duller preceding. It is faint 
and pale, but owing to the fineness of the night, steadiness of gaze, and 
excellent action of the telescope, was as well seen as so low and so 
awfully remote an object could be expected to be. There was much 
interest attached to the observation, because this cluster is one of the 
gradations from the palpable congeries of stars, in the Herschelian system, 
towards the distant nebulae. The illustrious astronomer thus treats of 
it, in Phil. Trans, vol. Ixxxi : 

"When I pursued these researches, I was in the situation of a 
natural philosopher who follows the various species of animals and 
insects from the height of their perfection down to the lowest ebb of 
life ; when, arriving at the vegetable kingdom, he can scarcely point out 
to us the precise boundary where the animal ceases, and the plant 
begins ; and may even go so far as to suspect them to be not essentially 
different. But recollecting himself, he compares, for instance, one of 
the human species to a tree, and all doubt upon the subject vanishes 
before him. 

"In the same manner we pass through gentle steps from a coarse 
cluster of stars, such as the Pleiades, the Prsesepe, the Milky Way, the 
cluster in the Crab, the nebula in Hercules, that near the preceding 
hip of Bootes, etc. etc., without any hesitation, till we find ourselves 
brought to such an object as the nebula in Orion, where we are still 
inclined to remain in the once adopted idea, of stars exceedingly remote 
and inconceivably crowded, as being the occasion of that remarkable 
appearance. It seems, therefore, to require a more dissimilar object to 
set us right again. A glance like that of the naturalist, who casts his 
eye from the perfect animal to the perfect vegetable, is wanting to 
remove the veil from the mind of the astronomer. The object I have 
mentioned above (No. 234, ante), is the phenomenon that was wanting 
for this purpose. View, for instance, this cluster, and afterwards cast 
your eye on that cloudy star, and the result will be no less decisive than 
that of the naturalist we have alluded to. Our judgment, I may venture 
to gay, will be, that the nebulosity about the star is not of a starry 
nature." 

This wondrous but difficult object bears 9 due S. of ft Librae. 



428 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1021, 



8 BO OTIS. 



DXXXVII. 



R.A. 15 11 3 
Decl. IS" 33 43*7 

Position . 

o 
HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 79-6 

STKUVE, W. 78.9 

BUBNHAM 78-6 



Prec. + 2-41 

S i" 3 -48 

Distance. 

H 
.. 105.3 

104.6 



Epoch. 

1822.80 
1835.60 
1879-48 



A star with a distant companion, on the left shoulder of Bootes. 
A 3 J, pale yellow ; B 8|, light blue. 

6 Boot is is the S.E. component of the trapezium formed with /3, y, 
and p., which was designated Al-dhibd', the hysena, in Arabian astronomy : 
a Hue from a Bootis through e, carried as far again beyond, reaches it. 



1022. 



ft LIBRAE. 




h. 


m. R. 


8. 


B.A. 


15 


11 5 


Free, -h 3*22 


Decl. 


8 8 58-6 
Position. I 


// 

SI 0. 4*7 


*3 47 

>iatance. Epoch. 


SMYTH 




o 
85-3 .- 


570 ... 1836-34 



DXXXVI. 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, on the Scorpion's 
northern hand-claw ; it will be identified by projecting an occult curve 
from Antares through /3 Scorpii, and carrying it to twice the interval 
between those two stars. A 2^, pale emerald; B 12, light blue; and 
there are two other stars in the N. part of the field, forming the base 
of a triangle whose vertex is A. The same bright object is also, in 
alignment, the apex of a grander triangle, of which a Bootis and 
a Virginis form the base ; and we learn : 



Two stars form Scorpio's heart, will form 
This Scorpio's second star, and that 



a westward rising line, 
the same in Libra's sign. 



A Chaldean observation of the approach of Mars to this star is 
recorded, which appulse was observed in the 476^ year of Nabonassar, 
or 271 B.C. It was a star of some note of old, and was not en bonne 
odeur with astrologers. It appears in Catalogues under the name of 
Kifia Borealis, from the Arabian al-kffiah-al'shemdUyah, the northern 
scale. 

[Respecting /3 Librae "Webb notes " its beautiful pale green hue, very 
unusual among conspicuous stars ; deep green, like deep blue, is unknown 
to the naked eye/'] 



R A. 



ii ra - 



429 



1023. 



6 M. LIBRJE. (h. 1016 ; H. 4083.) DXXXVIII. 



h. in. B. 

B.A. 15 12 57 
Decl. N 2 30'1 



Free, -f 3-02 
S 13-36 




A close cluster of stars, over the beam of the Balance, in a narrow 
channel led into Serpens, and close to 5 Librae, which is double. This 
superb object is a noble mass, refreshing to the senses after searching for 
faint objects; with outliers in all direc- 
tions, and a bright central blaze which 
even exceeds 3 M. in concentration. Mes- 
sier, who registered this in 1764 [but it 
was discovered by G. Kirch in 1702], 
describes it as a beautiful round nebula, 
adding, " et je me suis assure" qu'elle ne 
contient aucune toile." This is curious, 
as the mass is so easily resolveable ; though 
its laws of aggregation into so dense and 
compact a ball are at present beyond 
reach. In May, 1791, Sir W. Herschel 
directed his grand 4O ft reflector to this 
object, and counted about 200 stars; though the middle of it was so 
compressed, that it was impossible to distinguish the components. 

In his description of this object, Sir William remarks on the diffi- 
culty of observing with BO large an instrument, as well from variable 
temperature as from alteration in the mirror's lustre; "but/' he adds, 
"if we will have superior views of the heavens, we must submit to 
circumstances that cannot easily be altered." 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, PL viii. Fig. 87. Described at 
Parsonstown, May 26, 1875, as "more than f or 8' in diameter; very 
condensed part in middle about i' in diameter; stars 12 th to 15^ 
magnitudes, many going out from centre in curved lines."] 



FIG. 31. 5 M. LIBRJ:. 



1024. 759 Ijl . II. BOOTIS. (h. 1917; H. 4087 ; 



h. 

K.A. 15 
Decl. N 



12 57 
56 43-2 



Prec. 



13*36 



DXL. 



A long pale-white nebula, which though classed in Bootes is really 
in Draco. Designated by Sir J. Herschel as "a superb ray nebula." 
Jn my instrument it is a faint streak, trending np and sf ; it requires the 
eye to settle before its outline is well seen. There is a little group of 



430 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



5 stars in the np quadrant, and one in each of the others, all about 
n tb magnitude. In H.'s 2 o ft telescope it was 7^-' in length. It bears 
S.S.E. from Draconis, nearly 3 ; being exactly on the following parallel 
of the distant c Ursse Majoris. 

[Engraved, Rosse, woodcut, Phil. Trans., 1861 ; D' Arrest, Siderum 
Nebulosorum, p. 290.] 



1025. 



1931 I,. SERPENTIS. 



h. m. s. 




> 


K. A. 15 13 25 


Prec. 


-f 2-88 


o / 




tt 


Decl. K" 10 49'6 




S 13-33 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


STRUVE, W. 172-5 


i" 3 .o 


1832-21 


DAWES 172-1 


13-0 


1851-31 


MAIN *73.i 


13-5 


1863.35 


A double star. A 6|, white; B 8, white. 


1026. 1 B. CORO1OE BOBEALIS. 


(2. 1932.) 


h. m. s. 




8. 


B.A. 15 13 37 


Prec. 


+ 2.56 


o / 




H 


Decl. !N" 27 13*6 






Position. 


Distance. 


\ 3*3^ 

Epoch. 





a 




STRUVE, W. 273-8 


62 


1830-28 


STRUVE, 0. 279.3 


65 


1841-46 


MADLER 283-6 


45 


1851-88 


MADLER 289-4 


34 


1860-70 


DuNJtsR 297-0 


10 


1870-29 


DOBEKCK 33'5 


.26 


1877.37 


JEDRZEJEWICZ 302.3 


0-90 


1880-46 



A double star. A 6, very white ; B 6^, very white. Struve suspected 
variability in the components. The angle has visibly increased, and a 
decrease in the distance is almost as certain. 



1027. 



5 SEBPENTI 
K.A. 15 13 39 

o t 

Decl. N" 2 11*5 

Position, 
o 
SOUTH 39-0 

STRUVE, 0. 39-2 
SECCHI 37.1 
HOLDEN 38-2 


S. (2. 1930.) 

s. 

Prec. -f 3*3 

ST f\ 15 n 


I 3 < 3 2 

Distance. Epoch. 

10-7 ... 1825.45 
10-5 ... 1848-38 
io6 ... 1858-52 
10-6 ... 1875-40 



DXXXIX. 



A delicate double star, among the marginal straggleis of the cluster 



E.A. 



i2 m 15 



**- 



431 



5 M. : it is 9 to the 8.W. of a Serpentis, and 24 to the S.E. of 
a Bootis. A 5^, pale yellow ; B io, light grey. This is a fine object. 
My results being as nearly coincident as could be expected in so delicate 
an object, I considered this star to be " done with ; " but finding, on the 
arrival of the Dorpat Catalogue in 1837, that Professor Struve considered 
A to be oblong, and consequently double, I took the first good opportunity 
to scrutinize it closely, and catch another set of measurements. The 
night was beautiful, the instrument in its best action, and the stars 
distinct and clear ; but no effort could elongate the primary. 

["The stars have a rapid common proper motion. Orbital motion 
seems to be indicated by the slight increase in distance and diminution 
of the angle." 0. Struve, cited by Gledhill^\ 

[Rather more than i sf is 6 Serpentis, found to be double by Burnham 
with a 6 in refractor in 1872 (=/3 32). For this object Dembowski 
gives : Pos. 13-2; Dist. 2-28"; Epoch 1875-41. Mags. 4.}, 



1028. 



y CIRCUIT. (*h. 4757.) 



TLA. 15 14 35 



Peel. 8 58 55*4 

Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL.J. 108.5 
A double star. A 5^ ; B 6. 



Prec. -f 


4-69 


Q 


" 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


I '36 


1837.5 



1029. 



LUPI. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 15 15 12 

Decl. S 44 17*3 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL,J. 174.9 

A double star. A 4 ; B p| . 



Prec. + 4-03 

/f 
S 13-21 

Distance. Epoch. 

36-3 ... 1837-26 



1030. 148 1$. I. SERPENTIS. (h. 1919 ; H. 4097.) 

8. 

Prec. 4- 2-97 
S 13-13 



h. m. a. 

R.A. 15 16 29 



Decl. 



5 27-9 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" c B ; c L ; i R ; vsb M * 1 2 ; am st ; " which means : " considerably 
bright; considerably large; irregularly round; very suddenly brighter 



432 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

in the middle where there is a 1 2 th mag. star ; this object lies amongst 
stars. 1 ' 



1031. rj COROJSTffi BOBEALIS. (2. 1937.) DXLI. 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 15 18 30 
Bed. 8 30 41' 4 



Prec. -j- 2-46 

// 
S 12-99 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 25.9 ... 1.57 ... 1823.27 

SMYTH 57.2 ... 0-8 ... 1832-63 

SMYTH 151-3 ... 0-5 ... 1842-58 

DAWES 2501 ... 0-5 ... 1852-52 

STRUVE, 0. 22.5 ... 0.91 ... 186276 

DEMBOWSKI 47.7 ... io8 ... 1871-45 

DOBERCK 94-6 ... 0-61 ... 1878-55 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 114-2 ... oblong ... 1880-59 

BURNHAM 1:1 4"3 ... 0-46 ... 1 880-6 a 

A binary star, midway between the Northern Crown and the club of 
Bootes; where a N.N.W. ray from a Coronae carried through /3, and 
half as far again, will hit it. A 6, white ; B 6, golden yellow ; a third 
and very minute star seen by glimpses in the nf quadrant. 

The connexion of the components is " fully proven," and that fact alone 
is a gratification to the contemplative mind, for such instances of actual 
development in the heavenly motions cannot be studied without inspiring 
an increase of veneration for the Almighty Disposer of the Universe, and 
of zeal for the progress of astronomical inquiry. 

[The short period of this star, the closeness of its components, and its 
rapid orbital motion are things which combine to render its study a 
matter of some difficulty. To this fact it is due that its period is not 
yet very certainly known, though the majority of computers put it at 
about 4oy. The latest value is Doberck's = 41-56?. It has therefore 
made 2 complete revolutions since first measured by Sir W. Herschel 
in 1781.] 

1032. 357 Dunlop LITPI. (h. 3603 ; H. 4100.) 



h. 



B.A. 15 19 29 
Beol. 8 54 8*1 



Prec. 4- 4-48 
S 13-08 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1,864 : 
"Cl; vL; vRi; 1C; stn...i4;" which means: "a cluster; very 
large ; very rich ; little compressed ; the component stars vary from the 
II th to the 1 4th magnitude," 



B.A. 



i6 m -- 



433 



1033. 388 Dunlop LUPI. (h. 3604 ; H. 4101.) 



h., m. s. 

B,A. 15 20 4 
Bed. S 50 17'3 



Free. + 4-30 
8 i2-8g 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ; c B ; L ; E ; vgb M ; rrr ; st 1 5 ;" which means : " a globular 
cluster ; considerably bright ; large ; round ; very gradually brighter in 
the middle ; well resolved clearly seen to consist of stars, which are as 
small as the 1 5 th magnitude." 



1034. 



ft 1 BOOTIS. (2. 28 App. I.) 



DXLII. 



K.A. 15 20 21 
Decl. N 37 45 '8 

Position. 
STRUVE,W. AB 172-6 

SMYTH ] ^' S 

(BC 321.4 

JEDBZEJEWICZ AB 171-6 




Distance. 
// 
1087 

109-0 ) 

i-3 > 

108-5 



Epoch. 
1821-78 
1832.31 
1876-98 



A triple star, on the upper part of the staff or club of Bootes ; and 
one of the trapezium called Al-dhibd', the hysena, by the Arabians, the 
other members being /3, y, and 6, fx being 4 S.E. of ft. A 4, flushed 
white ; B 8, and C 8|-, both greenish white. The large star appears as 
Alkalurops in the Catalogues, from al-kalatirops, or mAavpo^, a shepherd's 
crook or herdsman's staff, written in the Arabic characters. 

This star's proper motion in space is a point of very great interest 
in deciding jupon its physical connexion with /x 2 . Even if the lowest 
quantity assigned be at all correct, /x 2 must be similarly affected, for the 
measures are surprisingly coincident. 

In discussing the position and distance of A and B, as found by H. 
and 8. in 1821, and which are almost identical with my own, Sir J. 
Herschel considers their fixity of importance as a palpable reference in 
f jtablishing, by indisputable evidence, the fact of the close pair's rotation, 
/n 1781 it was remarked by Sir W. Herschel that the small star fol- 
lowed the line joining the large one to /Lt (/x 1 and /u 2 ), and in 1802 that 
it had changed sides, and preceded the same line. The following object 
will show that this change is fully confirmed ; and a distant period may 
determine whether the whole system has a common motion in space, 

Ff 



434 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1035. 



fJi* BOOTIS. (74 


P. XV. 2. 1938.) 


h. m. s. 


8. 




B.A. 15 20 22 


Prec. -f 2-28 




O t 


// 




Decl. 3ST 37 44'0 


ST n ,(\ f\ 






Position. 


Distance. Epoch. 


o 


a 




IUVE,W. 327-0 


1.38 ... 1826-77 


fTH 321-4 


i-3 ... 1832 


31 


fTH 306-1 


0.8 ... 1842 


5 2 


WES 262-2 


o-55 ... 1852.52 


MBOWSKI 2O2-9 


0-5 ... 1862- 


55 


NEB 158-0 


o-55 - I8 72- 


52 


BERCK I37-7 


0-63 ... 1878.49 


)RZEJEWICZ 122-5 


0.6 ... 1880-65 



DXLIII. 



A binary star, on the tip of the herdsman's staff, where, absurdly 
enough, there is a third /*, viz. that of Corona Borealis, on some of our 
best delineations. A 8, and B 8-|, both greenish white; these are the 
second and third components of the preceding object, and there registered 
also, for identity, as B and C. The retrograde orbital motion of this 
pair is completely established. 

In discussing this interesting star in 1823 Sir J. Herschel said, 
" If this double star be a binary system, of which there can be little 
doubt, its period is about 622 years/' All the subsequent observations 
prove that the motion has greatly accelerated ; and the object is yearly 
becoming more difficult of scrutiny, from the diminution in its distance. 

[The recent values for the period of this pair differ widely. Whilst 
Hind puts it at 314^, Doberck reduces it to 280-3^, Klinkerfues to ipSy, 
and Winagradskij to i8ay. Dune> remarks : " The connection between 
/u, Bootis and S. 1938 is indubitable: otherwise the motion of /ut Bootis, 
which is considerable, would cause a very great change in the relative 
positions of the stars/'] 



1036. 



76 P. XV. SERPENTIS. (2. 1940.) 

8. 

Prec. -f 2-72 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 15 21 8 



Decl. H 18 33'5 



S 12-81 



Position. Distance. 



DXLIV. 



Epoch. 

STRUVE.W, 325.4 ... 1-47 ... 1830-35 
SMYTH 326-3 ... 1-7 ,,. 1834.41 

SECCHI 324.0 ... 1-20 ... 1856-52 

A close and delicate double star, preceding the head of Serpens. 
A 8 and B 9^, both white. 

This star is 8 S. by W. from a Coronse Borealis, where it is intercepted 
by a line drawn E. from a Bootis and passed under Bootis ; it is so 



B. A. 



2O m ' jrjh. 25 m * 



435 



closely nf H. 4102 (=h. 1923; 874 I$L II.) that Sir J. Herschel as- 
sumed it as a pointer whereby to identify that globular object, in the 
terms, "a*78m, 6'n." 



1037. 



i DEACO3STIS. 



DXLV. 



R.A. 15 22 29 
Decl. N 59 21 -1 



Position. 



BURNHAM 



Prec. + 

S 

Distance. 
254-6 


1-32 
12-72 

Epoch. 
1879-26 



A bright star with a distant companion, in the middle of Draco's 
body. A 3, orange tint ; B 9, pale yellow ; several other stars in the 
field. This object precedes several of Ip /s nebulae, and may be readily 
found by running a line from the Pole-star through y Ursse Minoris, and 
carrying it nearly as far again to the S. 



1038. 



6351 Brisb. LUPI. (*h. 4776.) 



R.A. 15 22 57 
Decl. S 41 32-3 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J. 224-2 



Prec. -}- 3-97 
S 12-70 

Distance. Epoch. 

5-9 l8 35*94 



A double star. A 7, white ; B 9 J, yellow. Precedes y Lupi, a star 
of mag. 3, by 4 m , and | to the S. 



1039. 17 B. CORONJE BOBBALIS. (S. 1950.) 



R.A. 15 


25 15 


Prec. + 


2-56 




o / 




// 


Decl. N 


25 53*4 




12-54 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


if 




STBUVE, W. 


93-1 


3-2 


1830.28 


DAWES 


92-8 


3-2 


1849.44 


MAIN 


92-8 


3-7 


1865.68 


GLEDHILL 


93-4 


3-4 


1871.36 



A double star. A 7, golden ; B 8, blue. 

Ff 2 



436 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

1040. 81 P. XV. LIBBJB. DXLVI. 

h. m. . S. 



B.A. 15 25 24 







Decl. 3 19 47*3 



Free. + 3-44 
S 12-52 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

SOUTH 283-2 ,,. 11-4 ,,, 1825-35 

SMYTH 282-6 ... 11-8 ... 1832.48 

MAIN 283.8 ... 10.5 ... 1861-45 

STONE, 0. 280-3 ... "'3 ... 1878.47 

A neat double star, in the space between the chelce of Scorpio, and 
9 due W. of ft. A 7^, bluish white ; B 9, smalt blue ; with two or 
three minute stars in the field. 

["9 very small, 1852." Webb] 

1041. 3607 h. LUPI. (H. 4108.) 

h. m. s. a. 



B.A. 15 27 29 
Decl. S^60 17-5 



Free. + 4*33 
S i"2-38 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ; c B ; p L ; B ; vglb M ; rrr ; st 16 ; " which means : " a globular 
cluster ; considerably bright ; pretty large ; round ; very gradually less 
bright in the middle ; easily resolveable clearly seen to consist of stars, 
which are of the i6 th magnitude." 



1042. y LUPI. 

h. m. s. 



R.A. 15 27 48 
Decl. S 40 48'0 



Free, -f 3-96 
S 12-36 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o /> 

HEBSCHEL, J. 94-1 ,,. 0*84 ,., 1875.55 

A double star. A 4 ; 4. 
1043. 09 P. XV. (f) LUPI. (*h. 4788.) 

h. m. . 



B.A. 15 28 18 



o 



Becl. 8 44 35*5 



Prec. + 4-08 

// 
S 12-33 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEESOHEL, J. 349.0 ... 3-1 ... 1836.52 
A double star. AS; B 8 J. 



E. A. 



25 







- 3o m - 



437 



1044. 



d SEJIPENTIS. (2. 1954.) 



DXLVII. 



K.A. 15 29 33 



Decl. 



10 54*5 



196-2 
194.2 
192.2 
190.4 



Free. + 2-86 




n 




S 12*24 




>n. Distance. 


Epoch. 


a ... 3-05 ... 


1821-33 


5 ... 2.9 


1831-43 


2 ... 2-8 


1842-35 


2 ... 3-03 ... 


1852.58 


2 ... 3.20 


1863.43 


4 ... 3-18 ... 


1872.39 


5 ... 3-48 ... 


1880-54 



o 

HERSOHEL, J., and SOUTH 199.2 

SMYTH 

SMYTH 

DAWES 

DEMBOWSKI 

MAIN 
JEDBZEJEWICZ 

An elegant double star, in the bend of the Serpent's neck ; where it 
forms a component of the Arabian Nasak Yemdnt, or southern boundary 
of the pasturage, cited under a Serpentis, from which it bears N. by W., 
distant 5. A 3, bright white ; B 5, bluish white ; but under the very 
best vision, both have a bluish tinge, which, in such a pair, is rather 
against the theory of contrast. 

[This star is undoubtedly in movement, but its circumstances are 
enveloped in much obscurity.] 



1045. 



a CORONA BOEEALIS. DXLVIII. 

h. m. s. s. 

R.A. 15 30 2 



Decl. N 27 5'1 



SMYTH 



Position, 
o 
214-5 



Prec. -f 2-52 

n 
S 12-21 

Difference of E. A. Epoch. 

8. 

ii6 ... 1834-51 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a distant companion, in the front 
centre of the Northern Crown; where it is known as Gemma, or the 
precious stoue of the diadem. A 2, brilliant white; B 8, pale violet; 
and there is a very neat little double star nearly preceding A by 48*3 S , on 
the angle = 275, between which and A, in nearly mid-distance, is a red 
star of the io th magnitude. 

[Knott on various occasions in 1862 and 1863 saw this so-called "red 
star," but it was never above mag. 13 or 14 of Smyth's scale, and much 
too small for any distinct colour to be assignable.] 

Gemma does not seem to have been a name known to the ancients, 
though the astral genealogists are fain to derive it from the " Gemmasque 
novem transformat in ignes " of Ovid. The star however was honoured 
as Ashtaroth, the Syrian Venus, as Ariadne, as Gnossia Stella, as Clara 



438 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



Stella, and other designations, from the earliest times. When the Arabians 
boarded Ptolemy, and clouded his Xa/iTrpo?, there%as no end of the epithets 
given to a Coronse Borealis ; and the whole tribe of commentators, glossa- 
tors, scholiasts, etymologists, and lexicographers have been thrown into 
fault. Its most usual name in the Catalogues is Alphecca, from alfekkah, 
the dervish's cup or platter, from the said break in the ring of stars. To 
find this by alignment, place f and 77, the two last stars in the Greater 
Bear's tail, in a direction following, and they will point upon the seven 
stars of the Northern Crown in the S.E., where a shines conspicuous 
enough ; or it may be picked up at one-third of the distance, and on the 
line, from a Bootis to a Lyrse. And the salt-water poet points out another 
method : 

Arcturus seek, and stem, 
Corona's beauteous gem : 
e'en him who little knows, 
conspicuously glows. 

r &6pios, the Northern Crown, is one of the old 48 constella- 
tions, and though small, possesses some very interesting double stars 
and nebulae. A table of the comparative lustre of the components will be 
found in Phil. Trans., 1797, p. 315; and their number has thus risen 
under increased optical application : 



From epsilon in Virgo's side 
And just as far again you'll spy 
There no mistake can well befall 
For bright and circular the Crown 



Ptolemy 
Bayer . 



8 stars. 
20 



Flamsteed 
Bode . . 



21 stars. 



1046. 



178 B. LIBRAE. (2. 1962.) 



B.A. 15 32 43 
Bed. 8 8 26-0 

Position. 

o 
STEUVB, W. 187.1 

MAIN 188.9 

BUBNHAM 187-8 



. 

Free, -h 3-22 
- S 12-06 



Distance. 
n 

xi.8 
ii'6 
11.9 



Epoch. 

1830-54 
1864.41 

1878-48 



A double star. A 6j, white ; B 6, white. These stars are evidently 
an optical pair only. 



1047. 1964 I. 



h. m. . 

E.A. 15 34 3 
Bed. H 36 36 '0 



BOREALIS. 

&. 
Free. + 2-27 



E.A. 



=;m. 



439 





Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


// 




STRUVE, W. 


AB 86-0 ... 


15-3 


1830-87 


BURNHAM 


JBcSo ::; 


'5-5 | 
1-34) 


1878-38 



A triple star. A 7^, yellowish ; B 8, yellowish ; C 



1048. 



CORONA BOBEALIS. (2. 1965.) 

h. m. s. s. 

B.A. 15 35 14 Free, -f 2-26 



DXLIX. 



Decl. 1 


ST 36 59-7 


S 11-84 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


n 




HERSCHEL, W. 


295-8 


... 5'4 -. 


1779-76 


HERSCHEL, J., 


and SOUTH 300-9 


... 7*1 ... 


1822-30 


SMYTH 


301-2 


... 6-i 


1842.57 


MADLER 


302-8 


... 6.1 ... 


1861-32 


GOLDNEY 


301.4 


... 6.3 ... 


1878.51 



A fine double star, in the middle of the space over the wreath, and 10 
N., a little easterly, from a. A 5, bluish white ; B 6, smalt blue. This 
is a beautiful object. 

A splendid set of measures at Hartwell rendered it still more evident 
that these stars are optical, and relatively at rest. 



1049. 



7T 1 UBS^B MZNOBIS. (2L 1972.) 

8. 

Prec. 3-8 



B.A. 15 35 35 



JLSOUJ.. J-TI 


OV/ "StO U 

Position. 


Distance 







// 


STROVE, W. 


82.9 


30-1 


STONE, 0. 


82.7 ... 


30*8 



S 11-82 

Epoch. 
1832-60 



1878.81 



A double star. A 6, yellowish ; B 7, yellowish. 



1050. 764 $. II. DBACONIS. (h. 1934; H. 4128.) 

h. m. s. s. 

Prec. + 1-2 1 



B.A. 15 36 25 
Decl. 3ST 59 42 '2 



S 



DL. 



A small round nebula, in the centre of Draco's body, being one of those 
mentioned above as following i Draconis. This object is pale but distinct. 
There are several stars in the field, of which one of the io tn magnitude 



440 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

precedes pretty close to the nebula, and a brighter one follows near 
the parallel. It bears E. by N. of and is about i distant from 
t Draconis. 

[My E. A. is from D' Arrest.] 



1051. 3610 h. CIBCINT. (H. 4125.) 



B.A. 15 37 24 
Decl. S 60 52-3 



Prec. -K 5-01 
8 i'i-69 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
u -f O>* pF; vS; E; r? am 150 st;" which means: "a remarkable 
object ; a planetary nebula ; pretty faint ; very small ; round ; doubtful 
whether it is resolveable; it lies in the midst of a group of about 150 
stars." Engraved, Cape Obs., PL vi. Fig. 7. 

1052. 6477 Lac. TBIA3STGULI AUSTRALIS. 



h. 



B.A. 15 37 50 
Decl. 3 65 59 



Prec. + 5-37 

S 11-65 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HERSCHEL, J. 155.9 ... 2.42 ... 1835.35 
A double star. AY; B 7. 

1053. y CORONA BOEEALIS. (2. 1967.) DLL 



b. m. 



B.A. 15 38 7 
Decl. N 26 38*7 



Prec. + 2-52 
8 0-64 



Position. Difference of B. A. Epoch. 
SMYTH AC 88-7 ... 14.5 ... 1839.69 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

SMYTH A B round ... round ... 1834-66 

STRUVE, 0. A B 292-5 ... 0-41 ... 1843-30 

STRUVE, O. AB 290-0 ... 0.42 ... 1850-51 

STRUVE, O. AB 287.7 ... 0-42 ... 1861-89 

SPARER A B round ... round ... 1875.98 

BURNHAM A Ground ... round ... 1380-56 

A most difficult binary star, with a distant companion, in the middle 
of the lower side of the wreath; where it follows a Coronse a little 8. of 
the parallel, at about 2^ distance. A 6 (but certainly looking very much 



E.A. 15^ 36^ 15^ 38*' 441 

brighter), flushed white; B, uncertain; C 10, pale lilac. This is the 
prseses of S/s " vicinissimee," being pronounced by him as clos^iand 
more troublesome than f Herculis. In 1832 Sir J. Herschel examiag^it 
with the 2 0^ reflector and eye-pieces magnifying 320, 480, and 600 1 
and under each saw but a round disc without any companion, 
therefore, under various powers, were attended with a similar result, 
previous to dismantling my equatorial, I took advantage of a supertj 
night, 7 & September, 1839, and after much gazing, became almost* 
assured that it was really elongated in a direction sp and nf; the whicfo 
was so different from what 2. had registered, that I ventured at once to 
receive it as a physical object and a binary system. 

As usual, my magnitude of y Coronse is received from the Palermo 
Catalogue, otherwise its brilliance would be placed considerably higher. 
Ptolemy rated it 8, a size followed by Tycho Brah6, Hevelius, and 
Flamsteed. But may not the apparent differences be owing to the actual 
duplicity and orbital action of the star ? 

[Many as have been the attempts made to secure good measures of this 
star, the results have been most unsatisfactory, owing to the \nearness 
of the components. Doberck in 1877 published elements which assign a 
period of 95^.] 

1054. 652 Dunlop LUPI. (h. 3611 ; H. 4132.) 



h. m. . s. 



RA. 15 38 50 



o 



Decl. S 37 25-2 



Prec. -f 3-90 
S 11-58 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"!; ; vB; L; R; vgbM; sti3...is;" which means: "a re- 
markable object ; a globular cluster ; very bright ; large ; round ; very 
gradually brighter in the middle; the component, stars vary from the 13 th 
to the 15 th magnitudes." 

1055. a SBKPENTIS. (*h. 1277.) DLII. 

h. m. s. 



R. A. 15 38 61 

Decl. N 6 40 3 



Prec. + 2-94 
S i'i-58 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o n 

LAMONT 359.7 ... 61-5 ,., 1830^ 

BURNHAM 353-2 ... 58.7 ... 1879.39 

A Nautical Almanac star with a minute comes, on the heart of the 
Serpent. A 2 J, pale yellow ; B 15, fine blue, followed a little S. of the 
parallel, at about 25 s A E. A., by a telescopic star. 



442 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

This star appears in the Catalogues as Unukalhay, from 'unk-al-hayyah) 
the serpent's neck. It is the Cor Serpentis of astrologers ; and doubtless 
the lucidus anguis, one of the stormy warnings of the Georgics. It may 
be found by being looked for at nearly mid-distance between a Coronee 
Borealis and a Scorpii ; or the galley-poet may be called in : 

To strike th' insidious Serpent's heart, a line from Altair wield, 
From thence below Ras Alague, across th' Arabian Field ; 

And when as far again you've reached, as those two stars may be, 
The middle one of three fair gems, Serpentis Cor you'll see. 

The Serpent is one of the ancient 48 constellated groups, and is large, 
as its windings bring it in contact with Ophiuchus, Aquila, Libra, and 
Hercules ; the head and neck, which are directly under the Crown, are 
marked by some interesting stars, and the tail terminates in a splashy 
part of the Galaxy. The Greeks distinguished the Dragon, the Snake, 
and the Water-snake by the distinctive epithets Apdnw, *O$is, and "Yfyjq, 
but the Latins used only Anguis and Serpens for the whole three. The 
Arabians termed it Huweyyah, the snake ; but they had also a great con- 
figuration around this spot. 

Serpens is astronomically, though not mythologically, distinguished from 
its bearer ; and is held to be emblematic of prudence and vigilance. Its 
constituents have been thus enumerated : 



1056. B SEBPENTIS. (2. 1070.) DLIII. 



Ptolemy . . 


. 


1 8 stars. 


Bayer . . 


. . 37 stars. 


Copernicus 


. 


18 


Hevelius . 


. . 22 


lt 


Tycho Brane* . 


. 


13 .. 


Flamsteed 


. . 6 4 


f> 


Kepler . . . 




26 


Bode . . 


. . 187 





/3 SEBPENTIS. (2. 1070 


) 






h. 


m. a. 




8. 




K.A. 


15 


41 6 


Prec. -f 


2'76 








o r 




,, 




Decl. 


N 


15 46'1 


^ g 


11-43 








Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 








o 








STRUVE, 


W. 


265-0 


30-6 


1832.14 




STBUVE, 


W. 


265.5 .. 


30-7 


1851.80 





A delicate double star, on the Serpent's under-jaw; it is 12 S. by 
E. of a Coronse Borealis. A 3^, and B 10, both of a pale blue tint, and 
there is a distant telescopic star, also blue, in the sjp quadrant. 

1057. 343 Dunlop LUPL (h, 3612 ; H. 4141.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 15 43 28 



o 



Decl. 8 56 8*3 



Prec. + 4-71 
8 11-25 



A cluster thus described in Sir J, Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 



RA. 



38- 



48*' 



443 



" Cl ; L ; p Hi ; st 1 2 . . . 1 4 ; " which means : " a cluster ; large ; pretty 
rich ; the component stars vary from the 12 th to the 14 th magnitudes/' 



1058. 



4809 *h. TBIANGULI AUSTBAL1S, 



B.A. 15 43 28 
Decl. S 60 20-4 

Position. 

HERSCBEL,J. | A * 5 '9 
(AC 257.0 

A triple star. A 7 ; B 9 ; C 9. 



Prec. + 4-96 

S i"i'26 

Distance. Epoch. 

... 1836-24 



1059. 



7T 2 UB 


SM MINOBIS. (S. 1989.) 


h. 

B.A. 15 

Decl. N 


m. 

45 

o 

80 


37 
200 


Prec. 


- 3-66 
n 
S irio 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epo 


STEDVE, W. 
SEOCHI 
DEMBOWSKI 


o 

24 

21 


i 
i 

sing 


tt 
0.71 

0-60 
le 


1835 

185* 
1861 



A close double star. A 7| ; B 9, both very white. 



loeo. 



39 SEBPENTIS. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 15 48 5 



Decl. 



13 33-1 



Prec. + 2-80 
S 10-92 



DLIV. 



A 7 th mag. star, at the back of the Serpent's head, and about 7 
distant from its own lucida, on a N.N.E. line. 

39 Serpentis has been suspected of variability, and was even mistaken 
for Harding's variable star, which is 2 nf of it. It is marked as of 
the 6^ magnitude in the British Catalogue ; " but," says Baily, " in 
the original entry, it is designated of the 6J, which I have therefore 
retained/' 



444 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1061. 



1084 S. DBACONIS. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 15 48 16 
Decl. N 53 14-0 

Position. 



Prec. -f- 

S 


i- & 6 

Epoch. 


Distance. 


6-5 ... 
6-5 ... 
6-4 ... 
6-4 ... 


1830-72 
1843.42 
1857.61 
1870-90 



STEUVE, W. 273.8 

M ABLER 274.3 

SEOCHI 276-2 

DUN$R 276-2 

A double star. A 6|, white ; B 9, white. On the confines of Hercules. 



1062. 



h. m. s. 

R.A. 15 49 52 
Decl. S 33 38-0 

Position. 

o 
HEBSCHEL, J, 49.3 

A double star. A 6 ; B 6. 



LUPI. 

Prec, + 3-81 
S 10-79 

Distance. Epoch, 

ii-o ... 1835-65 



1063. 220 P. XV. SEBPENTIS. (2. 1987.) 



DLV. 



R.A, 15 51 44 
Decl. N 3 43-5 

Position, 

o 
HEBSOHEL W. 320-2 

STBUVE,W. 324-0 
SMYTH 324-7 

MAIN 323-3 



Prec. 4- 2-99 

M 
S 10-69 



Distance. 
// 
12.4 

I02 
10-5 

10.8 



Epoch. 

1783-18 
1831-91 

I834-35 
1862.37 



A neat double star, on the Serpent's back ; it is about 5 from a, on a 
S.E. by S. line, which passes c in nearly mid-distance. A 8, white ; B 9, 
grey ; this appeared red to ]$., who remarks that probably a *' dry fog " 
at the time of observation had tinged it. A comparison of the several 
series of measures of this star shows a slight increase of angle, which may 
as likely be owing to personal equation as to motion ; but still the results 
are remarkably coincident. 



K.A. 



48- 



445 



1064. 



77 LUPL 

h. m, . 

B.A. 15 52 50 



Decl. 8 38 5*1 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J. 22.2 



Free. + 3-95 

S 10-56 

Distance. Epoch. 

w 

15*0 ... 1834-64 



A double star. A 4 ; B 8^, blue. The estimates of magnitude vary 
thus: Gould, 3-7; Lacaille, 4; Ellery, 4^; Behrmann, 5. 



1065. 



304 Dunlop TBIANGTJLI AUSTEALIS. 
(h. 3516 ; H. 4153.) 



h. m. a. 

B.A. 15 54 22 
Decl. S 60 11 -3 



Free. + 5'5 
S 10-45 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; B ; V L ; p Ei ; 1C; st 7 ;" which means : " a cluster ; bright ; 
very large ; pretty rich ; little condensed ; some of the stars are of the 
7 tlr magnitude." 



1066. 



l NOBM^ES. (^h. 4825.) 

Free. + 4-82 
S 10-44 



B.A. 15 54 34 



Decl. S 57 27-6 



Position. 
HERSCHEL, J. 

A double star* A 6 ; B 



o 
251.6 



Distance. 
tt 

10.2 



Epoch. 
1836-61 



1067. 



T COBONJE. 



B.A. 15 54 53 
Decl. 3ST 26 14-0 



Free. + 2-51 

/; 

S 10-41 



This is the celebrated star which blazed forth suddenly in May 1866, 
and caused such a sensation in the astronomical world. It was seen by 
Mr. J. Birmingham at Tuam on May 1 2, as a star of mag, 2 ; Schmidt 



446 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

at Athens on May 13 saw it as a 2^ mag.; on the same evening 
Courbebaisse at Rochefort also observed it ; and on subsequent evenings 
several other astronomers independently detected it. It diminished in 
brightness for several days at the rate of about ^ a magnitude a day, but 
towards the end of May the decrease was much less rapid. By June 7 it 
had fallen to mag. 9. During the autumn it brightened a little up to 
about the 7 tb magnitude. Subsequent research revealed the fact that the 
star had been catalogued by Argelander as of mag. 9^-. Courbebaisse is 
of opinion that it could not have been conspicuous to the naked eye on 
May n, and he was confident that such was not the case on May 9. 
Baxendell also was confident that the star wag not sufficiently bright to 
attract attention with the naked eye on May 7. There seems no doubt 
that this star is a long-period variable, but the extraordinary suddenness 
and extraordinary intensity of the outburst of light in May 1866 are 
quite without a parallel. Huggins described the spectrum as very remark- 
able, and involving the necessity of supposing its physical condition to be 
altogether unique. He found the star's light to be compound, and to 
emanate from two different sources, each source of light yielding its own 
special spectrum. The principal spectrum was analogous to that of the 
Sun. The subordinate spectrum seemed to be superposed upon the one 
previously described and to consist of 5 bright lines, and therefore to be 
of gaseous origin. (Month. Not., R. A. S., vol. xxvi. pp. 275 and 297.) 

1068. SCORPII = 51 LIBB-ffl. (S. 1998.) DLVIII. 



h. m. 



B.A. 15 58 19 
Decl. S 11 4-1 



Prec. + 3-29 
S 10-15 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 



lie ::: ; - ** 



STONE, 0. AB 186.9 J '3 

A fine triple star, between the upper lanx Librae and the right leg of 
Ophiuchus, above the upper or left cJiela of Scorpio ; and it is 1 6 from 
Antares, on a line running N.N.W. from that star to a Serpentis. In this 
I am particular, because Flamsteed designated it Librae, thinking he 
thereby followed Bayer ; whereas in fact this star is Scorpii ; which he 
says is " in origine forficis, seu forficulae, Barbari graffias vocant : " it 
consequently ought not to have been jumbled into the Balance. The 



R.A. 



54 m ' 



59 



m - 



447 



components are, A 4^, bright white ; B 5, pale yellow; and C 7l? 
and there is a neat small pair of stars in the np quadrant, whence I$L, 
who did not at first perceive the duplicity of A, called the whole a double- 
double star. 

There is some remarkable anomaly respecting A and B, which it is 
difficult to account for, since the comparative steadiness of the distance 
indicates a circular orbit, constantly showing both components to us, at a 
similar distance. Now H. and S. observing this object on the i8 th June, 
1822, when their measures of A and C "were extremely satisfactory/' 
and guarded before-hand by Ip/s remarks, could not see the large 
star double. [Doberck has assigned to AB a period of 95'9 y .] 

[The pair of 8 mag. stars 1 i" apart, which lie to the sf of this object, 
form 2. 1999.] 



1069. 



SCORPII. 



DLIX. 



R.A. 


15 


59 


2 


Prec. 


-H 3 


4 8 






o 


/ 




f f 




Tir>1 




id 


^IV*> 




a T^ 




JLfUUJ.. 




XC7 


OV/ o 

Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 








O 


n 






HERSCHEL, W. 


A 


C 25.1 


... 14-3 


... 


1779.72 


SMYTH 




A 


C 24.9 


I3-I 




I835-39 


MAIN 




A 


C 26.7 


I3-I 




1868.46 


BUKNHAM 


| AB 88.4 


0-91 


... 


1880-06 






(A 


C 24.4 


... 13-5 


... 


1879.52 



A Nautical Almanac star with a companion, at the root of the upper 
hand-claw. A 2, pale white; B 10; C 5|, lilac tinge; and the two 
point nearly to a g tla magnitude star in the nf quadrant. The com- 
ponents are sometimes marked ft 1 and /3 2 . 

The components have been pretty constant, and the object must there- 
fore be assigned to the optical class. [Burnham discovered the duplicity 
of A in 1879.] 

Though only the second star of the asterism, /3 Scorpii has obtained 
the designation of Acrab, or Scorpion, in the Catalogues. It may be 
readily found by running a line from a Lyrse S. between a Herculis 
and a Ophiuchi, and equally far beyond, where it will hit upon j3 Scorpii, 
which is the northern of the 3 stars just named, and whence it may 
also be recognised ; or resorting to the rhymer's advice, his rule runs thus : 



From Virgo's spike to east-south-east, 
You'll pass between the Scale's bright stars 



direct tV inquiring eye ; 
to where Iklil doth He. 



448 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1070. 359 Dunlop HOBIOS 

h. m. s. 

R.A. 15 69 2 
Bed. 8 53 43 '6 



(h. 3818 ; H. 4155.) 

8. 

Free. + 4-64 



10-10 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. MerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; S ; m C ; st 1 1 . . . 14 ; " which means : " a cluster ; small ; much 
condensed; the component stars vary from the II th to the 14 th mag- 
nitudes." 



1071. 



2007 2. SERPENTIS. 



h. 


m. 


s. 


8. 




R.A. 16 





55 


Prec. + 2-79 






o 


f 


f f 




Decl. N 


13 


37-0 


SA* (\ ft 










Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 






o 


^ 




HERSOHEL, J., and 


SOUTH 328-7 


... 31-9 -. 


1823-42 


STRUVE, W. 




328-3 


... 3i-9 ... 


1830-14 


MADLER 




328-5 


33-o 


I843-45 


JEDRZEJEWICZ 




326-9 


... 33-7 .- 


1877.00 



A double star. A 7, yellowish white : B 8|, white. The distance is 
increasing. 



1072. 



6700 Lac. SCORPII. 



h. 

R.A. 16 



1073. 



Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 





/f 




HERSOHEL, J. 86-3 


15 est. 


... 1837-50 


star. A 7 ; 87. 






K l HEECULIS. (2. 


2010.) 


h. m. B. 




8. 


B.A. 16 3 6 


Prec. 


-f 2-70 


/ 




// 


Decl. K 17 20'6 





S 0'8o 


Position. 


Distance. Epoch. 









HERSCHEL, W. 10.4 


... 39-9 


... I779-72 


STRUVE, W. 9.5 


... 31-4 


1822-69 


STRUVE, 0. 10-3 


30-6 


... 1852-55 


DOBERCK 9*9 


29-8 


... 1877.35 



DLX. 



A neat double star, on the Hero's left elbow ; about 30 distant from 



R. A. 



i6 h - 7 



449 



a Lyrse, in the W.S.W., where it is nearly mid-way between y Herculis 
and (3 Serpentis. A s|, light yellow ; B 7, pale garnet. 

There is strong presumption that the angle of position has remained 
stationary. There may, however, have been a diminution of distance, 
especially if the operations of Flatnsteed, 132 years before mine, are to be 
relied on. 

[0. Struve finds the motion to be certainly rectilinear. Colours, 
according to Webb, " pale yellow ; reddish yellow."] 



1074. 360 Dunlop NOB1O3. (h. 3610 ; H. 4162.) 

h. m. s. 8. 

R.A. 16 4 39 Free, -h 4-67 
Decl. S 53 55*6 S 9-67 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; vB; vL; vRi; 1C; stio;" which means: "a cluster; very 
bright ; very large ; very rich ; little condensed ; the stars are chiefly of 
the io th magnitude." 



1075. 





v SCOBPII. 


08 120.) 






h. m. s. 


8. 




B.A. 


16 5 36 


Prec. + 3-47 






O I 


M 




Peel. 


S 19 10*3 


S 9-60 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


n 




HEBSCHEL, J., 


and SOUTH 338-2 


... 40-8 


1821-37 


SMYTH 


( AC 336.8 
(CD 45.0 


... 40-8 ) 
1-5$ 


1851.38 


STONE, O. 


JAB o-a 


0.74 ... 


1879-03 




(CD 45.2 


2-07 ... 


1879.41 



DLXI. 



A quadruple star, at the root of the upper or northern hand-claw. It 
lies E. by N. from /3 Scorpii, at about 2 distance. A 4, bright white ; 
[Bsi]; C 7, pale lilac; [D 8]. 



1076. 



2017 S. SERPENTIS. 

h. m. 8. 

B.A. 16 7 4 



Decl. N 14 50*4 

Position. 

o 

STBUVE, w. 249.7 
JEDBZEJEWICZ 252*2 



Prec. + 2-76 

S 9-48 

Distance. Epoch. 



25-03 

25*7 



1831.43 

1877.04 



A double star* A 8, yellowish ; B 8^, white, 

Gg 



450 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



Free. + 


2-78 


S 


n 

9* A f\ 


Distance. 


4 

Epoch. 


... 4-15 


1823-28 


... 3-3 


... 1839.29 


... 3-39 


1851.40 


... 3-9 


1876-25 


... 3-8i 


... 1877.50 



1077. 49 SERPENTIS. (2. 2021.) DLXII, 

h. tn, s. 

R.A. 16 8 10 
Decl. N 13 49-8 

Position. 

o 
HEESOHEL, J,, and SOUTH 311-9 

SMYTH 318-1 

MADLEB 322-2 

DOBERCK 327-4 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 3 30-3 

A close double star, which, though pertaining to the Serpent, is 
absurdly placed on the left arm of Hercules. A 7, pale white; B 7^, 
yellowish. This is a fine and tolerably easy object, therefore its measures 
are entitled to confidence. 

A. rough investigation of the whole, gives above 600 years for the 
orbital revolution of the satellite about its primary, or rather, of one 
sun around the other. More observations at longer epochs are, however, 
necessary, before it can actually be pronounced a binary system. Indeed, 
as improved methods and means are progressively applied, various 
suspected movements will be decisively confirmed or rejected, results 
more exact obtained, and the vague allowances for personal equation 
destroyed. Meantime he who wishes to fish the object up, may find it 
at the distance of io to the N.E. of a Serpentis, on the line leading 
from thence to a Lyrse. 

[Dawes and Secchi were both of the opinion that orbital motion was 
certain in the case of this object, but no attempt to ascertain the character 
of the orbit appears to have been made since Smyth's time.] 



1078. N 



2022 2. COBON^B BOBEALIS. 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 16 8 18 
Becl. N 26 57 '4 





Position. 







STBUVE, W. 


129.5 


MADLEB 


I 3 1 ' 2 , : 


SECCHI 


136-5 


STBUVE, 0. 


I38-7 


BUBNHAM 


136.4 



Prec. -f 2-47 

H 
S 9-40 



Distance. 
// 

2.77 

2*69 
2-40 
2.78 
2-89 



Epoch. 

1830.56 
1844.36 
1858-09 
1868.50 
1878.44 



A double star. A 6$-, very white; B 11. An increase in the angle 
seems certainly to be in progress, but the distance appears unchanged. 



RA. 



8 m - 



io 



451 



1079. 326 Dunlop NOBMLffi. 

h. m. 8. 

16 



R.A. 
Decl. 



9 43 
S 57 37'4 



(h. 3622 ; H. 417O.) 

8. 

Free. 4- 4'93 



9-47 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herscbel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl ; B ; L ; 1C; st 7 . . 10 ;" which means : -" a cluster ; bright ; large ; 
little condensed ; the component stars vary from the 7 th to the io th 
magnitudes." 

1080. 80 M. SCOBPII. (h. 3624; H. 4173 ; .) DLXIV. 



R.A. 16 1O 26 
Decl. 8 22 43 '2 



Free. H- 3-56 

// 
S 9-22 



A compressed globular cluster of very minute stars, on the right foot 
of Ophiuchus, which is on Scorpio's back. This fine and bright object 
was registered by Messier in 1780, who described it as resembling the 
nucleus of a comet ; and indeed, from the blazing centre arid attenuated 
disc, it has a very cometary aspect. There are some small stars both 
above and below its following parallel, of which three of those in the 
nf form a coarse triangle; but the field and the vicinity are otherwise 
barren. An early star of Ophiuchus, No. 17, P. XVI., slightly precedes 
this splendid conglomerate, about ^ to the N,, and though only of the 
8* 11 magnitude, is a convenient index of its approach. From b Scorpii it 
lies E., at 4 distance; and is midway between a and ft Scorpii. 

This is a very important object when nebulae are considered in their 
relations to the surrounding spaces, which spaces, Sir W. Herschel found, 
generally contain very few stars : so much 
so, that whenever it happened, after a 
short lapse of time, that no star came 
into the field of his instrument, he was 
accustomed to say to his assistant, "Make 
ready to write, Nebulae are just approach- 
ing." Now our present object is located 
on the western edge of a vast obscure 
opening, or space of 4 in breadth, in 
which no stars are to be seen ; and Sir 
William pronounces 80 Messier, albeit it 
had been registered as nebuleuse sans 
etoiles, to be the richest and most con- 
densed mass of stars which the firmament can offer to the contemplation 
of astronomers. See also 4 M. (No. 1089, post). 

[Webb queries the accuracy of the statement that near this nebula 
there is a large starless opening.] 

Gg 2 




FIG. 32. 80 M. SCOBPII. 



452 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



[Three of the stars in the field engraved above are the well-known 
variables R, S, and T Scorpii, discovered to be such by Chacornac in 
1853 and 1854 respectively, and by Auwers in 1860. R varies from 
mag. 9 to below 13 in 223 days; S from mag. 9 to below 13 in 177 
days ; and T from mag. 7 to below 1 3 in a period which is at present 
uncertain. Auwers's star is the one lettered /in the engraving.] 



C 23 n 


fa* 


8 m 


,* /t 


?* 


$0 


* 








50 




* Cf* 













c 






4O 






c 


4O 






% 


R 




30 




1 * 


* > 
S 


30 


22V 





* 








16* * 


m a 


/6 


*/i 



FIG. 33. VAKIABLE STABS NEAR 80 M. SCORPII. (EPOCH, 1860). 
[A strange history is attached to this nebula, the import of which 
remains to be ascertained. Being in the same field with H and S 
Scorpii it had frequently come under the notice of Pogson, who had 
always seen it as a well-defined nebula* On May 28, 1860, when seeking 
for these 2 variables, neither of which was then visible, his attention 
was arrested by the startling fact that the place of the nebula was 
occupied by a stat* of about mag. 7. So recently as May 9 he saw the 
nebula, and is positive that it appeared as usual, without anything stellar. 
The same instrument and power were employed on both occasions. On 
JTune 10 the* stellar appearance had nearly vanished, but the cluster still 
shone with unusual brilliancy and with a marked central condensation. 
Pogson's observations were fully confirmed by E. Luther and Auwers. 
It is to be presumed that the 7 th mag, star mentioned above was a 
variable one of long period, whose sudden apparition and brilliancy 
while it lasted led to the light of the cluster being quite overpowered. 
No later observations to the like effect have been obtained.] 



E.A. 



ro m - i6 h - 



453 



1081. 



B.A. 16 10 34 



Decl. 



34 



BOREALIS. 

8. 

34 Free. 
f 

8-0 


(2. 2032.) 

s. 

f 2-26 

// 

S 9-21 

Distance. 

1-44 -. 
1-3 
1-65 ... 
2-23 ... 
272 ... 
3-09 ... 


D 

Epoch. 

1822-83 
1830-76 
1840-57 
1850-70 
1860-74 
1870-43 


Position. 

AB 71-5 ... 
AB 107-6 
AB 147.8 
AB 173-0 
AB 186-8 ... 
AB 196-9 



DLXV. 



HEKSCHEL, J M and SOUTH 

SMYTH 

DAWES 

MADLIB 

STRUVE, 0. 

DEMBOWSKI 

J 

A binary and triple star, between the Wreath and the left thigh of 
Hercules, 10 distant from and N.E. of a Coronae, and a little more than 
half-way between that star and TJ Herculis. A 6, creamy white ; B 6^, 
smalt blue ; D 1 1, dusky blue ; and a fourth star, C, of the 13^ magnitude, 
was seen by H. in the 2O ft reflector, in the sp quadrant, at about 20". 
[Hall gives AC Pos. 221-7; Dist. 15-9" '; Epoch 1876-40.] 

This very interesting object is a binary, and has been found to have a 
rapid direct orbital motion, which has been accelerating since the year 
1800. When H. and S. examined it in 1821, this accelerated velocity 
was detected, since the first interval of twenty-one years gave a mean 
of i per annum ; and the following interval of seventeen years showed 
an augmentation to 2-2 ; and from thence, by an almost sudden start, 
it was supposed to have increased to 6-9 per annum. This, however, 
was not verified by Sir J. South's observations of 1825; but the ac- 
celerated velocity from that date may be seen by inspecting the various 
measures, and it should be added, that the rotatory motion continues 
in the direction assigned by H., and supports his hypothesis. 

[Several computers have investigated the orbit of or Coronae, but 
the results are very discordant. Whilst Jacob found a period of only 
195^, Doberck in 1875 fixed it at 843^. The other results are all 
intermediate between these.] 

From the steadiness of the little star C, it may be concluded to have 
only an optical affinity with A and B; and 1$. says, "The great number 
of small stars in, the neighbourhood is not favourable to a supposed 
connection between any of them and a- Coronse." [Gledhill calls Smyth's 
C, D, and Grledhill's C is the little star. The estimates of the colours 
and of the magnitudes of A and B vary very much.] 



1082. 



V COBON/B BOREALIS. 



DLXVI. 



R.A. 16 12 20 



Decl. 



29 27-5 



Prec. *f 2*40 
__ g 9-08 



454: A Cycle of Celestial Objects^ 

Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

f A T> ft A A ftft f\ \ 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH } , "~ 4 'i "* [ ... 1823.36 

( A C 54.8 ... 120-4 ' 

T> G . . 




!AB 22-5 
.? 
A a 29-2 ... 55.3 

A quadruple star, in the space between the Wreath and the back of 
Hercules ; it is about 9^ distant from a Coronae on an E. by N. bearing, 
and in a line between a Serpentis and TJ Herculis. A 6, [a 12], B 10, 
C 9, and B 13. It was .measured as triple by H. and S. ; but B, 
which is the apex of the obtuse-angled triangle formed by the group, 
has a little companion overlooked by those astrometers, although duly 
notified by the eagle-eyed IjL 

1083. 68 Dunlop APODIS. (h. 3623 ; H. 4175.) 



h. 



R.A. 16 13 15 
Decl. S 71 56-4 



Prec. -f 6-72 

// 
S 9-00 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" j p F ; L ; i R ; vgb M ; rrr ; st 1 4 . . . ;'^ which means : " a globular 
cluster ; pretty faint ; large ; irregularly rich ; very gradually brighter 
in the middle ; easily resolveable clearly seen to consist of stars ; the 
stars are from the 14 th magnitude downwards/' 

1084. 48 P. XVI. SCOBPII. DLXVII. 



h. 



K A. 16 14 3 
Decl. S 19 61-0 



Prec. + 3-49 
S 8-95 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, W. 27-1 ... 15.4 ... 1783.22 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 20-5 ... 13-2 ... 1823.45 
SMYTH '21.5 ... 13.9 ... 1831-39 

MAIN 20*1 ... 13.1 ... 1862-45 

A neat double star, above the Scorpion's head, A 8, dull white; 
B 9, flushed ; and there is a wide pair of stars in the np quadrant of 
similar magnitudes with these, This object lies just 4 to the E. of 
ft Scorpii, [or i p ^ Ophiuchi of mag. 4]. 

Sensible diminution of distance was inferred ; but the later observa- 
tions imply a relative fixity. 

The other pair above alluded to are Nos. 44 and 45 P. XVI. ; they 
bear from this object on an angle of 124, about 7' distant, lying in a 
position of 330, and 45" apart. 



E.A. i6h- i 2 m.__ i<5h. jg. 455 



1085. tr SCOBPII. DLXVIII. 



h. m. s. 5. 



B.A, 16 14 30 
Decl. S 25 10'7 



Prec. -f 3-63 
S 8-91 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 271-2 ... 20-6 ... 1822.43 
SMYTH 271-6 ... 20-5 ... 1838-32 

STONE, 0. 273-0 ... 20-4 ... 1879-25 

A delicate double star, in the middle of Scorpio's body, and about 
2 distant W. by N. from Antares. A 4, creamy white ; B 9^, lilac tint. 

cr Scorpii precedes Antares, which is followed at nearly the same dis- 
tance by T, whence the Arabians termed <r and r Al-niydt, the prsecordia, 
or outworks of the heart. They will be readily distinguished by taking 
up Antares. 

1086. 3625 h. 3STOBMJE. (H. 4179.) 



h. 



B.A. 16 15 59 



o 



Bed. S 51 41-2 



Prec. -f- 4-59 
S 8-79 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; eL; eRi;" which means: "a cluster; extremely large; ex- 
tremely rich." In the Cape Obs. the following remarks are put against 
this object: "a part of the Milky Way, so immensely rich as to be 

one vast cluster of clusters/' 



1087* 5708 Brisb. NOB1O3. (*h. 4845.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 16 16 10 
Decl. S 40 58-7 



Prec. 4- 4-10 
S 8-78 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J. 135-0 ... 1-20 ... 1836-47 
A double star. A 7$; B 8|. 

1088. 6815 Lac. SCOBPII. (*h. 4848.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 16 16 51 



o 



Deol. 8 32 56*9 



Prec. -f 3-84 
S 8-72 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEBSOHBL, J. 155*0 ... 6-0 ... 1836.87 

StONE, 0. 153*4 " 5-9 1877.53 
lt A double star* A 7; 67, 



456 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

1089. 4 M. SCORPII. (H. 4183.) DLXIX. 

h. m. R. s. 



K.A. 16 16 58 



o 



Decl. 3 26 14'8 



Free. + 3-65 
S 8-72 



A compressed mass of very small stars, in the middle of the creature's 
body, with outliers and a few small stellar companions in the field. 
From Antares it is only t^ distant to the W. It is elongated vertically, 
and has the aspect of a large, pale, granulated nebula, running up to a 
blaze in the centre. It was discovered by Messier in 1764. In 1783 
Sir W. Herschel resolved this object into stars; and gauging it by a 
modification of the method which he applied to fathom the Galaxy, he 
concluded that his io ft reflector, having a power to show stars exceeding 
that of the eye 28-67 times, gave the profundity of this cluster of the 
344 th order, He describes it as having a ridge of eight or ten pretty 
bright stars, running from the middle to the nf ; a description which I 
found to be very correct. 

Under the head of 80 M, (No. 1080, ante), a slight allusion was made 
to nebulae considered in their relations to the surrounding spaces. Like 
that singular mass, the group before us is also situated on the western 
edge of an area which contains no stars, i. e., none which we can descry ; 
and in such spaces invariably, according to the testimony of Sir W. 
Herschel, are nebulae found, " Let us," says Arago, " connect these 
facts with the observation which has shown that the stars are greatly 
condensed towards the centre of spherical nebulse, and with that which 
has afforded the proof that these stars sensibly obey a certain power of 
condensation (or clustering power), and we shall feel disposed to admit 
with Herschel, that nebulse are sometimes formed by the incessant 
operation of a great number of ages, at the expense of the scattered 
stars (etoiles disftersees) which originally occupied the surrounding regions ; 
and the existence of empty, or ravaged spaces, to use the picturesque 
expression of the great astronomer, will no longer present anything 
which ought to confound our imagination," 

1090. y HEBCUTiIS. DLXX. 





RA. 


h. 
16 


m. 

17 


S, 

4 






Prec. 


+ 


2-64 















f 










w 








Bed. 


N 


19 


24 


7 







8 


S^I 






Position. 


Distance* 


Epoch. 












o 






ft 








HERSCHEL, W. 


250 


*5 


... 


41-8 


1780.68 


HERSCHEL, J., 


and SOUTH 


243*8 ... 


38-S 


^. , 


1821 


^85 


SMYTH 










242 


3 


... 


38-7 


... 


1831 


.48 



An open double star in a dark field, on the hero's left arm. A 3 J, 



E.A. 



i6 m - 



i8 m - 



457 



silvery white ; B 10, lilac; and it points nearly upon a third star at a 
distance in the sp quadrant. 

As the object is difficult under the micrometer, the discrepancies may 
be imputed to errors in the first observation. 

y Herculis may be readily seen in mid-distance of a line produced 
between a Ophiuchi and a Coronse, passing also over a Herculis. 



1091. 



60 P. XVI. SCOBPII. (*h.. 4850.) 

h. m. &, s. 

R.A. 16 17 44 



Decl. S 29 26-7 

Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL, J. 348-3 
STONE, 0. 35 1 .5 



Prec. -f 3-74 

S 8-65 

Distance. Epoch. 



7-5 
6-5 



1835.98 
1877-50 



A double star, A 6J; B 71. 



1092. 



h. m. s, 

B.A. 16 18 43 



23 HEBGTJLIS. 

8. 

Prec. -f 2-29 



DLXXIII. 



Decl. 3ST 32 35 '4 

Position. 

o 

SMYTH 20-1 



S 8-58 

Distance. Epoch. 
f/ 

36-2 ... 1830-72 



A double star in a dark field, on the boundary between Hercules and 
the Northern Crown. A 6, white ; B 9, violet ; a star at a distance in 
the s/>, and another nearly following. 

[i| S of v Coronse Borealis.] 



1093. 



p OPHITJCHI. 



DLXXI. 



R.A. 16 18 59 
Decl. S 23 11 -5 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 2-5 

fAB 1.9 

HEKSCHEL, J. < A C 2.2 

(AD 286-6 

MAIN 358-4 

STONE, 0. 357-4 

A fine neat double star, on the Serpent-bearer's foot which rests upon 



Prec. -h 3-58 




// 

fl ft-rr 


Epoch. 


o o 55 
i. Distance. 


4-0 


1822-46 


... not stated > 
... not stated 


1834*57 


3-7 


1861*45 
1879,36 



458 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects^ 



Scorpio. A 5, pale topaz yellow; B 7-|, blue ; and they directly point 
upon No. 72 P. XVI., about 2^' in the nf. There are two other 
companions in the field, the whole forming a pretty group, to* the N. by 
W. of Antares, at 3 distance. 

On the whole the angle might have undergone a slight change. In the 
Palermo Catalogue this star is erroneously designated 5 g Scorpii ; and 
it has inadvertently had g applied to it instead of p in the British 
Catalogue, which letter was assigned to , but Baily, finding that Bayer 
had mistaken north latitude for south, has respectively restored them. 



1094, 



6 NOR1OEJ. (*h. 4853.) 



h. m. 8. 

B.A. 16 19 7 
Decl. S 47 18-6 

Position. 



HEBSCHEL, J. 
A d juble star. A 5 ; 



Prec. -f 4-36 

S 8-54 

Distance. Epoch. 



23-8 



1836-32 



1095. 412 Dunlop NOB1OB. (h. 3627; H. 4187.) 



B.A. 16 19 34 
Decl. S 48 53-8 



Prec. -f 4-46 
S 8-51 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"Cl; cL; pEi; 1CM; sti3...i5; n which means: "a cluster; 
considerably large; pretty rich; little compressed in the middle; the 
component stars vary from the 13 th to the 15 th magnitudes." 



1096. 536 Dunlop NOBHOE. (h. 3628 ; H. 4189.) 



B.A. 16 20 16 
Decl. 8 38 35*2 



Prec. -f 4-04 
S 8-46 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"B; pL; psb M ; rr;" which means: "bright; pretty large; round; 
pretty suddenly brighter in the middle." 



E. A. 



i8 m 



459 



1097. 



DRACOMTS. (o. 2. 312.) 

. m. s. . 

Free. 4- 0-80 



B.A. 16 22 30 



Bed. 



61 45 '7 



S 8-27 



Position. Distance. 



STRUVE, 0. AB 143.9 4-6 

WILSON and SEABBOKE AB 142-5 ... 4.9 
BUKNHAM AF 18-8 ... 367.0 



DLXXVI. 



Epoch. 

1843-71 

1873-43 
1879-36 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a companion, in the middle of the 
Dragon's body. A 3, deep yellow; B 9; F n, pale grey. 0. Struve 
detected the minute comes to A, which is here designated B. [Burnham 
has found 3 very faint stars nearer than F, which he has designated C, D, 
E.] The Arabians designated rj and Al-dhibain, the two jackals, and 
the adjacent dim or dark pair, o> and /, Adhfdr al-dhib, the jackal's claws. 
They will be at once recognised from being between the head of the 
Dragon and the two bright stars of the Little Bear's fore-body, called 
the Guards. Though this object is in a barren field, the neighbourhood to 
the sp offers some brilliant groups of small stars ; and directly N. of it 
is the fine double star of 2J/s First Class "vicinse," No. 2054 [= 99 B 
Dracouis]. It is a capital telescope test. 



1098. 



a SCOBPII. 



DLXXIV, 



B.A. 16 22 39 

Deel. S 26 11-2 

Position. 



Free. + 3-67 
S 8-50 



MITCHELL 
SCHIAPAKELLI 
STONE, O. 



273-0 

273-9 
271-1 



Distance. 



3.22 

3-02 



Epoch. 

1848.59 
1875.81 
1879-55 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a companion discovered independently 
by J. W. Grant in 1844 and by 0. M. Mitchell in 1846* A i, fiery red ; 
B 7, green or blue ; A is followed by 2 telescopic stars. 

["It is a grand telescopic object. Its tint, however, is not uniform: 
to me the disc appears yellow, with flashes of deep crimson alternating 
with a less proportion of fine green." Webb.] 

This star is the noted Antares, said to have been so called from 
*A.vrapr}s 9 i.e. rivalling Mars in colour, a phrase first given in Ptolemy, 
and probably invented by very early astrologers : such is the generally 
received opinion, but Grotius shows, from an obscure note of Suidas, 
that Antares signifies a bat. " Utrum horum mavis accipe." It was 
named KapS/a SKO/STF/OV by the Greeks, Cor Scorpionis by the Latins, 
and Kalb-ftl-akrab, also the Scorpion's heart, by the Arabians; which 



460 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

last is written Calbalacrab by the framers of the Alphonsine Tables. 
With a Virginis and a Bobtis it forms a conspicuous triangle ; and it 
may be picked up by running a long line from the Pole-star, by a Her- 
culis down to where Antares will be seen, with four stars forming an arc 
over him, in the shape of a paper kite. Should clouds in the polar 
regions obstruct this, shoot a ray from a Leonis through a Virginis, and 
at 45 further to the eastward it will pass below Antares ; also, a line 
from a Lyrse, carried by a Ophiuchi, and extended as far beyond, will 
reach it : 

Through Has Alague, Wega's beams direct th' inquiring e}-e, 

Where Scorpio's heart, Antares, decks the southern summer sky. 



?, Scorpio, or Scorpius, the reputed slayer of the giant Orion, 
is one of the ancient 48 asterisms, being the 8 th sign in order in the 
zodiac, and the 2 n(i of the southern signs ; and it is seen, says Sherburne, 
to crawl towards our meridian at midnight, about the end of May. 
Cicero and Manilius apply the Latin word Nepa to this asterism ; and 
little as its size and figure correspond with the Megatherium so ably 
described by my friend Dr. Buckland, it was called Mk'ya Qrjplov by 
Aratus. Hood, in his use of the Celestial Globe in piano, says, 
" Novidius, writing of this constellation, is verie childish in his con- 
ceite, and for ought that I can see, doth falsifie the word of God ; for 
he sayth, that this was the Scorpion or Serpent, whereby Pharaoh, king 
of J3gypt, was enforced to let the children of Israel depart out of his 
countrey, whereas there is no such thing in the Scripture.'* 

Scorpio is not large, but so brilliant as to have attracted much notice 
from the corps of astrologers, with whom it was " the accursed constel- 
lation," and the baleful source of war and discord ; for, besides its being 
accompanied by tempests when setting, it was of the watery triplicity, 
and the stinging symbol of autumnal diseases, as it windn along with its 
receding tail. But though stigmatised a sigmtm falntatis by seers of 
every degree, the redoubtable Gadbury, at whose birth it ascended, 
broke many a lance in its defence, and stoutly contended for its bene- 
ficial influences; and the alchymists were well assured, that the trans- 
mutation of iron into gold could only be performed when the sun was 
in that sign, 

From some confusion of the Greeks, this constellation formerly occu- 
pied two signs of their zodiac; and the pulling back of the chelae to 
make room for the scales, by the Romans, is mentioned under a Librae. 
Astronomers have successively numbered their components, thus : 

Ptolemy ... 24 stars. Hevelius .... 20 stars. 

Tycho Brahe . . 10 Halley ..... 29 

Kepler .... 27 M Flamsteed ... 44 

Bayer , . . . 29 Bode ..... 200 



K.A. i6 h - 



i6 h - 25* 



461 



1099. 



88 P. XVI. OPHIUCHI. (S. 2048.) 

fl. 

Free. + 3-23 



DLXXV. 



b. m. 9. 

B.A. 16 22 51 



Bed. S 7 52-8 

Position. 



S 8-25 



Distance. 



Epoch. 
1831-48 



STRUVE, W. 302.7 ... 4-68 

STONE, O. 300-6 ... 5-0 ,,, 1879.37 

A very delicate double star, close upon the Serpent-bearer's righfc 
thigh; it is 25 distant from a Herculis, on a line S.S.W. towards 
ft Scorpii, where it is also pointed out by a line through 6 and , the 
two stars of the 3 rd magnitude in the hand of Ophiuchus. A [7], yellow; 
B [9], dusky ; other stars in the field, particularly one of a deep orange 
tinge in the np. Nor ought I to omit mentioning that 6 Hevelii, or v, 
precedes it to the S. by about a minute of time, since it is of the 
5*b magnitude, and forms a sort of pointer to the delicate pair, on an 
angle of 133. 



1100. 



2049 S. CORONA! BOREALIS. 



B.A. 16 23 23 


Free. 


3. 

+ 2-47 


/ 




n 


DecL N 26 13 '7 




S 8-21 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 





n 




STRUVE, W. 215-6 


1.0 4 


1833-08 


STRUVE, O. 217.6 


I -06 


1847.47 


SECCHI 213-2 


LIO 


1856.50 


DOBERCK 208-5 


-95 


1877.47 


A double star. A 7, white ; B 8, 


white. 




1101. A OPHIUCHI. (2. 2055.) 


h. m. 8. 




8. 


R.A. 16 25 22 


Prec. 


+ 3* 02 


/ 




/; 


DecL N 2 13-0 




S 8-05 




Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


o 


tr 




STRUVE, W. 331.8 


0-84 


1825.51 


SMYTH 351-2 


I-O 


... 1834-48 


DAWES 358-3 


.07 


1840.54 


MADLER 12*9 


5 


1850-58 


STRUVE, 0. 18-6 


35 


1861-63 


DEMBOWSKI 28-6 


.51 


1870,45 


DOBERCK 33.5 


59 


.., 1878.47 


BURNHAM 37.7 


45 


1880.46 



DLXXVII. 



A fine binary star, in the bend of the Serpent-bearer's right arm; 



462 



A Cycl'e of Celestial Objects, 



A 4, yellowish white ; B 6, smalt blue. This physical object is truly, as 
its discoverer said, very beautiful and close, for the measures are attended 
with great difficulty except when, as H. expresses it, " the star will be 
quiet." 

This star has a great progressive angular motion. From the shown 
course and velocity, it is evidently making an elliptical and rapid orbit, 
of which the annus magnus may be between 80 and 90^. [Madler found 
the period to be 88y, and Hind made it $5? ; but Doberck has arrived 
at a much higher value, namely 233?, and there can be no doubt that 
this is much nearer the mark.] 

The Arabians designated A Ophiuchi Marfik^ meaning the elbow; 
and it may be found S.W. of its own a, distant about 18, rather more 
than half-way towards //. Serpentis. 



1102. 400 Dunlop NOB1OE. (h. 3635 ; H. 4209.) 

Prec. 



h. m. a. 

B.A. 16 26 6 



Deel. 8 49 31*8 



+ 4-50 
S 7-99 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; L ; 1C; i F ;" which means : " a cluster ; large ; little com- 
pressed ; of irregular figure." 



1103. 



40 $. VI. OPHIUCHI. 
(h. 3637 ; H. 4211 ; &,) 



DLXXIX. 



B.A. 16 26 22 
Deol. 8 12 47*8 



Prec. 4- 3-34 
S 7-97 



A large but pale granulated cluster of small stars, on the Serpent- 
bearer's right leg. There are five telescopic stars around it, so placed 
as to form a crucifix when the cluster is high in the field; but the 
region immediately beyond is a comparative desert. After long gazing, 
this object becomes more compressed in the centre, and perplexes the 
mind by so wonderful an aggregation. It was registered as 5' or 6' in 
diameter by 1$. It is distant 3 from Ophiuchi to the S.S.W., in the 
line between j3 Scorpii and ft Ophiuchi % 



JR. A. 



- 25 



- 



i6 h \32 



m * 



463 



1104. 



3638 h. AIUG. (H. 4216.) 



h. m. 8. 

B. A. 16 27 45 
Bed. 8 45 23 3 



Free, -f 4-31 
S 7-86 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"01; B; S; stpL;" which means: " a cluster; bright; small; the 
stars are pretty large." 



1105. 



5770 Brisb. NOBMJ9E. (*h. 4866.) 



B.A, 16 30 34 



Becl. 8 56 46*4 

Position. 

o 

HERSCHEL, J. 125-8 
A double star. A 7^; B 8 j. 



Free. + 4-92 
S 7-63 

Distance. Epoch. 

// 
3.9 ... 1836-42 



1106. 3640 h. 

h. in. a. 

R. A. 16 31 28 
Decl. 8 48 47 '6 



(H. 4223.) 

8. 

Free. + 4-48 
S 7-55 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. HerschePs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"!; F; vL; viE; B*inv;" which means: <c a remarkable object; 
faint ; very large ; very irregularly extended ; there is a bright star in- 
volved in the nebula." 



1107. 483 Dunlop ARM. (h. 3641; H. 4224.) 



B.A. 



h. m. 8. 

16 32 36 



Becl. 8 43 9*1 



1. 

4'23 



Free, -f- 
S 7-47 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"01; cL; pBi; iR; st xi...t4;" which means: "a cluster; con- 
siderably large ; pretty rich ; irregularly round ; the component stars 
vary from the u th to the 14^ magnitudes." Engraved, Cape Obs*, PL v. 
Fig. 4. 



464 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1108, 



6912 Lac. AB-flB. (*h. 4876.) 



h. m. s. 

K.A. 16 33 6 

Bed. 3 48 3 2 9 

Position. 
AB 265-1 



Free, -f 4-45 



S 



HERSOHEL, J. 



A C 164.9 
AD 14.3 



Distance. 
// 
9.8 

12 est. 
15 est. 



Epoch. 
1837-08 



A difficult quadruple star. A 6| ; B 7 ; C 13 ; D 14. 



1109. 413 Dunlop AIL. 

h. m. s. 

16 



B.A. 

Decl. 



33 6 
8 48 32*8 



(h. 3642 ; H. 4225.) 

6. 

Prec. -f 4-47 
S 7-42 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; v L ; 1 R i ; 1 C ; rrr ; F neb inv ; " which means : " a cluster ; 
very large ; not very rich ; little compressed ; well resolved clearly 
seen to consist of stars ; there is a faint nebula involved in the cluster.*' 



1110. 



17 DBACOmS. (I. 2078.) 




h. m. 


8. 




8. 


B.A. 


16 33 


37 


Free, -f 


I-4I 




o 


/ 




// 


Decl. 


N 53 


8-8 


fi 


7-38 




Position. 


Distance. 


I 






O 







STRUVE, W. 


AB 


1 16-5 


3-74 


I 


SMYTH 


JAB 

(AC 


II5-7 
J94.6 


... 9'5 1 


I 


MAIN 


AC 


14.2 


90-0 


I 


DUN^B 


AB 


II5.0 


3-5 


I 


JEDBZBJEWICZ 


(AB 
(AC 


II4.2 
I 4 .2 


3-7 
... 90.7 


I 
I 



DLXXXI. 



Epoch. 
1831-91 

1832.87 

1865.76 
1871-04 
1876-81 
*877'53 

A triple star, preceding the Dragon's jaws, where a line from y Dra- 
conis carried over /3, and prolonged twice their distance, reaches it. 
A 6, pale yellow ; B 6-|, faint lilac ; C 6, white ; four other small stars 
in view. This object is 4 1$. I., where A is designated 16 Draconis, 
which is the Flam steed number of C ; but there was no small confusion 
respecting them in the British Catalogue^ as may be seen in the Notes 
2301 and 2302 of Baily's edition. 

The close star has been repeatedly measured, and the great coincidence 
of all the results sufficiently stamps its fixity. 



E. A, i6k 33 m - i6 h " 35 m ' 465 

1111. 136 P. XVI. HEKCUI-IS. (2. 2O71.) DLXXX, 



h. 



B.A. 16 33 44 
Decl. H 13 64-7 



Free, 4- 2-76 
S 7- 46 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o tt 

STRUVE,W. 311-6 ... 25-1 ... 1830-14 
STONE, O. 310.5 ... 25-3 ... 1879-35 

A delicate double star in a barren field, in the space between the left 
arm and the head of Hercules ; and 9 distant from the latter, on the 
western parallel. A [8|], pale yellow ; B [9], bluish. 

[Smyth's K.A. corrected by Sir J. Herschel.] 



1112. 30 and 37 HEBCUIiIS. (2. 31 App. I.) DLXXXII. 

h, m. s. 8. 



B.A. 16 35 7 



o 



Decl. 1ST 4 26*1 



Free, 4- 



S 7-25 





Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 






HERSCHEL, W. 


233.0 


67.7 


1782.38 


SMYTH 


229.9 


69.2 


1835.48 


BELLAMY 


229.8 


705 


1875-48 


JEDEZEJEWICZ 


229.7 


... 69-8 ... 


1877-03 



A pair of stars in a barren field, which, though pertaining to Hercules, 
are placed upon the right arm of Serpentarius, due W. of his /3, and 
16 distant from it. A 6^, pale blue; B 7^, blue; and just preceding 
B there is a minute comes, incapable of bearing the smallest illumi- 
nation. 



1113. 42 HEBCULIS. (2. 2082.) DLXXXIII, 

h. m. *. 0. 



B.A. 16 35 46 
Bed. K 49 8*6 



Free, -h 1*63 

// 
S 7-20 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HBBSCHEL, W. 93.7 ... 21-5 ... 1782.61 
STRuvEjW. 92.3 ... .23.3 ... 1828.43 

A very delicate triple star between the left knee of Hercules arid- 
Draco's head, of which only two are here measured. A 6, orange; 

Hh 



466 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



B 12, blue; the third star, which is still more minute, makes a neat 
triangle of the object, in a rich field ; and it may be found to the W.8.W. 
of /B Draconis, at 6 distance: the small components are caught by 
averting the eye to other parts of the field of view. These are preceded 
by a 7 th magnitude star on an angle of 211 and 4' 20" distant. A 
comparison of the measures indicates fixity. 



1114. 



" HEBCULIS. (2. 2084.) DLXXXIV. 



B.A. 16 37 8 

Decl. 3H" 31 48 

Position, 
o 

STRUVE, 0. 157-1 
STRUVE, 0. 93.8 
STRUVE, 0. 32-5 
DEMBOWSKI 190-8 
DOBEROK 1 24.9 

BURNHAM 114-3 


2 



Prec. + 


2-26 


__ g 


7-26 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


1-24 


1840-66 


1-52 


1850.53 


1.38 ... 


1860.74 


109 


1870-49 


1.28 


1878-61 


1.38 ... 


1880-47 



A close binary star, over the left hip of Hercules, where with e, its 
companion in magnitude, it is rather conspicuous between Wega and 
Gemma. A 3, yellowish white ; B 6, orange tint ; a third star of the 
9 & magnitude in the nf quadrant, with A R.A. 2 3- 6 s . 

The duplicity of f Herculis was first detected under the eagle gaze 
of Sir W. Herschel, in July, 1782. In October, 1795, he again beheld 
the comes, but it afterwards disappeared, or, under the most delicate 
treatment, was only wedged ; and the able astronomer remarked, " My 
observations of this star furnish us with a phenomenon which is new 
in astronomy; it is the occultation of one star by another. This 
epoch, whatever be the cause of it, will be equally remarkable, whether 
owing to solar parallax, proper motion, or motion in an orbit whose 
plane is nearly coincident with the visual ray." (PhiL Trans., 1803, 

p. 378.) ^ 

In this state it remained unobserved for some years ; and during 
1821 baffled all the endeavours of H. and S. to divide, or even elongate. 
At length 2. caught it double in 1826, though it again became single 
in two years, and remained so to the Dorpat instrument till 1832, when 
that persevering observer again measured it. It has since become 
comparatively of easy vision. 

On the erection of the large telescope at Bedford, this was one of the 
first objects of my attention ; but from Struve's description " Mag- 
nitudinis constanter notari (3) et (7), colorem majoris album subflavum, 



B. A, i6 h - 35 m - i6 h - 37*- 467 

minoris subrubmm. Difficultas in stella hac duplici videnda ex splendore 
oritur majoris," I did not expect to notch it. Following IJjL's method, 
I first got ray eye and instrument into order by scrutinizing rj Coronse ; 
and then turning upon f Herculis, felt confident that I saw, and that 
readily, a red spot on its disc, which, from the above-quoted words, 
I took for the comes. It may, however, have been a spurious image or 
colour; for on the following apparition of Hercules, in 1831, wishing 
to show the same phenomenon to Captain Kater and Mr. Maclear, I 
could no longer receive the same impression. All attempts to notch it 
failed till the summer of 1838, when, though still deserving of 2/s epithet 
" vicinissimae," the distance had palpably increased, and the stars were 
occasionally fairly divorced. As the question was of deep interest, 
unusual pains were taken with the measures, although, from the difficulty 
of observation, they could not be stamped with high weights. Indeed, 
all the evils of a double-wire micrometer had to be encountered. 

This wonderful object ought to be narrowly looked after by all the 
new giant telescopes, since it offers, according to Struve's conclusions, 
the astounding velocity of an apparent and very elliptical orbit re- 
volving in little more than 14 years ! What a motion ! Bacon little 
knew the force of his own expression, when he exclaimed, " Heavenly 
bodies have much veneration, but no rest." My own views, however, 
do not quite square with this velocity, although they acknowledge 
one about as astonishing : a scrutiny of the observations leads me to 
suppose an orbit with an excentricity of 0-4186, and a period of about 
35 years. 

[Various computers have investigated the orbit of this star ; the 
following are some of the results: Madler, 31-4^; Duner, 34*2?; 
Villarceau, 36-3^.] 



1115. 13 M. HEBCULIS. DLXXXV. 

(h. 1968 ; H. 4230 ; &.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 16 37 45 
Decl. N 36 39 '9 



Prec. -f- 2-14 
8 7-04 



A large cluster, or rather ball of stars, on the left buttock of Her- 
cules, between f and tj ; from f\ Herculis it lies S., a little westerly, and 
3^- distant. This superb object blazes up in the centre, and has 
numerous outliers around its attenuated disc. [Secchi found a field 
8' in diameter filled with stars.] This object was accidentally hit 
upon by Halley, who says, " This is but a little patch, but it shows itself 
to the naked eye, when the sky is serene, and the moon absent." The 

H h 2 




468 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

same paper, in describing this as the sixth and last of the nebulae known 
in 1716, wisely admits that "there are undoubtedly more of these which 

have not yet come to our 
knowledge:" ere half a cen- 
tury had passed, Messier con- 
tributed his 80 or 90 in the 
Catalogue of 103; and before 
the close of that century 1$. 
alone had added to the above 
6, no fewer than 2500 ; and 

his son, in re-examining these, 
FIG. 3|, 13 M. HEECULIS. ,, , , T 

added 520 more ! In my re- 
ft actor its appearance was something like the annexed diagram; but I 
agree with Dr. Nichol, that no plate can give a fitting representation of 
this magnificent cluster. It is indeed truly glorious, and enlarges on the 
eye by studious gazing. " Perhaps/' adds the Doctor, " no one ever saw 
it for the first time through a telescope without uttering a shout of 
wonder." 

This brilliant cluster was discovered by Halley in 1714; and 50 
years afterwards it was examined by Messier, with his 4 ft Newtonian, 
under a power of 60, and described as round, beautiful, and brilliant ; 
but, " ferret " as he was in these matters, he adds, " Je me suis assure" 
qu'elle ne contient aucune 6toile." This is rather startling, since the 
slightest optical aid enables the eye to resolve it into an extensive and 
magnificent mass of stars, with the most compressed part densely com- 
pacted and wedged together under unknown laws of aggregation. In 
1787, Sir W. Herschel pronounced it "a most beautiful cluster of stars, 
exceedingly compressed in the middle, and very rich.'* In the Earl of 
Kosse's telescope the components were more distinctly separated, and 
brighter, than had been anticipated; and there were singular fringed 
appendages to the globular figure, branching out into the surrounding 
space, so as to form distinct marks among the general outliers. 

[Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, PI. viii Fig. 86; Phil. Trans., 1861, 
PI. xxviii. Fig. 33.] 



1116. 442 Dunlop AILSE. (h. 3644; H. 4229.) 



h. 



B.A. 16 38 18 



o 



Bed. 8 46 49*1 



Prec. -f 4-40 

S f oo 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; p Ri ; ei C M ; st 1 1 . . . 1 2 ;" which means : " a cluster ; pretty 
rich ; extremely irregularly condensed in the middle ; the component 



B. A. i6 h - 37- i6 h - <39 m - 469 

stars are of the ii*h and 12*- magnitudes." Engraved, Cape Obs., 
PL v, Fig. 6. 



1117* rj HERCULIS. (2. 2093, rej.) DLXXXVI. 



K.A. 16 39 7 
Bed. N 39 80 



Prec. -f 2-05 
S 6-93 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

i o n 

BUKNHAM 261-6 ... 113-4 l8 79' 2 9 

A bright star with a distant companion, on the left thigh of Hercules, 
and nearly in a line with the last two objects. A 3, pale yellow ; Bio, 
dusky. 

A was described in 182 7 'as a first-class " vicinissimse," like f Herculis 
and v Coronse ; and its components were registered of the 4^ and 8 t}l 
magnitudes. Many were the efforts I made at distinguishing a proximate 
comes, but without effect; and when S.'s measures arrived in 1837, 
finding it was styled " simplex," I relinquished the attack. 

This star is sufficiently conspicuous to the N.E. of a Coronse Borealu, 
at about 1 6 distance ; and it is also 1 9 from a Lyrse, on its western 
parallel ; it forms an equilateral triangle with its own f and TT. 



1118. 2. 6 N. HBBCULIS. DLXXXV1I. 

(h. 1970 ; H. 4234 ; &.) 

h. m. s. s. 



K.A. 16 39 51 
Decl. N 24 6'0 



Prec. 4- 2-51 
S 6-87 



A small planetary nebula, between the hero's shoulders, which H. 
aptly compares to a star out of focus. There are four stars in the field, 
of which that in the sf quadrant is of the 6 th magnitude and brightly 
reddish, affording a fair test of comparison with the pale blue nebula. 
As this curious object presents a visible disc of 8" in diameter, at a 
distance probably equal to that of the star near it, the vastness of its 
dimensions is within the range of reasonable conjecture, however it may 
stagger the comprehension. 

This nebula is situated at about one-third the distance on an E.S.E. 
line from a Coronee Borealis to a Aquilse, and is to the N.E. of y and /3, 
in the left arm of Hercules, at a distance similar to that between those 
two stars. [Bather more than i sp 51 Herculis, a 5 th mag. star.] 



470 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

[" Very bright ; small ; not sharply defined ; exactly like a star out of 
focus, bearing power well," Webb. " Colour, very deep blue, 1865." 
Brodie. Gaseous spectrum.] 

[Engraved, Lamont, Nebelftecken, 1837, PI. i. Fig. i.] 



1119. 364 Dunlop AR^J. (h. 3646 ; H. 4232.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 16 40 41 
Bed. S 53 36 '9 



Free, + 4'77 
S 6-80 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; L ; Bi ; 1 C M ; st 9 . . . 1 2 ;" which means : " a cluster ; large ; 
rich ; little compressed in the middle ; the component stars vary from 
the 9 th to the 1 2 th magnitudes." 



1120. 46 HEBCULIS. (2. 2095.) DLXXXIX. 

h. m. s. 



B.A. 16 40 42 
Decl. 3ST 28 33 '6 



Free. + 2-38 



S 6-81 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

STRUVE, W. 163-9 4'9^ J 830.5 7 

SMYTH 163-8 ... 5.1 .,, 1834.50 

WILSON and SEA BBOKE 163.8 ... 5.1 ... 1873-47 

A neat double star, on the hero's back, and 7 distant N. by E. from 
ft. A 7^, pale white; B 10, sky blue. [The fixity of both stars seems 
established in spite of a supposition once entertained to the contrary.] 



1121. 12 M. OPHIUCHI. (h. 1971 ; H. 4238.) BXC. 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 16 41 31 
Decl. 8 1 45*0 



Prec. -f 3- 1 1 
S 6-73 



A fine rich globular cluster, between the right hip and the elbow of 
Ophiuchus, with a cortdge of bright stars, and many minute straggling 
outliers, This resolveable mass is greatly condensed towards the centre, 
with several very bright spots: it was discovered by Messier in 1764, 
but, probably from the imperfection of his means, was registered as 
" a round nebula, unaccompanied by any star/' It is 8 distant from 
c Ophiuchi, on a N.W. by W. line, leading nearly upon ft. 



E. A. i6 h - 39 m - 1 6^ 42. 471 

Sir W. Herschel resolved this object in 1783; and in the following 
year his 2O ffc reflector made it " a brilliant cluster, 7' or 8' in diameter ; 
the most compressed parts about 2'. 

[Seen slightly spiral by Laurence Earl of Rosse.] 



1122. 10 OPHIUCHI. (2. 2006.) DXCI. 

h. m. 8. s. 



B.A. 16 41 37 
Decl. N 2 15-9 



Prec. + 3-02 
S 6-73 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HEESCHEL, W. 93.1 ... 20-4 ... 1783.19 



STBUVE, W. 92-6 ... 22*2 ... 1832.14 
SMYTH 92.9 ,., 21-8 .,, 1834.36 

SMYTH 92-2 ... 21.6 ... 1857.54 

A delicate double star, under the Serpent-bearer's right axilla, 15 
distant from a Ophiuchi, on a S.W. line towards the following of the 
two bright stars in the hand; 19 being nearly in mid -distance. A 6|, 
pale white ; B 10, livid. This is a difficult object, and, moreover, there 
appears to be no little confusion in some Catalogues as to the identity 
of the several members of the little group on this spot, of which 19 is 
the largest. 

[Webb in 1850, and again in 1857, thought the magnitude of B 
underrated.] 



1123. 



2101 2. HEBCULIS. 




h. 


ra. s. 






8. 




B A. 


16 


41 49 


Prec, 


+ 


2- 


16 






/ 






// 




Decl. 


N 


35 50*2 





S 


6- 


7i 






Position. 


Distance. 






Epoch. 






o 


ft 








STBUVE, W. 


60.1 


4-3 


... 




1829-6 


STONE, 0. 




57-5 


4.2 


... 




1879.41 



A double star. A 5|> yellowish white ; B 



1124. 458 (P) Dunlop ABJ9B. (h. 3650 ; H. 4240,) 

h. m. s, s. 



R.A. 16 42 50 



o 



Decl. 8 44 31*9 



Prec. + 4*31 

S ^62 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 



' '. "^KR^^f. "''", 

472 ^ A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

"01; vL; vRi; IbM; at 12... 13;" which means: "a cluster; very 
large ; very rich ; less bright in the middle ; the component stars are of 
the 12 th and 13 th magnitudes/' 



1125. 3649 h. AK^E. (H. 4230.) 



h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 16 43 15 



o 



Bed. 8 59 1*4 



Free. + 5-17 
8 6-59 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" ; p B ; c L ; R ; gib M ; rr ;" which means : " a globular cluster ; 
pretty bright; considerably large; round; gradually less bright in the 
middle ; partially resolved some stars visible." 



1126. 6999 Lac. 80OBFII. (*h. 4889.) 

h. m. a. 



B.A. 16 43 34 

Bed. 8 37 19 '2 



Free, -f- 4-02 
S 6-57 



Position. Distance, Epoch. 

o M 

HEESCHEL, J. 5-0 ... 7-2 ... 1835-37 

A double star. A 6 ; 69. Precedes /x 1 Scorpii, a star of mag. 3, 
by 49 s , and is 32' to the N. of it. 



1127. 50 $. IV. HBRCULIS. (H. 4244; .) DXCII. 

h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 16 43 56 



o 



Decl. N 47 48-0 



Free. 4- 1-68 
S 6-64 



A fine planetary nebula, between the left heel and the right knee of 
Hercules; from r Herculis it bears E. by N., 4 distant, and from 
y Draconis W.S.W., about 10. This object is large, round, and of a 
lucid pale-blue hue; but its definition and distinctness are encroached 
upon by the brilliance of the 6 th magnitude stars near it ; one of which 
precedes the nebula by 22 s , nearly on the parallel. It was offered as a 
"prize comet" to Maria Louisa of Lucca, in 1819 ; and the denouement 
made by Baron De Zach led to the appointment of M. Pons as her 
Majesty's astroscoper in the new observatory at La Marlia, where he 
was to receive 100 dollars for every comet that might be discovered. 
But the establishment, though commenced under considerable pomp and 
circumstances, only lingered about four years, and was then formally 



B. A. 



473 



abolished. This is one of the mortifying instances wherein the poverty 
of a Queen's treasury prevented her manifesting that reverence for science 
which she really felt. 

[Decl. from H. as corrected by Dreyer: Smyth's is 2-2' less.] 



1128. 



3651 h. AIUE. (H. 4243.) 



K.A. 16 43 57 
Decl. 8 41 20 



Free. H- 4*17 
8 6-54 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; eL; eEi (in M way);" which means: "a cluster; extremely 
large ; extremely rich ; in the Milky Way.' 1 In the Gape Obs. mentioned 
thus : " a 5 tl1 mag. star in a great cluster, or an immensely rich Milky 
Way patch." 



1129. 



2104 2. HBBCULIS. 



R.A. 16 44 45 
Decl. N 36 6-5 

Position. 



STKUVE, W. 
DUNER 



19-6 
18-4 



Prec. -f 2-15 

S 6-47 

Distance. Epoch. 

5-8 ... 1829.3 

5-9 ... 1869.45 



A double star. A 6^, white ; B 8^, ash-coloured. 



1130. 



2106 2. OPHIUCHI. 



B.A. 16 45 52 
Decl. N 9 35 9 



STRUVE, W. 

MADLEB 

DEMBOWSKI 

GLEDHILL 

BUKNHAM 



Position. 

339-0 
335-9 



Prec. -f 2-85 
S 6-37 



Distance. 

n 

L08 

0-80 

o-5 
o-5 
0-64 



Epoch. 

1825.52 
1842-42 
1863.53 

1874-40 
1878-38 



A double star. A 7, white ; B 9, white. The angle and distance 
are both diminishing, but the observations are not as harmonious as 
could be wished, Burnham's angle may be erroneous. 



474 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

1131. 499 Dunlop SCOKPII. (h. 3652; H. 4245.) 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 16 46 19 
Beel. 8 41 37*0 



Prec. -h 4' 1 9 
S 6-34 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; B; cL; pEi; stio...i3;" which means: "a cluster; bright; 
considerably large; pretty rich ; the component stars vary from the io th 
to the 13 th magnitudes." 



1132. 



Epoch, 

1829.91 
1841.54 
1851-20 
1861-53 
1871.59 
1875-61 

A binary star. A 7, yellowish ; B 8|, bluish. The angle is obviously 
increasing, but the measures of distance are very contradictory. Dem- 
bowski says that observations are rendered difficult by the sombre colour 
of B. Duner remarks that to see this object well requires " conditions 
tres favorables et un fort grossissement." 

1133. 520 Dunlop SCOBPII. (h. 3654; H. 4249.) 



167 B 


, HEBCULIS, (2. 2107.) 


h. 


m. 


. 




8. 


K.A. 16 


47 


29 


Prec. 


+ 2-37 







/ 




n 


Becl. l^- 


28 


50-7 





S 6-24 


Position. 


Distance. 


I 




o 




// 




STRUVE, W. 


148-6 


I-I2 


1* 


STROVE, O. 


164 


3 


1-08 


I* 


MADLER 


1/4 


7 


0-88 


1* 


STRUVE, 0. 


175 


3 


1-02 


I* 


DEMBOWSKI 


202 


o 


0-80 


is 


DUNR 


212 


3 


0-99 


i* 



h. 



B.A. 16 48 6 
Becl. 8 39 19 3 



Prec. -f 4-11 
S 6-19 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; B ; L ; Bi ; st 8 . , . 1 1 ;" which means : " a cluster ; bright ; 
large ; rich ; the component stars vary from the 8 th to the i I th 
magnitudes/' 

1134. 3656 h. AILE. (H. 4252.) 



h. m. B. 



K.A. 16 49 52 



o 



BecL 8 45 45*3 



Prec. -f 4-38 
S 6-04 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 



K A. i6 h - 46 m i6 h * 51- 475 

" Cl ; L ; 1 Ei ; 1C; st 8 . . . 1 2 ;" which means : " a cluster ; large ; 
not very rich ; not very compressed ; the component stars vary from the 
8 th to the 1 2 th magnitudes.*' 



1135. 236 P. XVI. SCOBPII. DXCIII. 



R.A. 
Decl. 

HBBSCHEL, J. 
MAIN 
STONE, 0. 
BUBNHAM 


236 P. XVI 

h. m. s. 

16 50 35 

o / 

8 19 21*8 

Positi< 

o 

, and SOUTH 227. 

225. 
230- 
231- 


. SCOBPII. 

Prec. + 

q 


a. 

3'SI 

5-98 


Epoch. 

1823.44 
1862.43 
1879-01 
1880-48 


>n. Distance 

n 

3 .- 5-6 
7 ... 4-8 
9 ... 4-8 
7 .- 4-5 



A neat double star, over the Scorpion's back, but in an absurd demes- 
nal hook between the legs of Ophiuchus ; it is 10 distant from Antares, 
to the N.N.E., which line leads upon r\ Ophiuchi, at about 5 further. 
A 6|, yellowish white ; B 8, pale green, another small star follows in 
the sf by about 9 s , and there is a telescopic coarse pair on the N. 
vertical. This object was thus pointed out by Piazzi : " Duplex. Comes 
vix fere visibilis, proxime praecedit paulisper ad austrum." 



1136. 10 M. OPHIUCHI. DXCV. 

(h. 1972, 3659 ; H. 4256 ; .) 



h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 16 51 22 
Decl. 8 3 56*8 



Prec. 



S 5-92 



A rich globular cluster of compressed stars, on the Serpent-bearer's 
right hip. Of a lucid white tint, somewhat attenuated at the margin, 
and clustering to a blaze in the centre. It is so easily resolveable with 
very moderate means, that I am surprised at Messier's remark on 
registering it in 1764: "A beautiful round nebula. It may be seen, 
with attention, by a telescope 3 ffc in length." It follows c Ophiuchi 
nearly on the E. parallel, at about 8 distance; being nearly midway 
between /3 Libras and a Aquilse, and about a degree preceding 30 Ophi- 
uchi, a star of the 6 th magnitude, with a smaller one preceding it. Sir 
W. Herschel resolved this object; and made it a beautiful cluster of 
extremely compressed stars, resembling Messier's 53. He estimated its 
profundity to be of the 243 rd order. 

[" A fine cluster but inferior to 92 M. Herculis." BrodieJ] 



476 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1137. 456 Dunlop SCORPII. (h. 3660 ; H. 4260.) 



h. 



B.A. 16 62 47 
Bed. 8 44 29 8 



Prec. + 4-33 
8 5-73 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" ! ; Cl ; B ; v L ; v Ri ; st 1 1 ;" which means : " a remarkable object ; 
a cluster; bright; very large; very rich; the component stars are 
chiefly of the i I th magnitude." 



1138. 307 Birm. OPHIUCHI. 

h. m. s. 



A, 16 53 20 



o 



Decl. 8 12 43 5 



Prec. -h 3*3^ 

S 575 



Hind's "new star" which suddenly blazed forth in April 1848. It 
was first noticed on April 28, as being between the 4 th and 5 th mag- 
nitude. This brightness continued till about May 10. By May 18 it 
had fallen to the 6 th magnitude. Petersen of Altona first saw it on 
April 30 : according to him it had a magnitude of 5^ on May 7, and 
was never brighter. He wrote of it : " It has a very intense reddish- 
yellow light, and sometimes it appears to me that the red light becomes 
suddenly stronger, and as suddenly vanishes altogether." This star is 
still visible but is very small; say, mag. n. It is probably variable to 
the extent of one whole magnitude. 



1139. 62 M. SCOBPII. (h. 3661; H. 4261.) DXCVI. 



h. 



B.A. 16 54 14 



o 



Bed. 8 29 55*4 



Prec. 4- 3-80 
S 5-69 



A fine large resolveable nebula, at the root of the creature's tail, and 
in the preceding part of the Galaxy. It is an aggregated mass of small 
stars running up to a blaze in the centre. It is 5 from 26 Ophiuchi to 
the N. Messier described it as "a very pretty nebula, resembling a 
little comet, the centre bright, and surrounded by a faint light." Sir W. 
Herschel, who first resolved it, pronounced it a miniature of M. 3, 
and adds, "By the 20$ telescope, which at the time of these obser- 
vations was of the Newtonian construction, the profundity of this cluster 
is of the 734 th order." 
- [Engraved, Cape Obs. 9 PI vi. Fig. 13.] 



R A. i6k- 2 m - 16*- *>- 477 



1140. 3662 h. SCORPII. (H. 4263.) 



R. A. 16 54 30 

Bed. 8 39 33 6 



Prec. -f 4-14 
S 5-65 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" 01 ; B ; p L ; c Hi ; st 10 ;" which means : " a cluster ; bright ; 
pretty large ; considerably rich ; the component stars are chieflj ^f the 
io tl1 magnitude." 

1141. 19 M. OPHIUCHI. (h. 1075, 3663 ; H. 4264.) BXCVII. 

h. m. s. B. 

R. A. 16 55 48 



o 



Bed. 8 26 6*9 



5-55 



A fine insulated globular cluster, of small and very compressed stars, 
between the Scorpion's back and the left foot of Ophiuchus ; and nearly 
midway between two telescopic stars, in the preceding branch of the 
Via Lactea. It is of a creamy white tinge, and is slightly lustrous in the 
centre ; but H. tells us, that even in the 2o ft reflector it did not brighten 
to a blaze, or to a confusion of the stars with one another. It was dis- 
covered by M. in 1764, and described as a nebula without stars, of a 
round form, and seen .well with a 3^ telescope; but in 1784 Sir W. 
Herschel resolved it, and pronounced its profundity to be of the 344 th 
order. It is 2^ distant from 36 Ophiuchi, on a line "W. by N., and 7^ 
due E. of Antares. 

The above nebula, and the whole vicinity, affords a grand conception 
of the grandeur and richness even of the exterior creation ; and indicate 
the beauteous gradation and variety of the heaven of heavens. Truly 
has it been said, " Stars teach as well as shine." This is near the large 
opening or hole, about 4 broad, in the Scorpion's body, which IjjU found 
to be almost destitute of stars* 

1142. 20 BBACONIS. (2. 2118.) DXCIX. 



20 BEACONIS. (2. 2118.) 


h. 


m. 


8. 




s. 


R.A. 16 


55 


52 


Prec. 


-f 0-28 




o 


/ 




// 


Bed. K 


65 


12*4 





S 5-54 


Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 




if 




HERSCHEL, W. 


243-0 


0-50 


1781-70 


STRUVE, W. 


246.4 


0-84 


1832-30 


MADLEB 


244.6 


0-65 


1847.97 


STBUVB, O. 


2357 


0.58 


1859-67 


STRUVE, 0. 


238-0 


0.27 


1872-42 


BUBNHAM 


213-7 


O-2O 


1880-06 



A close double star, in the middle of the creature's body; it is nearly 



478 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

in mid- distance between )9 Ursse Minor! s and y Draconis, where it pre- 
cedes the bright star f. A 7, and B 7 J-, both white. This is a very 
difficult object. Nothing exhibits the comparative ease of observing at 
present, with the labour and exposure undergone by the zealous dis- 
coverer, more than his directions for this star. After stating that it is 
one of the most minute of all the double stars he had found, and too 
small for any micrometer in his possession, 1$. adds, " It is in vain to 
look for them if every circumstance is not favourable. The observer as 
well as the instrument must have been long enough out in the open air 
to acquire the same temperature. In very cold weather, an hour at least 
will be required ; but in a moderate temperature, half an hour will be 
sufficient." 

Sir W. Herschel says the components of this object were "con- 
siderably unequal," whereas they are now so nearly of the same magni- 
tude, that it was only after much comparison that I felt inclined to place 
the comes in the sp quadrant. Can it be variable ? 

The observations of this refractory star still leave us in doubt as to 
its being in motion or at rest a physical or an optical object. " Aut 
itaque nil in his stellis mutatum est inde ex 1781, aut niotus perficitur 
in piano valde ut videtur inclinato, et in 55 annis tota revolutio est 
absoluta," concludes S. Indeed, it was seeing the apparent increase of 
angle in the Dorpat Catalogue which induced me to take extraordinary 
pains to confirm it, and form an epoch, previous to the dismantling of 
my observatory; but the angle proved smaller than that which I had 
obtained seven years before. 

[The angle seems almost unchanged, but a decrease in the distance is 
certain. There is some confusion in the identity of this star. In Lord 
Lindsay's edition of Struve it is named as above, but Sir J. Herschel 
(in his General Catalogue) and Dun^r mark 19 Draconis =2. 2118. 
The above place accords with that of the star called 20 Draconis in 
the B.A.C.] 



1143. UBSJB MINOBIS. DOIII. 

h. m. i. i. 



B.A. 16 57 15 



o 



Bed. 1ST 82 12*8 



Free. 6-36 
S 5-42 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o tt * 

BUBNHAM 6.4 ... 78.2 ... 1879.36 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a minute comes, at the root of the 
Lesser Bear's tail, where it is readily identified, being the third star from 
Polaris. A 4, bright yellow ; B 1 2, pale blue ; three other telescopic 



R A. i6 h - 55 m - i6 h - 57 



m. 



479 



stars in attendance, the nearest of which is about 2' distant. It is about 
half way on the line between the Pole-star and TJ Ursse Minoris. 



1144. 556 Dunlop SCORPII, (h. 3664; H. 4265.) 



B.A. 16 57 18 
Decl. 8 37 43' 7 



Prec. -f 4-07 
8 5-42 



A cluster thus described in Sir J, Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; L ; p Ri ; 1C; st 9 . .. 1 1 ;" which means : " a cluster ; large ; 
pretty rich; little condensed; the stars vary from the 9^ to the n tl1 
magnitudes." 



1145. 270 P. XVI OPHIUCHI. (2. 2114.) DXCVIII. 



K.A. 


16 57 41 


Prec. 4- 


2-87 




f 




// 


Decl. 


N 8 36-7 




5'39 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 




o 


// 




STRUVE,W. 135.7 *-34 


1830.97 


SMYTH 


137-0 


i*S 


1832.41 


MADLEB 


142.8 


1-28 


1852-22 


BOBEBCK 


153-3 


I-IO 


1877.48 



A close double star, on the Serpent-bearer's right shoulder ; it is to 
the W. S.W, of a Ophiuchi, at 9 distance, and is the sf of three stars, 
viz. 270, K, and t. Ay, and B 8, both white. This was discovered by 
2., and entered among his " vicinse." 

[The angle is evidently changing, but the distance seems unaltered, 
though 0. Struve thinks otherwise. On a line carried from t through K, 
as far again.] 



1146. 11 $ VI. OPHIUCHI. (fc. 1976, 3665 ; H. 4268.) 



B.A. 16 57 44 
BecL 8 24 36*3 



Prec. + 3-66 



S 5-38 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
0j B; L; B; gCM; rrr; sti6;" which means: "a globular 
cluster ; bright ; large ; round ; gradually condensed towards the middle ; 
easily resolved clearly seen to consist of stars." 



480 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1147. 198 $. II. OPHIUCHI. (h. 3666 ; H. 4260.) 



h. m. a. 

R.A. 16 58 31 
Bed. S 22 32 '8 



Prec. + 3*6 1 
S 5*32 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"0; cB; L;R;gpmCM; rrr ; st 16 ;" which means : " a globular 
cluster ; considerably bright ; large ; round ; gradually pretty much 
condensed towards the middle ; easily resolveable clearly seen to con- 
sist of stars." 



1148. 



210 B. HEBCULIS. (2. 2120.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 17 


24 


Free. 


+ 2-38 






O t 




n 




Decl. N 


28 14*5 




s 5-19 








Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 







// 






STBUTE, 0. 


345-8 


2-83 


1841 


12 


STEUVE, O. 


306-8 ... 


2-19 


1851 


97 


STRUVE, 0. 


281-5 


2.97 


1861 


63 


DEMBOWSKI 


262-5 


3-75 


1871 


44 


FLAMMAEION 


256-5 


4-32 


1877-64 



A beautiful double star discovered by Sir *W. Herschel. A 7, tawny; 
B 10, deep blue. Though this star is so evidently in motion it is not 
yet certain that there is any physical connection between A and B, or 
that the motion is otherwise than rectilinear, Dembowski suspects 
B to be variable. 



1149. 



124 B. OPHIUCHI. (2. 2122.) 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 17 1 10 
Decl. 8 1 30-2 
Position. 

O 

STEUVE, W. 280.4 
BURNHAM 279.$ 



Prec. -f 3*10 

S 5-10 

Distance. Epoch. 

1831*47 
, ? 1878*48 



20*1 
30-3 



A double star. A 7, white; B 9. Doubtless only an optical double 
star. 



E.A. 



481 



1150. 



fJL DRACONIS. (2. 2130.) 
B.A. 17 3 3 Free. + 1*24 



Decl. H 64 37'1 



S 4*93 



Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


o 






HERSCHEL,W. 332.4 


4'35 


1781-73 


STROVE, W. 205-1 


3-23 


1832-22 


SMYTH 200-3 


3-3 


I839-53 


STRUVE, 0. 191-1 


2-82 


1851-74 


SECCHI 181-0 


2-72 


1865.99 


DOBEROK 171-0 


2-49 


1877.64 


JEDRZEJEWICZ 168-6 


2-68 


1879.82 



DCII. 



A very neat binary star, on the tip of the Dragon's tongue ; it is to 
the NVW. of /3, and 3^ distant from it. A 4 and B 4^, both white. This 
object has been considered a miniature of Castor, but the stars are too 
nearly equal to bear out the resemblance accurately. 

A geometrical rougji-cast yields ,$ period of about 600^ for the orbital 
revolution. 

[The decrease both in angle and distance is very distinct ; but I am 
not acquainted with any fresh attempt to determine the orbit of this, 
object.] 



1151. 12 $. VI. OPHITJCHI, (h. 1977, 3667; H. 4270.) 



h. m. 

B.A. 17 3 20 
Decl. 8 26 25 7 



Free. 4- 3-7 2 
S 4'9i 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
*'; vB; L; E; psbM; rrr; sti6; Fnebf;" which means: u a 
globular cluster; very bright; large; round; pretty suddenly brighter 
in the middle ; well resolved clearly seen to consist of stars ; the stars 
are chiefly of the i6 th magnitude; a faint nebula follows." This faint 
nebula here mentioned (= h. 1978; H. 4271) follpws at' a distance o| 
68 and f' to the N, ' ' . ' 



1152. 147 J$. I. OPHIUCHI. (h, 3670 ; H. 4275.) 



h. m. . 

B.A. 17 7 34 
Becl. 9 29 19'6 



Free, + 3-80 
S 4-54 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864:- 

I i 



482 



A Cyde of Celestial Objects. 



"; B; cL; E; s,vglbM; rrr; sti6...i7;" which means: "a 
globular cluster; bright; considerably large; round; at first suddenly, 
then very gradually less bright towards the middle; well resolved 
clearly seen to consist of stars which are chiefly of the i6 th and I7 tb 
magnitudes." 



1153. 



36 OPHIUCHI. 



DCIV. 



U.A. 
Decl. 

SMTTH 

SMYTH 
POWELL 
TALOAGE 

BUBNHAM 


h, m. B. 

17 8 34 
8 26 25 3 

Position. 

IAB 226-1 
( A C 289-9 
AB 216.6 
AB 210-0 
AB 210.6 
AC 305.9 



Free. + 3-71 
S 4-46 



Distance. 

n 
193-8 

4'9 
4.62 

5-00 
1980 



Epoch. 



1842.46 
1861-06 
1871-51 
1879.94 



A triple, or rather multiple star, of which our principal business is 
with A and B, since the above results prove B to be on a retrograde 
march. 

As there is some confusion in assigning the stars about here to their 
proper asterisms, we may be particular. 36 Ophiuchi is on the margin 
of the gap made in Scorpio's precincts, in carrying down those of 
Ophiuchus ; by which arrangement or mis-arrangement it is artificially 
divided from 30 Scorpii, with which, as will be presently shown, it has 
aa occult affinity. Both are between the Serpent -bearer's left foot and 
the root of the Scorpion's tail; and No. 36 is 10 due E. of Antares. 
Of the individuals first measured, A is 4^, and ruddy; B 6, pale yellow; 
and C 7f , greyish ; the latter being double, with a most minute comes 
near the sf vertical, whose existence Sir J. Herschel first pointed out 
to me. It would appear that Piazzi did not see A divided, as his 
note, "Duplex. 15-5" temporis alia 7-8 magnii pra&cedit, i' ad boream," 
evidently alludes to A and C. The principal star is thought to be variable, 
though I have always seen it as now registered. [Dawes and Knott 
both put A and B nearly on an equality as regards magnitude.] 

36 Ophiuchi is upwards of 12' distant from 30 Scorpii, on an 

z=7 

Bessel first pointed out that 36 Ophiuchi and 30 Scorpii have a com* 
mon proper motion, in these words (Fundamental Astronomice, 30 
Scorpii) : " Ex observationrbtis haec proficiscitur differentia inter stellam 
hanc atque A Ophiuchi : 



K.A. i;fc. ym. _ I7 h. gm. 483 

[Diff. in B. A. Biff, in Becl.] 

^ n / // 

Flamsteedii . . . 1690 4-13 32.4 +2 56-0 

Bradleii .... 1755 ... + 3 2-7 

Ma>eri , . . , 1756 4* 13 13.1 

Piazzi 1800 4- 13 7.0 + 3 4-2 

[Smyth 1839 4- 13 10.6 + 3 4.4 

Greenwich . . . 1864 + *3 7*o 4- 3 7-2] 

unde perspicuum fit, huic stellae et illi duplici stellae communem esse 
gravem motum." The movements of these stars through space have 
pretty nearly the same values; so that 36 Ophiuchi, while in itself a 
singular revolving binary system, is accompanying another and a most 
distant object in an annw magnus, to contemplate the period of which 
makes imagination quail. This is a curious example of two stars trans- 
ferred, by a progressive uniform motion common to both, in a curve so 
vast as to appear a straight line, towards some unknown region, or, as 
Baily expresses it, "journeying together through space, and leaving the 
neighbouring stars behind." In the preseut state of knowledge it is 
impossible to ascertain whether this is a real motion arising from gravi- 
tation, or an apparent one, owing to the actual progression of the solar 
system towards some pre-ordained point in the heavens, between which 
and us they lie : at all events, such a march indicates that these stars 
cannot be only optically, or accidentally, connected. 




Jfia. 35, 36 OPHIUCHI. 

"While making observations towards a future determination of this 
question, I perceived a star of the 14 th magnitude, nearly between 
36 Ophiuchi and 30 Scorpii, a little to the southward of a line joining 
them; and which, though in the range of the micrometer run, had 
escaped the gaze of preceding observers. This star being so placed as 
to become of interest, either as a point of departure or as partaking of 
the motions of its neighbours, is of greater importance than from its size 
it would otherwise be : it was therefore carefully diagrammed in 1835. 

Wishing to know the action of the great Northumberland equatorial 
upon this group, I requested the Rev, J. Chain's, in 1839, ^ gi ye ft A 
rigid scrutiny. This request was kindly complied with, and an arduous 
examination was rewarded with no fewer than four new stars ; but they 

li 3 



484 



A Cycle of Celestial Objecfy. 



were most minute ones, as the largest sp, 36 Ophiuchi, is barely of the 
1 6fo magnitude. This was to be expected from an instrument of double 
the dimensions of mine, it having n^ clear aperture and 19^ focal 
length ; whence the objective part is in greater proportion to the pupil 
of the eye than in my smaller one. Its fteld is therefore never without 
little specks of light ; as was, from like causes, the case on looking into 
Sir J. HerschePs 2O ft reflector at Slough, I found it was never without 
company. Mr. Challis thus described the four additional stars : " a is a 
star nearly as easily seen as the small one of your coarse double, and is 
situated nearly at the point where lines passing through the two stars of 
36 Ophiuchi and the two stars of your coarse double meet ; b is about 
the same size ; and c was seen with more difficulty, but very decidedly. 
d is the faintest star of all ; it was as much as the telescope would do to 
make it visible, but I think I may be sure of its existence. I am 
greatly interested in giving you these particulars, as I am desirous of 
knowing what the light-transmitting power of the great Northumber- 
land is, as compared with other telescopes." 



1154. 



HBECTTLIS. (2. 2140.) 



PCV. 



B.A. 
Peel. 



h. 

17 



9 38 



o 

14 



30*0 





Free* 


+ 


2-73 









S 


4'3* 




Distance. 


Epoch. 


... 


a 

5* 




f 


1782-69 


... 


4.6 







1832.51 


.. 


4-7 




... 


1858.59 


... 


4-7 




... 


1876.54 


... 


85-4 




.*. 


1878.46 


... 


4-7 




... 


1880.63 



Position. 

o 
HERSOHEL, W. AB 117-2 

SMYTH AB 119.4 

STRUVE, 0. A B 116-8 
DOBERCK AB 115*2 

BURNHAM AC 38.7 

JEDRZEJEWICZ AB 115-9 

A -Nautical Almanac star with a companion, on the head of Hercules. 
A 3^, orange ; B 5^, emerald, or bluish green ; and there are two distant 
stars of the'io th and 12 th magnitudes in the nf quadrant, which are re- 
markable for their lilac tinge. [One of these is Burnham's C.] A was 
found to be variable by I$L, who compared it with * Ophiuchi, changing 
from maximum 3 to minimum 4 in a period of 66 days. , has. since 
suggested that B also varies from 5 to 7. 

This lovely object, one of the finest in the heavens, was described to 
be double by Piazzi, though not always easily seen so. " Duplex," ait> 
"comes sequitur ad austrum; et non semper nee facile distinguitmv 
Aptius ad id tempus Septemb. initium paulo post solis occasum." From 
the observations of its discoverer it was considered to have undergone 
an orbital increase of uf in*, little more than 23 years; therefore 
when S. attacked it in 1819, he expected to find tie angle amount to 



B.A, 17*-' 8^- i; 1 *- 9*^ 485 

about 130. But the result was an actual retrogradation from I$/s 
determination, and as the Dorpat astronomer was convinced that he was 
within i of the truth, and indeed his last mean is drawn from five years' 
measures, it was concluded, either that the former observations were 
uncertain, or that one of the stars had rebroussfi chemin. But all the 
subsequent measures, however they differ inter se, coincide in establishing 
the fixity of this object, thereby adding another instance to that of 
y Andromedse that highly -coloured stars are not necessarily in motion. 

A discussion of the delicate observations of 1$. and S. led Baron De 
Zach to exhort those Uranian amateurs who wish to be useful, to work m 
the rich field of double stars : it is, he says, " un vaste et un tres-fertile 
champ & deTricher, que nous recommandons aux soins des amateurs qui 
voudront se rendre utileg, et faire encore autres choses que des observa- 
tions banales qu'on re"p&te partout." 

The principal star is called Rasalgeti, from the Arabian rda al-jdthi t 
the kneel er's head ; and the casual gazer may pick it up by noting that 
a Aquilse, a Lyree, and a Ophiuchi form a triangle nearly equilateral, 
the latter being the preceding star, and having Hasalgeti about 5 before 
it ; the heads both of Hercules and Serpentarius lie between Lyra and 
Scorpio. The galley rhymes afford another clue ; 

Amid yon glorious starry host, that feeds both sight and mind, 

Would you the Serpent -bearer's head, and that of Hercles find, 

From Altair west direct a ray to where Acturus glows, 

One-third that distance, by the eye, will both those heads disclose. 

Easalgeti is the lucida.Q? Hercules, one of the old 48 asterisms, 
called 'Ej/ yovao-tv, Ingeniculus, Genuflexus, Saltator, and Incumbens 
Genubus, by the ancients ; and represented as a man kneeling, weary, 
and sad. It was probably therefore not originally figured for the Theban ; 
Eudoxus and Aratus, speaking by the well-known verses of Cicero, 
merely allude to his sorrow, and tell us : 

Engonasin vocitant, genibus quod nixa feratur. 

The early Venetian editions of Hyginus figure Hercules as going to 
attack a snake coiled round the trunk of an apple-tree; and Bayer 
depicted a mystic apple-branch in the Theban*s hand* flevelius trans* 
formed it into a bunch of snakes, under the name of Cerberus, from 
the watch -dog of the infernal portals ; with the fox carrying a goose for 
his breakfast, as shown in the Prodromus Astronomice. Some have 
considered the emblem as typifying the serpent which infested the 
vicinity of Cape Tsenarus, whence a sub-genus of Ophidians still derives 
its name. 

This symbol of the "tricapitein canem infernalem voracem n figures 
among the new constellations which follow Heyejius, in hip hotnage to 



486 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

Urania and the great astronomers, in the elaborate frontispiece to his 
Uranographia. Bode has adopted both the apple-branch and the snakes, 
in his Atlas, under the style and title of Cerberus et Ramus. 

This constellation is of great extent and importance, notwithstanding 
it boasts of no star larger than the 3 rd magnitude : yet several of that 
and the 4 th size decorate the head, back, shoulders, hips, thighs and 
right ankle of tfye figure. But though this asterism is not very re- 
markable to the eye, its double stars, nebulse, and clusters render it 
telescopically interesting and glorious. The components have increased 
thus: 

Ptolemy .... 30 stars. Hevelius .... 45 stars. 
Tycho Brah<5 . . 28 Flamsteed . , .113 
Clavius .... 31 Bode 451 

Hevelius, in his Prodromus Astronomies, reporter! a nebula on the top 
of Hercules' head, close to Hasalgeti, which Messier searched for in vain. 
The nearest nebula to this star appears to be 901 !$. II., but that being 
too small and faint for the power of the telescopes used in Hevelius's 
day, the object must have been a comet. 



1155. 45 $ I. OPHITJCHI. (h. 3671; H. 4279.) 

h. m. . a. 



R.A. 17 9 42 



o 



Decl. 8 28 0'7 



Free. + 3-76 

// 
^ 4*37 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: - 
" ; c B ; p S ; R ; gvmb M ; rrr ; st 16 . . . 1 7 ;" which means : 
"a globular cluster; considerably bright ; pretty small ; round ; gradually 
very much brighter in the middle ; well resolved clearly seen to consist 
of stars ; which are chiefly of the i6 th and 17 to magnitudes." 



1156. 522 Dunlop SCORFII. (h. 3672; H. 4280.) 



b. m. . 



E.A. 17 10 8 







Decl. 8 39 19*3 



Free, -f 4-14 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"Cl; pL; Ri; R; gbM; sti2...i4; >l which means: "a cluster; 
pretty large ; rich ; round ; gradually brighter in the middle ; the stars 
are of the istb to the 14^ magnitudes." 



E.A. 



487 



1157- 



8 HEBCULIS, (2. 8127.) 


h. m. s. 


8. 


R.A. 17 10 31 


Free, -f 2*46 


O 1 


# 


Decl. N 24 58*3 


s 4-38 


Position. 


Distance. Epoch. 





H 


HEESCHEL, W. 162.5 


33-7 - 1779.61 


STRUVE, W. 173.7 


26-1 


1829.77 


SMYTH 175.1 


24*5 


1839.62 


STRUVE, 0. 177.7 


22.5 


184973 


DEMBOWSKI 1786 


2I-I 


1858.39 


DEMBOWSKI 180-9 


^9-5 


r 869.54 


FLAMMARION 181-6 


18-4 


1877.00 


JEDBZBJEWICZ 182-9 


18-1 


1877.66 



DCVIIJ. 



A star on the hero's right shoulder, and due NV of its lucida about 
11, forming a nearly equilateral triangle with it and /3. A 4, greenish 
white ; B 8, grape red. 

The results show a very appreciable decrease of distance, and a direct 
angular increase sp nf; the object therefore, as H. observes, merits 
particular attention, " as the change is contrary to what the presumed 
proper motion of the large star would alone produce." 

[0. Struve is of opinion that there has been no deviation from uniform 
rectilinear motion. If the relative change is entirely due to difference 
of proper motion the minimum distance, 9-2", will be attained about 1963. 
If, on the contrary, the stars form a binary star, the distance will con- 
tinue to diminish for a shorter period.] 



1158. 



31 SCORPII. [ = 

h. m. f 

R.A. 17 10 49 

Becl. 6 26 30 '3 
Position. I 



SOUTH 330-8 
SMYTH 330.4 
STOUE, O. 334-0 


38 OPHIUCHI.j 

Free. 4-3-71 
// 

SA'^r\ 


4 3 
Distance. Epoch, 

7.1 ... 1825.53 
6.8 ... 1835-64 
5-i ... 1879-24 



DCVL 



A delicate double star, between the left foot of Ophiuchus and Scorpio's 
back, and closely following 36 Ophiuchi, already treated of. A 6, pale 
white ; B [9], ash-coloured. This object has generally been registered as 
38 Ophiuchi ; but the two may be considered as identical, since Flam- 
steed's remark, that three or four telescopic stars follow it, shows that it 
is 31 Scorpii of the British Catalogue. 

My observations go far to show ita fixity as an optical object. It is, 



488 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

however, difficult to handle, from the variable refractions of so low an 
altitude and the smallness of the comes. 

This object is about 10 to the N. of the karatat, or end lump in the 
Scorpion's tail, from which al-shatilah, the sting, issues. . 



1159. 3873 h. SCOSPII, (H. 4281.) 



h. m. 



R.A. 17 10 53 



/ 



Becl. S 42 45*7 



Free, + 4-28 
S 4-27 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Hersehel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" cl ; v L ; p Hi ; 1 C (* nf taken) ;" which means : " a cluster ; very 
large ; pretty rich ; little compressed ; (the place taken is that of a star 
in the nf quadrant)." 



1160. 6016 Brisb. AR^E. (*h. 4931.) 



h, m. i. g. 



B.A. 17 10 54 







Peel. 8 59 19*4 



Free, -f 5-24 

S 4-27 



Position. Distance. E;och. 

. * " 

HERSCHEL, J. 260.5 ... | est. ... 1836-52 

A double star. A 8 ; B 8. Sir J. Herschel states in a note that he 
thinks the above distance under-rated and that it was really not less than 
i", for the discs were "excellently separated." 

1161. 39 OPHIUCHI. DCVII. 

t. m. . f. 



B.A. 17 11 18 



/ 



Decl. S 24 9-9 



Free. + 3-65 

n 

s 4-23 



Position* Distance. Epoch. 

o tt 

HERSdHBL,W. 357-2 ... 10.0 ... 1782-46 

SMYT# 356.2 ... 12.1 ... 1838.52 

MAIN , 353.7 ... II.O ... 1862-45 

STONE, 0. 354.9 *-7 - l8 79'33 

A neat double star, on the toes of the Serpent-bearer's left foot, and 
1 disrtant to the N.W. of the bright star ft A sj, pale orange ; B 7|, 
blue. This is a very fine object, and was once measured in full twilight. 

The subsequent measures of H. t S. and myself are so coincident as to 
indicate the fixity of this optical object* 



B.A. i h * io m * i h ' 12^ 489 



About the end of September, 1604, the scholars of Kepler discovered 
a very remarkable star near this. They were examining the plane t$ 
Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, which were then sufficiently close to each 
other in that quarter to engage the attention of astronomers, and 
Mostlin very quickly detected the interloper. At first it surpassed 
Jupiter in magnitude, and its brilliancy even rivalled that of Venus; 
but it afterwards became as small as Begulus, and as dull as Saturn. 
It was white near the horizon, but as it rose, it assumed alternately the 
varying colours of the rainbow; it had no parallax, and was exactly 
round, "When in this state, it had the honour of being particularly 
observed by Galileo; and the lovers of salad will recollect Kepler's 
attack on the Epicureans, in his account of its advent. It gradually 
diminished in splendour till October, 1605, when it was very small, and 
about the beginning of 1 606 it entirely disappeared, nor has it been seen 
since. Pigott searched in vain for it in 1782; but the vicinity should 
be constantly watched. 



1162. 3675 h. AB-ffi. (H. 4284.) 

h, m. a, s. 



B.A. 17 12 2 
Decl, S 51 37'6 



Free. + 4-72 
S 4'i7 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"!!!; O; pB; vS; R;" which means: "an exceedingly remarkable 
Object ; a planetary nebula ; pretty bright ; very small ; round." 

Engraved, Cape Obs., PI. vi. Fig. 6. 



1163. 6 M. OPHIUCHI. (h t 1979, 3677; H. 4287; J&.) DClX 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 17 12 37 
Bed. 8 18 24*2 



Prec. + 3-50 

S <I2 



A globular galaxy-cluster, on the Serpent-bearer's left leg, with a 
coarse telescopic double star in the np quadrant. This fine object is com- 
posed of a myriad of minute stars, clustering into a blaze in the centre, 
and wonderfully aggregated, with numerous outliers seen by glimpses. 
It was registered by Messier in 1764 ; and described by him as a nebula, 
" unaccompanied by any star." Sir W. Herschel resolved it with his 
2o ft reflector, in 1784; and he estimated its profundity as, at least, of 
the 344 th order. He thought it a miniature of 53 M. ; and it is one of 
those which forma a capital object for proving the Space-penetrating 



490 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



power of a telescope. It lies 3 to the S.E. of ??, and rather more than 
a quarter of the way from a Scorpii to a Aquilee. 



1164. 



68 HERCULIS. 



B.A. 17 13 16 
Decl. N 33 13 '1 



STRUVE, 0. 

DEMBOWSKI 

BUENHAM 



Position, 
o 

61-8 
61-1 
61.5 



i. (O. 2. 328.) 




8. 


Free. 4- 


2'2 




tt 


S 


4'13 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


n 




4-3 


1847.89 


4-2 


1867.38 


4-0 


1878-40 



"An exquisite double star." A 5, pale yellow; B n, deep indigo. 
According to Schmidt, A is variable from 4 to 6 mag. in about 40 days. 



1165. 



92 M. HEBCULIS. (H. 4294; 38.) 



DCXI. 



B.A. 17 13 46 
Decl. 1ST 43 15 '1 



Free. + 1-84 
S 4-02 



A globular cluster of minute stars, preceding the right leg of Hercules. 
This object is large, bright, and resolveable, with a very luminous centre ; 
and, under the best vision, has irregular streamy edges. It is immediately 
preceded by a 12 th magnitude star, distinct from the outliers, and there 
are several other stars in the field, of which the brightest is of the 7 th 
magnitude in the nf t with a A K.A. = 28 8 . Messier, who enrolled it in 
1781, remarks that "it is easily seen with a telescope of one foot;*' and 

it really demands very little optical aid 
to render it visible. Messier's own in- 
strument did not, it seems, resolve it, 
for he compares the shining centre, with 
its attendants, to the nucleus of a comet 
surrounded by nebulous matter ; but, of 
course, it rose into a brilliant cluster, 
of 7' or 8' in diameter, before the re- 
flectors of Sir W. Herschel in 1783. 
From 77 Herculis it bears N. by E., i^ distant; bearing to the N. of 
a Herculis, and W. of a Lyrse. [" Nucleus possibly spiral, darker spaces. 
Nucleus barely, if at all, resolved." Parsonstown Qbs.] 




I<'IG. 36. 92 M. HEECDLIS. 



1166. 



V SEBFENTJS. 



DCX. 



h. m. t. 

B.A. 17 14 38 
Decl. 3 12 44-0 



Free, -h 3-36 
S 3-94 



B.A. i h> i2 m - i h> i8 m - - 491 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSOHEL, J., and SOUTH 30.7 ... 50.3 ... 1821.97 
HALL 31-6 ... 48-1 ... 1863-60 

A wide double star, in the middle of the Serpent ; it lies 4 to the 
N.B. of 77, and consequently in the line between a Scorpii and the Eagle's 
tail. A 4^, pale sea-green; B 9, lilac; and there is a third star, of a 
dusky tint, at a distance in the up quadrant. 

1167. 3680 h. SCOKPII. (H. 4290.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 17 14 43 



o 



Decl. S 38 22'0 



Prec. 4- 4' 1 1 
S 3-93 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschers Catalogue of 1864: 
" !!! ; ; e F ; S ; am St ;" which means : " an exceedingly remarkable 
object ; an annular nebula ; exceedingly faint ; small ; amongst stars/' 

Figured, Gape Obs., PL vi. Fig. 3. In that work the following ad- 
ditional remarks occur : " a beautiful delicate ring, of a faint ghost-like 
appearance, about 40" in diameter; in a field of about 150 stars of the 
II th and 12 th magnitudes and under. In it is one star of the I2 tjl mag. 
very conspicuous, and one of the 15 th mag. much less so. Near it are 2 stars 
of the I4 tlj and 15*^ mags., and S. of it at a distance of 60" is another." 
Engraved, Lassell, Mem. JR.A.S., vol. xxxvi. PL vii. Fig. 30.] 

1168. 48 $. I. OPHIUCHI. (h. 3683 ; H. 4296.) 

h. m. s. s. 



R.A. 17 17 8 
Decl. S 17 42 '3 



Prec. + 3' 49 
S 3'73 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
" ; vB; cL; vgvmbM; rrr; st^o;" which means; "a globular 
cluster; very bright; considerably large; very gradually very much 
brighter in the middle ; well resolved clearly seen to consist of stars ; 
which are chiefly of the 2O tn magnitude," [in other words, which are very 
^mall]. 

1169. 73 P. XVII, AR&J. (*h. 4949.) 

h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 17 18 45 







Decl. 8 45 44*6 



Prec, 4- 4.41 
S 3-59 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HEBSCHEL, J. 367*4 ... 3*2 ... 1836*36 

A double star. A 6; B 7^. 



492 



A Cycle of" Celestial Objects. 



1170. 94 P; XVII. OPHIUCHI. (S. 2160.) DCXII. 



h. m. a. 

R.A. 17 19 36 



Decl. 



15 42-4 



Free, -f 2-70 
S 3-52 



Position. Distance. 



STKUVE.W. 619 ... 4*0 

SMYTH 65.0 ... 5 

WILSON and SEABBOKE 65.6 ... 4-0 



Epoch. 

1830-23 

I835-5 2 
1873-50 



A very delicate double star, between the heads of Ophiuchus and 
Hercules ; it is 2 N.E, of a Herculi, on the line towards ft Cygni. A 7, 
brilliant white; B [io], violet tint: A is followed by a ruddy star 
of nearly the same magnitude at a A R.A.= i6-5 8 , which, with another 
in the nf, forms a neat isosceles triangle. This severe test was 
discovered by 2., and measurement being precluded by the minute- 
ness of the comes, the results are from a mean of several estimations 
made near the meridian, but amid occasional glares of sheet lightning. 
On the arrival of the Dorpat Catalogue this was among the first 
objects I referred to, in order to see the degree of weight assignable 
to my estimations when placed in juxtaposition with actual and trusty 
measurements. 



1171. 



p HERCULI6. (I. 2161.) 



DCXIII. 



h. m. a. 

R.A. 17 19 53 
toed. K 37 14-9 



ST&UVB, W. 

SMYTH 

MADLER 

DOBERCK 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 



Position. 

307-4 
308.9 
311.1 

3II-3 
3127 ' 



Free, 



Distance. 

3*6o 

3-7 
3-62 

3:87 



2*07 
3*49 



Epoch. 

1830-35 
1839.74 
1852.13 
1876.54 

1878-45 



A beautiful double, in the middle of the hero's right thigh, 2 to the 
eastward of TT, on the line towards Wega. A 4, bluish white; B 5^, 
pale emerald. This object was entered double by Piazzi: " Duplex, minor 
praecedit." [The observations may indicate fixity : or a very slow in- 
crease in angle may be in progress; " No trace * of green visible in B, 
with 8|fo refractor, 1866."- Brodie.] 



B. A. I7 h :'l.9*?v iyl>- 261- 493 



1172. 226 Dunlop PAVONIS. (h. 3684} H. 4300.) 

h. m. 8. *, 



R.A. 17 20 28 



o 



Bed. 8 66 57*5 



Free. + 6- 1 6 
S 3-44 



A cluster thus described in Sir J; HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : : 
" ; cB; L; vgmbM; rrr; st 14 ... 17;" which means : "a globular 
cluster; considerably bright; large; very gradually much brighter in 
the middle ; well resolved clearly seen to consist of stars ; which range 
from the 14^ to the 17 th magnitudes." 

1173. 11 $. IV. OPHIUCHI, (h. 1981, 3686; H. 4302; .) 

b. m. 0. 



B.A. 17 22 30 







Bed. 8 23 30*4 



Free. + 3-65 
8 -*5 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"!!; ; pB; S; R;" which means: "a remarkable object; an 
annular nebula; pretty bright; small; round/ 7 Engraved, Cape Obs., 
PL vi. Fig. 4. 

1174. 2166 2, OPHIUCHI. 

b. m. a. s. 



B.A. 17 22 44 



o 



Decl. 1ST 11 28-6 



Prec. -J- 2-80 
S 3-34 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

STBUVE, W. 283.1 ... 27.4 ... 1831-36 
MAIN 279.7 ... 27-2 ... 1864^76 

JEDKZEJBWICZ 282.5 ... 27-2 ... 1876-96 

A double star. A 6, white ; B 8, bluish. 
1175. 147 P f XVJI. BBACONIS. (2. 2190.) DCXV. 

h. m. s, . a. 



B. A. 17 26 la 



o 



Decl. 1ST 50 57'5 



Prec. + 1-44 
. - S 2-93 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

HEBSOHEL,W. 267-6 ... a'-st ., 1782-84 

SMYTH , 266-2 ,., 3-2 . 1836*53 

P0^ 265-3 M, 2*9 ... 1872.32 

fine double star, between the right foot of Hercules and the 



494 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



Dragon's eye ; it is about 1$- S. of ft Draconis. A 8, pale white ; B 8|, 
ruddy. This pfetty object, though bearing a physical aspect, seems to 
have undergone no alteration since its discovery. 



1176, 



/3 DBACONIS. 



DCXVI. 



b. m. s. 

B.A. 17 27 67 



Peel. N 52 22 



Free, -f 1-35 
S 2-79 



Position. 
SHYTH 100-6 



Difference of K. A. 
29*8 



Epoch. 
1834-59 



A Nautical Almanac star, with a very distant companion, in the 
Dragon's eye, A 2, yellow; B 10, bluish; with a coarse telescopic 
double star nf of B, by about 30% and several other stars in the field. 

This object is the Alwaid of the Catalogues, from the Arabian al- 
'awdyid, the suckling camels, ft has displaced a both as a Nautical 
Almanac standard, and a lucida. It is now generally rated of the 2 nd 
magnitude, whereas Ptolemy marked it y in brightness; and TTlugh 
Beigh, Tycho Brahe*, Heveliua, Bradley, Zach, and Mayer followed him in 
stamping it of the 3rd size. Flamsteed, however, made it 2 \, and Piazzi 
raised it to 2. A future day may restore the rights of a, for they may 
both be variable at long periods, ft and y Draconis, in the head of 
Draco, may be readily known from being nearly in the curved line joining 
it to a Cygni and a Bootis ; and with two stars, /u. and , just to the N. 
of them, they form an irregular trapezium. 



From Alkaid on the Great Bear's tail, 
Midway between the Bird and Beast 



to Cygnus cast your eye; 
the Dragon's head you'll spy. 



1177* 457 Dunlop SCOBPII. (h. 3690 ; H. 4307.) 



h. m. > 

ft. A. 17 28 14 
Beol. 8 44 39 '9 



Free. + 4-38 

n 

- & 2-77 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
"; vB; L; R; pg, psvmbM; rrr, sti7;" which means: "a 
globular cluster; very bright; large; round; at first pretty gradually, 
then pretty suddenly very much brighter in the middle; well re- 
solvedclearly seen to* consist of stars, which are chiefly of the 17 th 
magnitude/' 



E.A. 



i7 n ' 29* 



495 



1178. 



64 OPHTCJCHI. (2. 2184.) 

s. 

Prec. -f 2-76 
8 2-68 



DCXVII. 



B.A. 17 29 19 



Decl. N 13 14-3 



STKUVE, W. 
SMTTH 



Position. 

o 

76.7 



Distance. 

21-4 

20*0 



Epoch. 

1830-19 
1833-56 



A most delicate double star, on the crown of the Serpent-bearer's head, 
and closely due N. of the lucida, A 6, pale straw-colour; B 14, blue; 
several other stars in the field. In the original register it is merely 
described as excessively unequal, and about 8" apart. Now, with all my 
gazing, as I could only see the glimpse point of light noted B, which I 
could not estimate at less than 20", I concluded that there was a still 
smaller companion beyond my reach. On the arrival, however, of the 
Dorpat Catalogue, I found that Struve had measured my comes, and had 
seen no other with his then unequalled refractor ; so that I cannot but 
think 1$. had written 18" on his original entry. 



1170. 



63 OPHIUCHI. (2. 34 App. I.) 

Prec. + 2-84 
8 2-67 



DCXVIII. 



h. m. 8. 

B.A. 17 29 23 



Decl. N 9 39-8 



Position. Distance. 

HEBSCREL, J., and SOUTH 191-3 ... 41-6 

SMYTH 191.5 . 41.3 

BELLAMY 191.3 ,., 41-7 

JEDBZEJEWICZ 191-6 ... 41-2 



Epoch. 

1821.4 
1836-51 
1875.69 
187704 



A wide double star, closely following the Serpent-bearer's neck, and 3 
S. of a Ophiuchi. A 6, and B 8, both bluish. This object is followed by 
two 8 th magnitude stars. 



1180. 



h. m. s, 

K.A. 17 29 50 



a OPHIUCHI. 

Prec. + 



Decl. N 12 38*4 



SMTTH 



Position, Difference of B. A. 
'187.3 ... '1-4 ... 



2.77 
S 2-83 
Epoch. 
I833-54 



DCXIX. 



A Ntwtical Almanac star, with a mmute companion, at the back of 



0?d of CdeefiaZ Qbfeofc 

the Serpent-bearers head* A 2, sapphire; B 9, pale grey; and there 
IB a <Joarse triplet of small stars preceding, nearly on the parallel/ A is 
designated Rasalague, from the Arabian rds*af-$aww& r the serpent- 
charmer's head : but it was variously corrupted in astronomical writings. 
In observation it may be easily found, as it lies nearly in mid-distance 
of a line drawn from a Lyrae down to a Scorpii ; and it is the preceding 
point of a nearly equilateral triangle, which it forms with a Lyrse and 
o Aquite. In starting "from the last-framed star, our galley-poet gives 
Jis sage advice, and thus it runs : 

From Altair let a ray be cast, where we A returns view, 

One-third that distance will reveal the star Ras-al-Jiague. 

This star may have undergone a slight change of brilliance, since 
Ptolemy rated it y, and he was followed by Ulugh Beigh and Tycho 
Brahe ; but Hevelius, Flamsteed, Bradley, Mayer, Zach, and Piazzi are 
pnanimous in designating it of the 2 nd magnitude. 

'ofaovxof, Opbiuchus, is a large, though not a very conspicuous, con- 
stellation, most uncouthly figured as respectp Hercules : it has no proper 
name, but is merely designated from holding a serpent, Yet he is 
not without appellations enough, being the Anguitenens of Cicero, the 
Anguifer of Columella, and the Serpentarius of the Tables : and he also 
appears as JSerpentis lator, Effeminatus, and even as Cacus, the bad man. 
Whatever may have been the original intention in placing this figure in 
the heavens, it is one of the old 48 asterisms, and its constituents have 

been thus numbered : 

* 

Ptolemy . . . 29 stare, Hevelius .... 44 stars. 

Ulugh Beigh . 29 Flamsteed ... 74 

Tycho Brahe*. .37 Bode . , , . . 289 

In 1604 the scholars of Kepler discovered a new star in the eastern 
foot of Ophiuchus, which appeared brighter than one of the I st magni- 
tude ; but in a few months it again became invisible. Such reports 
for attention to the prospect of a re-appearance. 



1181. v l DRACONIS, (2. 35 App. I.) DCXX, 

h. m. , -. B. 



B.A. 17 BO 







Decl. H 55 15 '5 



Prec. + i- 16 
- . S 2-6* 



Position, Distance. Epoch. 

STEUVB,W. 313-2 , 617 , M 1833.85 

JEDBZEJBWIOZ 312.7 ',., 61.8 , 1877.60 

A wide pair of stars, m Draco's mouth ; 3 tp the JT, pf A pa a line 



K. A. i; h - 29 m i7&" 3I**' 497 



towards Polaris. A and B, both 5, and both pale grey. [Yarnall makes 
the jp star slightly the brighter of the two.] 

The values of the proper motions, though slight, are important, for 
having similar signs, they indicate a physical connexion of the two stars. 
The verification of this point requires another epoch of exact observation. 

To find this star by alignment, run an occult ray from y to 17, and it 
will pass over the two v's at about one-third the distance, 

1182. 103 P. XVII. HEBCULIS. (2. 2100.) 



h. 



B.A, 17 31 14 
Decl. 1ST 21 4-0 



Prec, + 2-2 
S 2-54 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

STKUVE, W. 3 3 .2 ... i" .i ... 1829.66 

MADLEB 33-6 ,., 10-1 ... 1843.74 

DEMBOWSKI 23-0 ... 10-2 ... 1863.39 

WILSON and SEABROKE 24.9 ... 10-6 ... 1876-53 

BURNHAM 23.9 ... io.i ... 1^78.5 

A double star. A 6, yellow; B p|, lilac. Burnham suggests an error 
of 10 in the angles given by Struve and Madler, as the angle has of late 
years remained unchanged. 

1183. 308 Dunlop AB^B. (h. 3602; H. 4311.) 



h. 



B.A. 17 31 43 
Bed. 8 53 3 6 3 



Prec. -f- 4-87 
S 2-47 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"; B; vL; Ri; sti3;" which means: "a globular cluster; 
bright; very large; rich; the stars are chiefly of the 13 th magnitude/' 



1184. 14 M. OPHIUCHI. (h. 1083, 3698 5 H. 4315 ; .) DCXXI. 



h. 



B.A. 17 31 50 
Decl. S 3 11-2 



Prec. -f 3-14 
S 2-46 



A large globular cluster of compressed minute stars, on the Serpent- 
bearer's left arm. This fine object is of a lucid white colour, and very 
nebulous in aspect ; which may be partly owing to its being situated in a 
splendid field of stars, the lustre of which interferes with it. By 
diminishing the field under high powers, some of the brightest of these 
attendants are excluded, but the cluster loses in definition. It was 

Kk 



498 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



covered by Messier in 1764, and thus described: "A small nebula, no 
star; light faint; form round, and may be seen with a telescope 3^ ft 

long." Prom y Ophiucbi it is S. by W. 
about 6|, being nearly midway between 
/3 Scorpii and the tail of Aquila, and 
1 6 due S. of a Ophiuchi. Sir W. Her- 
schel resolved this object in 1783, with 
his 2o ft reflector, and he thus entered it : 
"Extremely bright, round, easily resolve- 
able ; with 300 1 can see the stars. The 
heavens are pretty rich in stars of a cer- 
tain size, but they are larger than those 
in the cluster, and easily to be distin- 
guished from them. This cluster is con- 
siderably behind the scattered stars, as 
some of them are projected upon it." He 
afterwards added : "From the observations of the 20^ telescope, which in 
1791 and 1799 had the power of discerning stars 75-08 times as far as the 
eye, the profundity of this cluster must be of the 900 th order." " It re- 
sembles the lo^k Connaissance des temps, which probably would put on the 
same appearance as this, were it removed half its distance farther from 
us." For 10 M., see No. 1136, ante. 




FIG. 37. 14 M. OPHIUCHI. 



1185. 568 Dunlop SCOBPII. 



K.A. 17 32 4 
Deel. S 36 52'4 



(h. 3696 ; H. 4313.) 

a. 

Prec. -f 4-06 

// 
S z-44 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; p L ; p Ei ; i H ; st 9 . . . 10 ;" which means : " a cluster ; pretty 
large ; pretty rich ; irregularly round ; the stars are chiefly of the 9^ and 
io tb magnitudes." 



1186. 6 M. OPHIUCHI. 



K.A. 17 32 53 
Decl. S 32 18-3 



(h. 3600 ; H. 4318.) 

S. 

Prec. -f 3-90 
8 2-36 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
"cl; L; iR; 1C; st 7, 10...;" which means: -"a cluster; large; 
irregularly round ; not much condensed ; there? is a star of the 7^' mag- 
nitude in it, but the component stars generally range from the io th 
magnitude downwards/' 



R. A. 



i7 h - 36' 



499 



1187. 



2191 2. OPHIUCHI. 


h, 
R.A. 17 


m. B. 

33 50 


Prec. + 


0. 


Decl. 8 


/ 

4 54*4 


S 


2-28 


STRUVE, W. 
MAIN 
STONE, 0. 


Position, 

268-2 .. 
267-0 .. 
267-8 .. 


Distance. 
, 26-4 ... 
26-5 


Epoch* 

1831-48 

1865-43 
1879-02 



A double star. A 7^, white ; B 8|, white. Relatively fixed. There 
is a very faint star 5" or 6" from B. 



1188. 



41 $. VI. DRACONIS. (H. 4321.) 



R.A. 17 35 12 
Decl. H 75 47 '6 



Free, -f 2-18 
B 2-16 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
t( ; c L ; R ; vgh M ; rr ;" which means : " a globular cluster ; con- 
siderably large ; round ; very gradually brighter in the middle ; partially 
resolved some stars visible/' 



1189. 200 P. XVII. HERCULIS. (S. 2194.) DCXXII. 

h. m. s. 8. 

R.A. 17 36 34 
Bed. JST 24 34*0 

Position, 
o 

HERSCHEL,W. 353.8 

SOUTH 8.9 

SMYTH 9.5 

SEABBOKE 9*8 

A neat double star, in the space S. of the hero's right arm, where it 
lies in a nest of half a dozen stars, two-thirds of the way from a Lyra 
towards a Herculis. A 6|, topaz yellow ; B 9, purple ; a third star at a 
distance in the sf quadrant. The above measures imply a great orbital 
change to have taken place in 42?. But there is reason to suppose that 
l[ . may have intended to note nf position, instead of np ; which error of 
quadrant makes a direct difference of 12 24' in the angle. 

["A good low-power field follows." Webb.] 

K k 2 



Prec. 


-f 


2'46 


__ 


S 


2'05 


Distance. 




Epoch. 


n 






H'3 


*M 


1783-23 


17-2 





1825*00 


16-3 


... 


1830.71 


l6-3 


... 


1874.63 



500 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



1190. 612 Dunlop SACHTTABII. (h. 3702; H. 4323.) 



R.A. 17 37 6 
Bed. 8 32 18'1 



Free. + 3-91 

// 
_ g 2*00 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"01; vL; Ki; 1C;" which means: "a cluster; very large; rich; 
not much compressed/' 



1191. 



3702 a h. SAGITTABII. (H. 4324.) 



B.A. 17 38 29 

Decl. 8 33 38 '5 



Free, -f 3-96 
S 1-88 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Cl ; v L ; p Bi ; st 8 . . . 1 2 ;" which means : " a cluster ; very large ; 
pretty rich; the component stars range from the 8 tlx to the 12 th mag- 
nitudes," 

Engraved, Gape 06s., PL v. Fig. i. 



1192. 



61 OPHIUCHI. (2. 2202.) 



DCXXIII. 



h. m. s. 

K.A. 17 39 3 
Bed. N 2 37-0 

Position. 

o 
HERSCHEL,W. 90.0 

SMITH 93.9 

MADLEB 94.5 

GLEDHILL 93.5 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 93-5 

A neat double star below /3, on the Serpent-bearer's left shoulder, 
where it is 2 8. of the bright star ft, which lies about 7 S. by E. of 
a Ophiuchi. [A 6| ; By]; both silvery white. In the first registry of 
the measures, I$L mentions the position as a mere estimation, " almost 
exactly following ;" but this suffices to indicate fixity. 

[Webb noted the preceding star to be considerably larger than the 
other in 1850. Fletcher in 1851 made them to be 6 and 7, and both 
yellow.] 



Free. 


+ 3' 01 


_ 


S 1-83 


Distance. 


Epoch. 


H 






M, I78I-55 


20-7 


.- 1833.53 


20*1 


... 1852.63 


20-8 


... 1874.57 


20-2 


... 1877.15 



RA. i; h - 37 m ' i^ 42**' 501 

1193. 7413 Lac. ABJE. (*h. 4975.) 



h. 



R.A. 17 30 28 
Bed. 8 55 22 '0 



Prec. + 5-00 



1-80 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

O ff 

HERSCHEL, J. 115.7 not stated .,, 1835.37 

HERSCHEL, J. 81-3 .,, 1-51 ... 1837-66 

A double star. A 6f ; B 10. " Probably a binary star in a rapid state 

of angular change." (Sir J. Herschel.) I am not acquainted with any 
other measures. 



1194. 



2218 2. DRACO3STIS. 


h. 


m. . 




R.A. 17 


39 36 


Free, -f 




t 




Decl. N 


63 43*2 


S 




Position. 


Distance. 




o 


tf 


HERSCHEL, J. 


359'9 


.. 2.78 ... 


STRUVE, W. 


355-1 


.. 2.47 ... 


SECCHI 


353-3 


.. 2-30 ... 


DUNER 


352-1 


2-08 



8. 



o*37 

H 

1-78 

Epoch. 

1831.36 
1836.78 



1872.34 

A double star, A 7, white; B 8|, ash. A decrease of both angle and 
distance seems probable. 

1195. fi HERCULIS. (2. 2220.) DCXXIV. 



R.A. 17 42 10 

O f 

Decl. N 27 47 '7 



Prec. -f 2-37 
8 1-56 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



o 



SOUTH 240-8 ... 29.3 . 1825.50 

SMYTH 241.8 ... 30-1 ... 1837*67 

MADLER 242.9 ... 30-2 ... 1851*89 

STRUVE, 0. 244*6 ... 32.4 ... 1860*30 

FLAMMARION 245.1 ... 31.1 ... 1877-75 

JEDKZEJEWICZ 243.9 ... 31.2 ... 1878-56 

A delicate double star, in the bend of the Theban's right arm; 14 
distant from a Lyrse, to the S.W., and preceding ft Cygni by about 26, 
exactly on the parallel. A 4, pale straw-colour; B 10, cerulean blue. 
This is difficult to measure, especially in distance, from its bearing 
illumination badly. Still the results are coincident. 

ft Herculis has a very sensible proper motion. 

[B was discovered by Alvan Clark in 1856 to be double, and numerous 



502 



A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 



observations since that time show that B's companion C, which is of 
mag. u, is in rapid motion round B. Doberck finds a period of S4*2 y . 

B. C. 

Distance* 



Position. 
o 

DAWES 59-2 

STBUVE, O. 987 

STBUVB, 0. 185*5 

BUBNHAM 245.9 



1.81 
0.88 
- 6 3 



Epoch. 

1857-50 
1868.50 
1873.50 
1880-47] 



1196. 



2215 2. HERCULIS. 



B.A. 17 42 28 



Decl. I 


r 17 43'8 




Position. 




o 


STEUVE, W. 


310-6 


STBXJVE, 0. 


311-6 


SECCHI 


304-6 


DUN^B 


307-0 


BURNHAM 


301-1 



Prec. 4- 3'87 
S i-53 



Distance. 
// 
o-74 

0-85 

0-66 

o-74 
0.71 



Epoch. 

i 8 3i-53 
1841-56 
1855.92 
1868-45 
1878-62 



A double star. A 6, white; B 8|-, ash-coloured. The angle seems 
decreasing : nevertheless the measures are not very harmonious/ 



1197. 557 Dunlop TELESCOPIC (h. 3705 ; H. 4332.) 

R.A. 17 42 44 Prec. + 4-07 
Decl. S 37 6-8 S 1-51 

A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
"0; vB; pL; R; vgmbM; rrr; sti8.,.2o;" which means: "a 
globular cluster ; very bright ; pretty large ; round ; very gradually much 
brighter in the middle ; well resolved clearly seen to consist of stars ; 
which are very small, ranging from the i8 tlj to the 2O tb magnitudes." 
Follows y Telescopii (=B.A.C. 6018) a 4^ mag. star by 23 s , and 22" to 
theS. 



1198. 597 (?) Dunlop SAGITTABII. (h. 3708 ; H. 4334.) 

8. 

Prec. + 4-00 
8 1-50 



h. m. s. 

B.A. 17 42 55 



Deol. 8 34 49*5 



A cluster thus described in Sir J, Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 



B. A. I7 h ' 42*- i7 h ' 46 m - 503 



" Cl ; v L ; v Bi ; st i a . . . 1 3 ;" which means : " a cluster ; very large ; 
very rich; the component stars are chifefly of the 12 th and 13 th magni- 
tudes." 



1199. 13 $. VI. SAGHTTABII. (h. 3707; H. 4335.) 

h. ra. s. s. 



B.A. 17 43 35 
Decl. 8 30 10 -9 



Free. 4- 3-85 

// 
8 1-44 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
" Cl ; p L ; p Hi ; bifid ; st 1 2 ;" which means : " a cluster ; pretty 
large; pretty rich; bifid [=with a rift in the middle]; the stars are 
chiefly of the 12 th magnitude." 

Engraved, Cape Ols., PI. v. Fig. 5. 



1200. ^* DBACOH1S. (2. 2241.) DCXXV. 

h. m. . s. 



B.A. 17 43 54 
Decl. N 72 12 '5 



Prec. 1-09 
S 1-41 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 



STRUVE, W. 


15-0 


30-9 


1832.34 


SMYTH 


14.9 


3i-3 


1838-37 


DtJN&i 


15-4 


30-9 


1869.57 


JEDRZEJEWIOZ 


14.6 ... 


3-9 


1876.90 



A neat double star, near the middle of the Dragon's back ; it is easily 
identified, being on the same parallel with y Ursas Minoris, the following 
of the two Guards, and about one-third of the distance from that star 
towards /3 Cephei. A 5^, and B 6, both pearly white. 



1201. 7 M. SAGITTABII. (h. 3710 ; H. 4340.) 

h. m. B. s. 



B.A. 17 46 40 
Decl. 8 34 47 '2 



Prec. -f 4-00 
S 1-16 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864: 
"01; vB; pRi; 1C; st7...ia;" which means: * s a cluster; very 
bright ; pretty rich ; little compressed ; the component stars range from 
the 7 th to the 12 th magnitudes." 



504 A- Cycle of Celestial Objects, 

1202, 1989 h. HERCULIS. (H. 4343; 



h. m. s. 



B.A. 17 47 12 
Becl. N 23 6' 2 



Free, -f 2-50 
S 1-12 



, A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864: 
t( !; vF; S; E; vsvmbMvSRN;" which means: "a remarkable 
object ; very faint ; small ; round ; very suddenly very much brighter in 
the middle where there is a small round nucleus." 

Engraved, Phil. Trans., 1833, PL v. Fig. 42 j Lassell, Mem. R.A.S., 
vol. xxxvi. PL vii. Fig. 31. 

1203. 23 M. OPHIUCHI. (h. 1990 ; H. 4346.) DCXXVI. 

h. m. s. 8; 



E.A. 17 50 28 



o 



Decl. S 18 58-9 



Prec. + 3.53 
S 0-83 



A loose cluster in the space between Ophiuchus's left leg and the 
bow of Sagittarius. This is an elegant sprinkling of telescopic stars 
over the whole field, under a moderate magnifying power; the most 
clustering portion is oblique, in a direction sp and nf, with a 7 th magni- 
tude star in the latter portion. The place registered is that of a neat 
pair, of the p th and io th magnitudes, of a lilac hue, and about 12" apart. 
This object was discovered by Messier in 1764, and it precedes a rich 
out-cropping of the Milky Way. From jut Sagittarii it bears N.W., 
distant about 5, the spot being directed to by a line from cr on the 
shoulder, through /i at the tip of the bow. 

After having examined this object, I lowered the telescope a couple of 
degrees, and gazed for the curious trifid nebula, 41 I$L IV. [No. 1210, 
post] ; but though I could make out the delicate triple star in the centre 
of its opening, the nebulous matter resisted the light of my telescope, so 
that its presence was only indicated by a peculiar glow. [Burnham finds 
the triple easy with less than 6 in of aperture.] 

1204. 460 (P) Dunlop TBLESCOPII. (h. 3715 ; H. 4347.) 



h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 17 51 







Becl. S 44 14-3 



Prec. -h 4-37 
S 0-79 



A nebula thus described in Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 : 
" Neb + Cl ; p L ; m E ; gvlb M ;" which means : " a nebula and cluster 
conjoined ; pretty large ; much extended ; gradually very much brighter 
in the middle." 



K. A, i7 h - 47 m if 1 * 54 1 ' 505 

1205. 9 B. TAUBI PONIATOWSKII. (S. 2244.) 
B.A. 17 51 26 Free, -f 3-07 



Decl. N 


o / 
5-1 


S 0-75 






Position. 


Distance. 


Epoch. 









// 




STBUVE, W. 


272.7 


1-05 


1830-92 


STONE, 


0. 


275*1 


io6 


1878-89 



A double star, A 7^, white ; B 8, white. 
1206. 300 P. XVII. HERCULIS. (2. 2245.) DCXXVII. 

h. m. s, B. 



E.A. 17 61 34 
Decl. 3ST 18 20 '6 



Free. + 2*63 
S 0-74 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o // 

HERSCHEL, J. H5'3 ... 2.99 ... 1830-50 

SMYTH 114.9 ... 2-5 .,, 1835-61 

DUN&R H5*5 . 25 ,., 1869.69 

A close double star, in the space between the hero's head and the 
Eagle's tail; it is 7| N.N.E. of a Ophiuchi, or one-quarter of the 
distance from that star towards y Lyrae. A 7|, and B 8, both lucid 
white. Both 2. and H. make the components equal in magnitude, but 
on a very careful comparison I cannot but think B the smaller. 

1207. 294 P. XVII. SAGITTABII. (*h. 5003.) 

h. m. s. s. 



B.A. 17 52 O 
Bed. 8 30 14 9 



Free. + 3-84 

n 

S 0-70 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HEBSOHEL, J. 107-1 ... 6-2 ... 1836.76 

STONE 105-6 ... 5.6 .,, 1877.60 

A double star. A 6, strong yellow ; B 7^, strong yellow. 
1208. y DBACONIS. DCXXIX. 

h. m. s. 8. 



K.A. 17 54 3 



o 



Decl. K 51 30-1 



Free. + 1-39 

// 
S 0*41 



Position. Distance. Epoch, 

o // 

BUBNHAM Il6'3 ... 124-7 ... 1879.27 

A Nautical Almanac star, with a telescopic companion, on the crown 



606 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

of the Dragon's head, A 2, orange tint; B 12. [Burnham sees 3 
other stars nearer, viz. at 20"; 47"; and 56" respectively.] A is the 
Etamin of the Catalogues, from rds^et-tannin, the dragon's head ; it may 
be readily found by its being nearly in mid-distance between Polaris and 
a Ophiuchi. A line from a Lyrse to y TJrsee Majoris also passes through 
it, and points y as the following star to ft Braconis ; the two latter, with 
its immediate northern neighbours, forming an irregular square, which 
constitute the Dragon's head. The Alphonsine Tables term this star 
Rasaben, which some have viewed as a corruption of Etamin; but 
Scaliger rightly points it out as Rds-al-thu'bdn, head of the devouring 
basilisk. The rhymster shows the monster's extent : 

A line from Dubhe, in the Bear, sent right the Guards between, 

The stars which form the Dragon's tail in midway will be seen. 

Far to the east the body winds, where Lyra's lustres glow, 

A ray from Wega to the Pole, its lozenge-head will show. 

This star affords another proof of the defective state of the degrees 
of brightness ; for Ptolemy registered it y in magnitude, and has been 
followed by Ulugh Beigb, Tycho, and La Caille ; Hevelius, De Zach, and 
Groombridge called it 2 J ; and Flamsteed, Bradley, Mayer, and Piazzi 
elevated it to the 2 n d rank. In my own comparisons, it appears small for 
its class. 

y Draconis is a valuable star, from passing very near the zenith of the 
south of England ; and it is celebrated as being the one by which the 
important discovery of the aberration of light was made. The exertions 
of Bradley and his friend Molyneux to find its distance from us, are too 
well known to need repetition ; but in the course of them, the fact was 
established, that "if light is propagated in time, the apparent place of 
a fixed object will not be the same when the eye is at rest, as when it 
is moving in any other direction than that of tbe line passing through 
the eye and the object ; and, that when the eye is moving in different 
directions, the apparent place of the object will be different/' It is 
recorded that these savans were embarrassed beyond measure when, 
instead of an indication of parallax, they found a regular motion directly 
opposite to what they expected, which baffled both theory and con- 
jecture. At length one day, when Dr. Bradley was enjoying the then 
usual and laudable feat of sailing about on the Thames, he observed 
every time the boat tacked, the direction of the wind, estimated by the 
direction of the vane, seemed to change. Here was another cvpjjKa, 
and one even more deserving the sacrifice of a hecatomb than that of 
Archimedes; the perplexity vanished, and the phenomenon was found 
to be an optical illusion occasioned by a combination of the motion of 
light with the motion of his telescope while observing the polar stars. 
In a word, he enriched Astronomy by the weighty announcement, that 



E.A. i7 h ' 54 m ' 507 

" all the phenomena proceeded from the progressive motion of light and 
the Earth's annual motion in its orbit," or, as he afterwards called it, 
from the " aberration of light.*' Having thus detected the existence of 
this effect, he also determined its constant at 20", whence it followed 
that the interval of time in which light travels from the Sun to the 
Earth is = 8^ 73. 

It is very interesting, among other circumstances connected with 
the important discovery of ABEBBATION, that the original entry of the 
first night's observation at Kew, which confirmed the fact of an un- 
explained motion in the star before us, is preserved in Bradley's own 
handwriting. It is written on an old scrap of paper, and dated 2i 8fc 
December, 1725 : an excellent facsimile of it is given by Professor Eigaud, 
in his volume on the Miscellaneous Works and Correspondence of 
Bradley. 

Being a Greenwich zenith-star, and therefore little affected by refraction, 
y Draconis was employed by our astronomers to ascertain the parallax 
of the Earth's orbit, and thus determine our distance from the fixed 
stars. Hooke attacked it at Gresham College, with a 36*"* telescope, in 
1669; and 20 years afterwards Flamsteed opened trenches in the same 
cause. From the united results thus obtained, Whiston concluded the 
parallax to be 47", and that a cannon-ball could not have reached the 
star in 1 6o,oooy, though moving 500 miles an hour. But we now know 
pretty well that the said ball would not have got over the fortieth part 
of its journey. The celebrated operations of Molyneux and Bradley 
followed ; but though the observations were of the most rigorous exact- 
ness, on a base of 190 millions of miles, they proved in the result that 
the parallax was a quantity not cognisable by any astronomical instrument 
then used, however accurately constructed. Had the parallax amounted 
to a single second, Bradley considered he should have detected it j his 
conclusion therefore was, that it did not amount to so much, and con- 
sequently, that y Draconis is above 400,000 times farther from us than 
the Sun. Such were the approaches towards a barrier which has now 
been passed, and the apparently insurmountable obstacles to ascertaining 
the wonderful distance of the stars are now prostrate before observation 
and computation. But this, as we shall presently see, was not effected 
by Bradley's method; zenith distances are so charged with errors of 
nutation, aberration, and instrumental irregularities, as to make an 
angle difficult to pronounce upon within a second. [See 61 Cygni.] 

The term Zenith-star, which y Draconis has obtained at Greenwich, 
is rather relative than real ; for no star has yet been actually observed 
in the zenith of any observatory, the most interesting of all the points in 
the apparent concavity of the visible hemisphere. If the Earth had no 
annual or diurnal motion, nor any nutation of its axis, the zenith of 



508 A Cycle of Celestial "Objects. 

each place on the Earth's surface would be so many fixed points in the 
heavens; but as we cannot control either of these elements, the actual 
zenith of every place is continually changing, so that the true zenith 
must be singled out from the succession of apparent ones generated in 
the heavens by the Earth's diurnal motion on its axis. Means might be 
taken under the equator to reduce the problem to a simple condition. 

While on this subject, it may be noted that Dracoriis is the per- 
petual zenith-star of Jupiter, whence, from the vast flattened expanse 
of that planet, it meets Sir A. Hunt's verses better than does our own 

Polaris : 

Where in the zenith shines the polar star, 
And the cold sun looks dimly from afar, 
Obliquely skims the drear horizon round, 
And flings Periscian shadows on the ground. 

1209. 67 OPHIUCHI. DCXXVIII. 

h. m. s. 8. 



B.A. 17 55 8 
Bed. KT 2 56'2 



Prec. + 3-00 
S 0-43 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o n 

HE RSCHEL, J., and SOUTH 143.1 ... 55-2 ... 1823.41 
MAIN not given ... 54-8 ... 1861-46 

DEMBOWSKI 142-8 ... 54.7 ... 1874.00 

A wide double star, in the space between Ophiuehus and Taurus 
Poniatowski, at the distance of 4| to the E.S.E. of /3 Ophiuchi. A 4, 
straw-colour; B 8, purple. Piazzi described it, " Duplex. Comes 2" 
temporis sequitur 50" circiter ad austrum." This star is designated by 
the Greek letter o in the British and other Catalogues ; " but," says 
Baily, "there is no such star in Bayer's Map; I have therefore re- 
jected it." 

[" At a short distance p, a little S. must be H/s ' very fine orange star/ 
7-5 mag/' Webb. This is 422 Birmingham, R.A. if h 52 m 32 s ; Decl. 
+ 2 44-o'. 



1210. 20 M. SAGITTARII. (h. 1991, 3718 ; H. 4355.) 

h. m. 8. s. 



B.A. 17 55 41 
Bed. 8 23 1*8 



Prec. -f 3-64 
S 0-38 



A very large and important nebula, or rather group of nebulae. Messier 
treated it as a single object, but Sir W. Herschel catalogued it in 4 
portions, respectively, No. 41 of his 4 th class, and Nos. 10, n, 12 of his 
5 th class. In Sir J. Herschel's Catalogue of 1864 he thus summarised 



E. A. i7 h - 54 m i; h - 56^. 509 



it: "!!!; vB; vL; trifid; * involved;" which represents: "very- 
remarkable ; very bright ; very large ; trifid ; double star involved." In 
his Outlines of Astronomy Sir John gives a more definite description as 
follows : " One of them is singularly trifid, consisting of 3 bright and 
irregularly-formed nebulous masses, graduating away insensibly exter- 
nally, but coming up to a great intensity of light at their interior edges, 
where they enclose and surround a sort of three-forked rift or vacant 
area, abruptly and uncouthly crooked, and quite void of nebulous light. 
A beautiful triple star is situated precisely on the edge of one of these 
nebulous masses, just where the interior vacancy forks out into two 
channels." (See No. 1203, ante; and paper by Holden, Amer. Jour. Sc., 
New Series, vol. xiv. pp. 433-58.) 

Engraved in Phil. Trans., 1833, ^- 80; ^ a l )e ^ 5 - "PI. ii. Fig. 2; 
Mason, Trans. Amer. Acad., vol. vii. ; Lassell, Mem. E.A.S., vol. xxxiii. 
PL i; xxxvi PL viii. Fig. 32 ; Trouvelot, Annals Harv. ColL Obs., vol. 
viii. PL 32. 

1211. 49 $. I. SAGITTABJI. (h. 3720 ; H. 4359.) 

h. m. s. 



K.A. 17 56 32 
Decl. S 30 1*7 



Prec. 4- 3*84 
S 0-30 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerscheFs Catalogue of 1864 : 
" ; B; pL; R; gvmbM; rrr; sti6...i7;" which means: "a 
globular cluster ; bright ; pretty large ; round ; gradually very much 
brighter in the middle ; well resolved ; clearly seen to consist of stars ; 
which are as small as the i6 th and ij th magnitudes/' 

1212, 95 HERCULIS. (2. 2264.) DCXXXI. 

h. m. s. ft. 



R.A. 17 56 50 



o 



Decl. 1ST 21 35*8 



Prec. + 2.54 
S 0-28 



Position. Distance. Epoch. 

o M 

HERSCHEL,W. 265-8 ... 6-1 ... 1780-69 

STKUVB, W. 2617 ... 6-0 ... 1829.90 

SMYTH 261-8 ... 6-1 ... 1833.78 

DUN&R 260-8 ... 6o ... 1869.48 

JEDRZEJEWICZ 259.9 6i 1880.66 

A neat douhle star, between the Theban's head and the Eagle's tail, 

in the spot where Hevelius placed his Cerberus; it is 10 distant from 

a Ophiuchi on a N.N.E. line, which leads upon /3 Lyrse. A sf, light 

apple-green ; B 6, cherry-red, besides which there are two small stars 

in the sp quadrant, and a ^ magnitude in the np. This beautiful 



510 



A Cyde of Celestial Objects. 



object presents a curious instance of difference in colour between com- 
ponents so nearly equal in brightness. Indeed, it was only on rigid 
comparison that I was induced to mark the following star half a mag- 
nitude smaller than the preceding one, for the other observers note 
them as of the same size. Piazzi says, "Duplex. Comes ejusdem 
magnitudin. parumper ad boream sequitur." [A friend of Smyth*s 
Mr. J. Higgens of Bedford declared in 1863 that the intensity of the 
green and of the red colours of A and B varied very obviously from 
time to time, and that at the period of recovery, the green star is the 
first to recover its full normal hue. On this statement being submitted 
to Sir G. B. Airy he did not view it with favour.] 

From a comparison of the early epochs, there was a hope of 95 
Herculis being a binary system, but the later measures go far to prove 
the object to be optical, and that the proximity of the stars is merely 
apparent, no connexion existing between them, 



1213. T OPHIUCHI. (2. 2262.) DCXXX. 

8. 

Prec. -f 3-26 

n 

8 0-25 

Distance. Epoch. 

0-94 1840.51 

1-19 1851-67 

1-30 1860.77 

1.42 1870.50 

1.64 1876-55 

100-53 1879-37 

1.78 1879.41 

1-89 1880-67 

A binary star (vicinissima) with a companion in the sf quadrant, 
on the Serpent-bearer's left hand; it is 15 to the N.E. of the bright 
star rj Ophiuchi, on the line towarda a Aquilse. A 5, and B 6, both 
pale white; C 10, light blue; two other stars in the field. This is a 
most difficult object, and when discovered in April, 1783, it was merely 
wedge-shaped, and esteemed by Sir W. Herschel " the closest of all his 
double stars." The moife we study this active astronomer's labours, the 
more we are lost in admiration of his zeal and power. 

[The angle is steadily increasing, and so is the distance ; and the binary 
character of this object is now established beyond a doubt. Doberck 
in i $7 5 assigned a period of 2i7y, finding an orbit which agreed very 
with the recorded observations.] 





h. in. s. 


B.A. 


17 57 5 


Decl. 


/ 

8 8 10-7 




Position. 


STBUVE, 0. 
STBUVE, 0. 
SECCHI 
DEMBOWSKI 
PLUMMEB 
BUENHAM 


AB 223-1 
AB 238-2 
AB 245.8 
AB 247.8 
AB 249-8 
AC 1268 


STONE, 0. A B 250-1 
JEDEZEJEWICZ AB 252*2 



E.A. 



1214. 8 M. SAGITTARII. (h. 3722; H. 4361.) 

h. m. s. 8. 



R.A. 17 57 8 



o 



Bed. 8 24 22-6 



Free. + 3*67 
8 0-25 



A very singular nebula, thus described by Sir J. Herschel in his 
General Catalogue : " !!I;vB;eL;eiF; with L Cl ; " which means : 
"very remarkable; very bright; extremely large; extremely irregular 
figure ; with large cluster." "Webb's account is as follows : " Splendid 
Galaxy object ; visible to naked eye. In a large field we find a bright 
coarse triple star, followed by a resolveable luminous mass, including 
2 stars, or starry centres, and then by a loose bright cluster, enclosed by 
several stars: a very fine combination. H. A set of milky streaks and 
loops. Secchi suspects change, and finds the spectrum gaseous." Sir J. 
Herschel in his Outlines of Astronomy has given a more full description 
as follows : " A collection of nebulous folds and masses, surrounding and 
including a number of oval dark vacancies, and in one place coming 
up to so great a degree of brightness as to offer the appearance of an 
elongated nucleus. Superposed upon this nebula, and extending in one 
direction beyond its area, is a fine and rich cluster of scattered stars, 
which seem to have no connexion with it, as the nebula does not, as in 
the region of Orion, show any tendency to congregate about the stars/' 
Engraved in Cape 06*., PL i. Fig. i. 

1215. 3725 h. SAGITTARII. (H. 4366.) 



h. 



R.A. 17 57 56 



o 



Decl. 8 24 20*6 



Free, -f 3-67 
S 0-18 



A cluster thus described in Sir J. HerschePs Catalogs of 1864 : 
" Cl ; B ; L ; p Ei ; v L neb p ;" which means : " a cluster ; bright ; 
large; pretty rich; a very large nebula precedes." The very large 
nebula here mentioned is 8 M. (see ante), 

1216. 21 M. SAGITTARII. (h. 1003 ; H, 4367.) DCXXXII, 



h. m. s. 



R.A. 17 58 2 



o 



Decl. 8 22 30*8 



Free. + 3*62 
S 0-16 



Position. Difference of B. A. Epoch. 

o 

SOUTH 317.4 .., 30.9 ... 1825-5 
A coarse cluster of telescopic stars, in a rich gathering galaxy region, 



512 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

near the upper part of the Archer's bow ; and about the middle is the 
conspicuous pair above registered, A being 9, yellowish, and Bio, ash- 
coloured. This was discovered by Messier in 1764, who seems to have 
included some bright outliers in his description, and what he mentions 
as nebulosity must have been the grouping of the minute stars in view. 
About 2^- JST.E. of /x Sagittarii. 



1217. 37 Iff.. IV. DEACONS, (H. 4373 ; .) DCXXXV. 



h. m. 8. 



B.A, 17 58 35 







X>ecl. 1ST 66 38 '0 



Prec. 0*03 

// 
S 0-13 




A planetary nebula, between the first twist in the Dragon's body 
and his head ; a fancied line from Polaris to y Draconis passes through 
it in nearly mid-distance, and it makes a triangle, rectangular and isosceles, 

with the Pole-star and /3 Ursee Minoris, 
the northernmost of the two Guards, 
the right angle being at /3. This is a 
remarkably bright and pale blue object, 
and was described by its discoverer IjjL 

as having a disc about 35" in diameter, 
G. 38- 37 . IV. Drowns. but with very m . defined edges . There 

are several telescopic stars in the field, and the annexed diagram affords 
a notion of its aspect. 

The nebula before us is situated in the pole of the ecliptic, whence, 
being easily found, and always above the horizon, it becomes an object 
of much interest and utility. 

The poles of the ecliptic, it will be remembered, are those points in 
the heavens which are farthest distant from the plane of the Earth's 
orbit ; and as the ecliptic holds so determinate a position in Uranography, 
the situation of those poles is of paramount theoretic importance. But, 
for several reasons, the use of the equinoctial poles has been preferred in 
every-day practice. 

[" Very curious : there is a bright star in the centre of the nebula, 
which appears to have escaped Smyth." Brodie] 



1218. 2273 2. DEACONIS. 

h. m. s. 



K.A. 17 58 39 
Bed. N 64 8 '9 



Prec. -f 0-31 
S 0-12 



B.A. 



513 



STRUVB, W. 
MAIH 



Position. 

284-7 
282.0 



Distance. 

n 

20*5 
20*5 



Epoch. 

1832.49 
1864.28 



A double star. A 7^, yellowish white ; B 8, bluish white. 



1219. 



70 OPHIUCHI. (S. 2272.) DCXXXIII. 



E.A. 17 


59 53 


Prec 


, 




o / 






Decl. ET 


2 32*5 








Position . 


Distance. 




o 


tt 




STRUVB, W. 


168.4 


4-66 




SMYTH 


136-4 


5-43 




DAWES 


124.8 


6-62 




JACOB 


115-1 


686 




AUWERS 


107.9 


6-49 




TALMAGE 


94-4 


4-62 




DOBERCK 


75-4 


3-03 




JEDRZEJEWICZ 


62-8 


2.74 





S o-oi 

Epoch. 

1819-63 
1830.76 
1840-59 

1 85048 
1860.74 
1870-60 
1878-54 
1880-65 

A binary star in the space between the left shoulder of Ophiuchus 
and the Serpent's tail, in a rich vicinity; and about 6, to the E.8.E. 
of the bright star /3 Ophiuchi. A 4^-, pale topaz colour; B 7, violet, 
and these two point upon a third star, of the 1 2 th magnitude, in the 
sf quadrant. There is also a little comes in the sp, preceding A by 55 S . 

This very interesting object has so remarkable an angular velocity, 
and has undergone such an appreciable alteration of distance, that I 
strongly urge such as investigate those extraordinary systems to peruse 
the elaborate and able discussions of its orbit by Encke, Sir J. Herschel, 
and Madler. To these a few words may be added in illustration. 

70 Ophiuchi was designated by the letter p in the British Catalogue ; 
but, as there is no such letter in Bayer's Map, Baily rejected it in his 
edition of Flamsteed. It was thus mentioned by its discoverer, Sir W. 
Herschel : " The alteration of the angle of position that has taken place 
in the situation of this double star is very remarkable. October 7, 1779, 
the stars were exactly in the parallel, the preceding star being the 
largest; the position, therefore, was o o' following. September 24, 
1781, it was 9 14' nf; and May 29, 1804, it was 48 i' np ; which 
gives a change of 131 59' in 24 years and 234 days. This cannot be 
owing to the effect of systematical parallax, which could never bring the 
small star to the preceding side of the large one." To this important 
passage H. stamps additional value by telling us it is particularly 
written, in his father's MS. observations, that the two stars run together 

Ll 



514 A Cycle of Celestial Objects. 

along the equatorial hair. "With such a starting-point, it has been 
tolerably easy to watch the general relations of this system, however 
involved the computations have proved, from their extreme delicacy. 

The process by which the elliptical elements of the orbits of binary 
stars may be obtained with comparative facility is clearly described by 
Sir J. Herschel in a paper on the investigation of those orbits, published 
in Memoirs R. A. S., vol. v. 

The investigation of this rapid revolver's path occasioned both 
trouble and disquietude to H. In comparing the formulae with obser- 
vations, he found the only irreconcileable contradiction to the curve was 
offered by Struve's measures in 1818, 1819, 1825, 1826, 1827, and 
1828. On which he says, "I have already had occasion to observe on 
the smallness of some of this eminent observer's distances as compared 
with my own. Whatever be the cause, whether accidental and limited 
to the particular cases, or general and extending over masses of observa- 
tion, I trust he will pardon me for noticing it (in no spirit of evil cavil), 
as deserving careful examination on both our parts." Such was the 
temperate yet strong comment of one who justly takes the highest rank 
in practical and theoretic astronomy; and \\lio endeavoured to reap the 
utmost value of all the observations which presented themselves, during 
his analytical treatment, to disentangle the qusesita from the data. To 
facilitate the numerical calculations of this and other orbits, for which 
Sir John, mirabile dictu, professes a great inaptitude, he invented and 
adopted a mechanical contrivance, which gives, by simple inspection and 
reading off, the solution of the transcendental equation 

u e. sin u n (t r) 

for any given value of its right-hand member. I was greatly amused 
by an examination of this ingenious machine at Slough, shortly after it 
was made ; for notwithstanding the sublimity of its purpose, it was both 
simple and rude, apparently constructed from the ruins of a Dutch 
clock and a kitchen jack. With proper practical modifications, it applies 
to a large class of transcendental equations, of which this is only a 
particular and the simplest case, 

Struve displayed a very laudable anxiety to ascertain the exact value 
due to the results of his measures, and whether any constant error 
pervaded his observations. The perfect accordance as to angular position, 
whether measured on the Continent or in England, satisfied that in- 
defatigable astronomer that not a doubt can be entertained of their 
general correctness, for, in a letter to M. D'Ouvaroff, he says they prove 
11 clairement qu'il ne se trouve dans ces directions aucune source d'erreur 
de cette nature et de quelque importance." It was otherwise with 
respect to distances. On comparing the results obtained by the Fraun- 
hofer refractor with his own former observations, and those of Sir J. 



RA, 17*1- 59- 515 

Herschel, Sir J, South, and Dawes, he found the great telescope made 
the measures smaller than the others. He therefore insisted that the 
wire micrometer, by an optical perturbation, must necessarily give all 
the distances too great, especially with regard to the closest stars ; and 
the evil, he holds, is aggravated according to the comparative weakness 
of the telescope. But experience has shown that the Professor's argu- 
ment cannot be wholly admitted ; and that the disturbing cause is not 
yet shown. 

Not satisfied with careful reductions, comparison, and reasoning, 
Struve resolved upon the most rigorous test yet devised. "In 1830," 
he says, "I agreed with Bessel, of Konigsberg, to observe several 
stars in common. He has a magnificent heliometer, which forms the 
ornament of that observatory. The principle on which measures are 
taken with that instrument is totally different from that of the wire 
micrometer. An identity of distance given by the two observers would 
have been an irrefragable proof of their correctness ; but a comparison 
of the distances of 39 stars, taken by both, shows that those of 
Dorpat are, on an average, 0-19" smaller than those of Konigsberg. If 
I can assert with certainty that the Dorpat telescope is so superior in 
measuring distances that the non-accordance of results indicates an 
imperfection in the anterior measures, we must also grant that the 
Konigsberg heliometer, though of considerably less optical power than 
the Dorpat tube, must still be placed in the same rank as a means of 
measuring. Observations made with such an instrument, and by such 
an astronomer as M. Bessel, are of the greatest weight." Consequently, 
in order to detect the hidden source of the error, M. Struve afterwards 
made numerous researches, and arrived at satisfactory results \ 

[The orbit of 70 Ophiuchi has during the last few years received the 
attention of several eminent astronomers. The following elements are 
given by Schur (A at. Noeh., 1681) : 

Peri-astron passage . . . . T = 1808-79 

Longitude of peri-astron . . . IT = 281.1 

Longitude of Ascending Node . . 3 125-4 

Inclination . . . . . * = 57*9 

Eccentricity c 0-49149 

Mean Annual Motion . . . p 3-81 

Semi-axis major . . . . a = 4-704" 
Period ...... = 9437 y ' 

Schur's period does not differ much from the others, which are : Sir J. 
Herschel, 80-34?; Madl